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3rcf)aeolocpcal journal* 



STfie Archaeological Institute of ©teat iStttatn anto Jtelanto, 



&{je (JBarlg anti Jfttotile &ges. 







Thi Centra] Committki ol the Archaeological Institutk. desire tliat it should 
In- distinctl) - that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions 

m in the Arc! ! Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and com- 

munications being alone answerable for the Bame. 




Introductory Address. By the Rev. J. H. Marsden, B.D 1 

Notice of a Bronze Relique discovered at Leckhampton, Gloucestershire. By 

Albert Way, M.A 11 

On Colouring Statues. By Richard Westmacott, Jun., R.A., F.R.S. . . 22 

On the Life and Death of Earl Godwine (continued from Vol. XL, p. 330). By 

Edward Freeman, M.A ... 47 

On the Book of Devotions, deposited by Cardinal Howard in the Library of the 

Dominican Convent at Bornheim. By Joseph Hunter, V.P.S.A. . . 65 

Notices of Roman Shafts discovered at Chesterford, Essex. By the Hon. 

R. C. Neville, F.S.A 109 

The Pai-liaments of Cambridge. By the Rev. C. H. Hartshorne, M.A. . . 127 
The "Hales " at the New Temple on the occasion of the Knighting of Prince 

Edward. • By W. S. W . . . . 137 

Norton Church, in the County of Durham. By W. Hylton Dyer Longstaffe, 

F.S.A 141 

King's College Chapel Windows, Cambridge. By the Rev. W. J. Bolton. . . 153 
Roman Antiquities from the North of England in the Libraries of Trinity and 
St. John's Colleges, Cambridge. By the Rev. J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D,, 

F.S.A. 213 

The Monasteries of Shropshire. — Lilleshall Abbey. By the Rev. Robert W. 

Eyton, M.A 229 

Notice of a Flemish Sepulchral Brass, at Wensley, Yorkshire. By the Rev. James 

Raine, Jun 238 

The Church of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge. By the Rev. Edward 

Venables, M.A 245, 338 

Examples of Medieval Seals. Seals preserved at Wisby in Gottland. By the 

Rev. F. Spurrell, M.A 256 

Burial and Cremation. By J. M. Kemble 309 

Artistic Notes on the Windows of King's College, Chapel, Cambridge. By 

George Scharf, Jun., F.S.A 356 

Notice of a " Moon," a relique of Municipal Ceremony, at Chichester. By Albert 

Way, M.A . . 374 

Original Documents : — 

Letter relating to the Wars of Edward III. in France, and Public Affairs 

in 1346. Communicated by William Clayton, Esq. ... 73 
Agreement between the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, London, and 
Walter the Orgoner, relating to a Clock in St. Paul's Church. Coin- 
municated by Sir F. Madden, K.B 173 



Original Documents conditio. J. 

Inventories of Chun 3hff ury, uml Proceedings respecting 

them in the reign of Edward VI. Communicated by Joseph 

Hintik. Be .. V.l'.s. \ 269 

Original Letter addresse I I • Benry IV.. Bang of England, by Elizabeth, 

Du( FB reria,1400. Communicated by Ed wabd A. Bond, Esq. 377 

Proceedings at the Monthly V the] ate . . . 76,178, 275 

Annual Report of the Auditors 203 

g, at Shrewsbury 380 

• new. Publications : — Sussex Archaeological Collections, 

Latiquarian Society, Reports and Communi- 

l. 1\ '.. p. L05. Antiquities of Shropshire, by the Rev, It. W. 

i; i in Saxondom, by J. Yonge 

;. Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages, by G. Edmund 

11. Eandbook of th the Middle Ages, translated from 

i nch "I'M. Jules Labarte, p. 408. 

Abchjeoloqioax Intelliqenoe 107,212,307, 422 



Bronze Frame of a Head-piece ? found at Leckhampton ..... 8 

Cap, found at Ascheraden, Livonia . . . . . . . . . 14 

Arched Crowns, and Head-piece, &c. Two cuts 17 

Helmets, from Trajan's Column 18 

■ worn by the Sarmatians ....... 19 

■ from a MS. at Stuttgart 20 

from the Painted Chamber, Westminster ...... 20 

found in the Isle of Negropont 21 

Koman Sepulchre at Caerwent 76 

Ditto, Section ............. 77 

Cruciform Conduit, Malvern Wells 83 

Bronze Spear-head, found in Devonshire . 84 

St. Gobnet's Cross, co. Cork ... 86 

Roman Inscription from Combe Down, Bath 91 

Bone Knife-handle, Roman, found at Chesterford * 112 

Small Tun of red ware, ibid 114 

Bronze Comb, ibid ib. 

Bronze Patera, ibid. ............ ib. 

Glass Ampulla, ibid. . . . . .115 

Norton Church, co. Durham, Window in Tower . . . . . . . 145 

Chancel Arch .......... ib. 

Outline of Interior Plan 147 

Cross on a Sculptured Slab from Jarrow ... • , . . . ib. 

Heraldic Bearings, Effigy in Norton Church 148 

Sculptor's Mark 1 149 

Sculptured Fragment, from Hartlepool ... . . . . ib. 

Cross, near Norton ...... ... 151 

Cross, found at Carlisle Cathedral 130 

Alabaster Tablet, representing the Head of St. John Baptist, &c. . . . 1S5 

i his and the thrco following illustrations, the Institute is indebted to the kindness of the 
Hon. K. C. Neville. 


Small Urn, found in Dor3ct 

Sculptured Fragment, at Stainton-le Street, two cuts . 
Roma: . found in Bases, three cuts 

. Found at C Casl le 

Silver Brooch, found in Kent 

, found at Bremenium 
— Riaingham . 
at 1; • ogham 
- d>, found am . 
, found at Risingham .... 
found at Halton .... 

Roman Altar, found ;it Carvorjui 

found at Ribcheater ..... 

found at Rib ulptures on 

by, seal of the Ghiild of St. Canute 
seal of the Guild of St. Lawrence 

fraternity of St Nicholas 
of the Germans in Gottland 

L of the Guild of St James 

seal of the Mayor of the Guild of All Saints . . . . 
— seal of Brother Gerard of Gottland + . . . . . 

Fibula, found at Painswick . 

DrunshilL Oxfordshire, two cuts 

• 11 deMontfort 

i (Tanfaunt, attached in an unusual manner . 
Palimpsest brass escutcheon, found al Betchworth . . . . . . 

: iund at (Nottingham 

I Oak Chest, St Mary' the Great, Cambridge t 

Sketch of : I rtiiimt ..t' a Window al I. I ',.'.] ( 'Impel, ( 'amlirid^e 

be L) To Gum 

Muminated Mss. in B Plate 2.) . . To hoe 

i bapel i Plate 8) . . To hoe 

the ' k>ld< ii 1 Prom a window at Kin I I lhapel, 

' ............ 

ilum Bumaneo Salvai i ...... 

f the Block Book "Speculum BumansB Salvationis " (Plate 4) 

To hoe 

i ■ ■ [lustra 

M | I I • | . I 








Ditto, " Biblia Pauperuni " (Plate 5) To face ib. 

Lantern of State, "the Moon," at Chichester To face 374 

Ditto, handle by which it was carried 37o 

Ground-plan of Haughinond Abbey, Shropshire 397 

Five woodcuts from " Sussex Archaeological Collections." Vol. VII. 
Five woodcuts from the " Antiquities of Shropshire," by the Rev. R. W. Eyton. 
Seven woodcuts from " Brick and Marble iu the Middle Ages," by George E. Street. 
Ten woodcuts from the " Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Aces." 

flT&e Archaeological journal 

MARCH, 1855. 


In addressing a Society which has devoted itself for so 
long a period and with so much success to the pursuits of 
Archaeology, it cannot be necessary for me to occupy time 
by saying much either in explanation or in praise of this 
particular line of study. In fact, the study of archaeology 
is now generally accepted and understood, not only by its 
admirers, but by the world in general, as an extended and 
improved form of the study of history. It is the study 
of history, not only from written documents, not only from 
chronicles and traditions, but from chronicles and traditions 
elucidated by contemporaneous monuments, by tangible and 
substantial relics, the productions of ancient coinage, sculp- 
ture, and architecture ; and, — in the case of Greek and 
Roman history, — not only by these, but by an invaluable 
series of commemorative inscriptions still extant upon marble 
and bronze. 

With regard to some of the great nations, indeed, we 
have no other means of becoming acquainted with their 
history, than through such material records. Of the ancient 
history of Egypt how very little do we know excepting 
from her monuments. What do we know of Assyria, ex- 
cepting from casual allusions in the Old Testament, and 
from her recently discovered monuments'? And even in 
the case of Greece and Rome, precious as are the literary 
treasures of those nations which have come down to us, we 
possess very little of strictly contemporaneous history. Time 

» This discourse was delivered by the Disney Professor, the Rev.J.H.Marsden, B.D., 
on the occasion of the opening meeting, at the Annual Meeting of the Institute held 
in Cambridge, July itli, 1854, 



has swept away full one-half j while, of thai which remains, 
much severe criticism is required in the separation of the 
trust-worth? from the fabulous, and all, without exception, 
stands in ueed of the light afforded by the study of monu- 
ments. The <lny is coming, when it will be confessed thai 
we have Learned more of the religious worship and the 
political relations of the independent states of Greece from 
inscriptions and coins, than from poets and historians. How 
much has been brought to light by the monuments, and 
especially by the coins, of Magna Grascia and Sicily! Take 
th»- case, for instance, of the ancienl city of Posidonia. Of 
this city we know little or nothing from written history, 
excepting that in Roman times it was celebrated by poets 
for it- genial climate and its roses : — 

•• biferiqui rosaria Pa 

But when the traveller describes to us its magnificent tem- 
ples, and the numismatist displays to us its long series of 
beautiful coins, we have unquestionable proof thai it rivalled 
the greatesl cities of Magna Graecia in population, in wealth, 
in commerce, and in the arts ; and that under the name of 
Paastum it flourished to a later date than almost any of 

To come nearer home. How scanty would be our know- 
ledge of the State of SOcietj in our own island, not only in 
its more barbarous age, but even during its occupation by 
the Romans, if we had n<»t the means <>i ascertaining it 
from monuments. The state of Britain under the Romans is 
dow tolerably familiar to us : but we have learned it nol from 
books, hut from an investigation of their works, their roads, 
their houses, their hypocausts, their earthenware, then- coins, 
their ornaments and utensils, their weapons, and the vast 
multitude of other miscellaneous relics which they have left 

The monuments of ancienl art are of many different 
kind--: they are found wherever man has existed on the 
globe; and wherever they are found, there is a field for the 
Archaeologist. Life is not long enough to study them all— 
to budy those of our tiation -scarcely ei en 
of one class. No one, however energetic and hopeful, 
can enter into these pursuits withoul feeling the hopeless 
impo Ability of carrying oul the separate studies which a 


general view of archaeology must comprehend. It requires 
a greater amount of many various kinds of knowledge than 
one person can hope to possess. This is, doubtless, the 
reason why it has not usually been admitted into the ordi- 
nary course of study ; and it was, doubtless, this considera- 
tion, which induced the founder of a Professorship of 
Archaeology in the University of Cambridge, to restrict the 
duties of his Professor to the study and illustration of one 
branch, — that branch being the archaeology of Greece and 
Rome ; a branch more immediately connected than any 
other with the classical studies pursued in our University. 

Perhaps it will not be altogether out of place — although 
I am aware that it is ascending to a higher point in the 
stream of time than your Society has fixed upon for its 
operations — if I briefly allude to the remains of Greek art 
which are preserved in Cambridge. 

In the possession of Trinity College are several Greek 
inscriptions upon marble, of some importance. The prin- 
cipal of these, is one well known as the Sandwich Marble, 
having been brought to England by the Earl of Sandwich, 
from Athens, in the year 1739. It contains a list of con- 
tributions to the expenses incurred by the expedition for 
the lustration of the island Delos, in the third year of the 
88th Olympiad. Another is a decree made at Ilium, and 
brought by Mr. Edward Wortley Montague from Sigeum, 
in 1766 : it was presented to the College by his son-in-law, 
the Marquis of Bute. 

In the vestibule of the Public Library, are certain inscrip- 
tions and pieces of sculpture, the principal part of which 
were brought to England by Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke. 
One of these inscriptions, which was brought from the Troad, 
was believed by Porson to be nearly as old as the Arch- 
onship of Eucleides, the era at which a well-known change 
took place in Greek palaeography, about 403 B.C. Another 
inscription is a sepulchral one, brought from Athens, to the 
memory of a certain Eucleides of Hermione, whom Clarke 
linnsclf believed to be the celebrated geometrician ; and, 
under that impression, he thought that he had found for the 
stele, a congenial resting-place, among the mathematicians 
of this University. But there is no evidence whatever that 
this Eucleides was the geometrician, and the probability is 
decidedly against it. 


One of the most remarkable of Dr. Clarke's marbles is a 
mutilated statue of Pan, which was found in a garden close 
by the grotto sacred to Tan and Apollo, below the Acropolis 
of Athens. As it is known that a Btatue of Tan was dedi- 
I by Miltiades, in gratitude for the services supposed to 
have beeD rendered by him in the battle of Marathon, and 
as this Btatue is of a Btyle of art corresponding to that 
date, it is by no means impossible that it may be the 
identical figure upon which Simonides wrote an Mypa^na 
which is now extant. 

With regard to the colossal marble bust which was pro- 
nounced by Dr. Clarke to be a parr of the statue el' the 
( of Eleusis, it is in be feared that he went beyond the 

bounds of that cautious discretion which is bo properly pre- 
scribed to the archaeologist. That the figure was brought 
from certain ruins near the site of the temple of Ceres at 
- no doubt, and certain travellers who had 
pved it there in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turi( the goddess herself. But more 

have held a contrary opinion. They have 
_ from the position in which it was found, 
and from certain appearances on the surface of the marble, 
that it v. or architectural decoration, like the 

tin- Erectheium. It will he allowed, however, 
'■veil by • ritics who withhold their acquiescence from 

Dr. Clarke's rather too positive assertion, that the bust is 
a most interesting relic of Greek antiquity. 

The Malcolm sarcophagus in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
described by Mr. Pashley in In- "Travels in Crete." and 
equently brought to England and presented to the 
University by Sir Pulteney Malcolm, i^ ascribed by Dr. 
W'aa'j. n to the last half of the second century of the 
Christian era. The Bubjeci of the Bculpture, which seems 
to be the return of Bacchus from India, is treated in a man 
nor spirit. id and original ; ami with tin- i tception ot one <>r 
lacuna, it is in an extremely good state of preservation. 

I must n<»t omit to menti :ertain Greek inscriptions 

ntlj presented t<. the University by Captain Spratt, 

th<- commander of one of Her Majesty's surveying ships 

i <.ii the coast of Greece. Three of those wore 

I by him in the island of ( !rete, ami one of these 

of '■■ rj early date ; I ho inscription four.' read from 


the right hand to the left. But the most interesting and valu- 
able of Captain Spratt's marbles is an inscribed slab from 
the Troad. This inscription is valuable on two accounts. 
In the first place it is valuable as having been discovered 
among the ruins of a temple, first pointed out by Captain 
Spratt, which is satisfactorily proved to be the temple of 
Apollo Smintheus, mentioned by Strabo and other writers, 
but altogether unknown to modern travellers until lighted 
upon by Captain Spratt within the last twelve months. 
That the remains are those of the temple of Apollo, Colonel 
Leake, than whom we can have no higher authority, lias 
pronounced himself to be perfectly satisfied. In fact, an 
inscription found there by Captain Spratt, places the point 
beyond all doubt. The second point of interest connected 
with this inscribed slab, is the subject of the inscription. 
It commemorates the fact of a certain Greek, by name 
Cassander, having been presented by each of eighteen or 
twenty of the cities and states of Greece with a golden crown. 
Each city is mentioned separately, and underneath the 
words Xpuo-e<j> 2T€<p(M/(«> in connection with the name of 
each city, is a representation of the crown itself, which 
was in the form of a chaplet of olive-leaves. To the 
custom of presenting a distinguished Greek citizen w T ith 
a golden crown I need not do more than advert. We 
all rememember the orations Ylepl 2re(pdvov of the two 
great orators of Athens. And, if I mistake not, the effect 
of a sight of this inscribed marble, would be the same 
upon any one engaged in reading those orations, as the 
effect of the celebrated Potida3an k~Cy pawa in the British 
Museum would be upon a person reading the account of the 
skirmish at Potidaia, in the first book of Thucydidcs ; — 
namely, to impress his mind with a sense of the reality of 
what he is reading, far stronger than any which could be 
made by the mere fact of his finding it recorded in the 
book. — " Magis movemur," says Cicero, " quam si quando 
eorum ipsorum aut facta audiamus, aut scriptum aliquod 

It is only right that I should take this opportunity of 
stating that Captain Spratt's presentation of these marbles 
to the University, was made at the suggestion of his friend 
Colonel Leake. 

Of the numerous collection of ancient marbles presented 


to the University in 1850, by Mr. Disney, it is unnecessary 
for me to give any minute description, as the donor himself 
has already done it in a very able and lucid manner in his 
work entitled "Museum Disneianum." By coming forward 
while tlic space was yet unoccupied, Mr. Disney secured for 
his marbles a position which future benefactors may look 
upon with envy, but to which, nevertheless, the example 
which be was the first to set, on so extensive a scale, fairly 
entitles him. And we may venture to express to my friend 1 
our hope that at a very far distant period, when the beau- 
tiful edifice in which tiny are deposited, shall itself be the 
subject of curious investigation to future archaeologists, his 
oame may still survive, as that of the earliest patron of 
archaeological studies in the University of Cambridge. 

1 Mr. Disney being then present. 


During the autumn of the year 1844 a discovery occur- 
red at Leckhampton, Gloucestershire, in a district full of 
vestiges of early occupation, which excited considerable 
interest. A short statement, communicated at that time, 
was published in the first volume of this Journal, and the 
subject was noticed in other archaeological publications. The 
novel feature of the discovery consisted in a bronze frame, 
supposed to have been attached to a head-piece of leather 
or felt, a purpose to which, by the dimensions and general 
fashion it appeared to be adapted. It was considered by the 
late Sir Samuel Meyrick to have been the British " Pen- 
ffestyn," possibly from the position of the skeleton being 
described as " doubled up," as frequently noticed in inter- 
ments of the earliest age, or from its having been found 
near a supposed British fortress. 

Other antiquaries have regarded it, however, as an Anglo- 
Saxon relique, a supposition to which Mr. Roach Smith, in 
his " Collectanea Antiqua," seems inclined to assent, although 
conclusive evidence may be wanting. 1 The Abbe Cochet, 
also, in the second edition of his valuable " Normandie 
Souterraine," has, without hesitation, admitted this object as 
a coiffure or casque Savon? 

The attention of archaeologists has recently been directed 
to this singular relique, through the kindness of Capt. Henry 
Bell, of Cheltenham, in whose possession it has been pre- 
served. At the request of Mr. Allies, he sent it for exhi- 
bition at the meeting of the Institute in December last. No 
detailed investigation of its age and character having been 

1 Collect. Antiqua, vol. ii. p. 2'M), where Cochet 1ms found no example of any head- 
a representation of the bronze frame is piece of the Frankish period. He notices 
given. at some length the remains of sift 

2 Normandie Sontorraine, 2nd edit. which certain antiquaries have erroneously 
18.5.5, pp. 17, 393 ; it is remarkable that described as the remains of some protec- 
in his extensive researches the Abbe* tion for the head. 



given, 1 have availed myself of the obliging- permission of 
Capt. Bell, to offer a more accurate representation than 
hitherto published. In the advanced state of information 
regarding vestiges of the later Roman period and of that 
immediately succeeding, upon which valuable light has Itch 
thrown by the exertions of the Hon. Richard Neville, Mr. 
Wylie, Mr. Roach Smith, Mi-. Bateman, and other antiqua- 
ries, it appears desirable to invite attention anew to this 
unique relique, ami that its real age and purpose should be 

To those who are acquainted with the picturesque and 
undulated Hank of the Cotswold Hills, to the south of 
Cheltenham; overlooking the broad fertile plains of Glouces- 
sbire, it can be no matterof surprise to find abundant traces 
indicating thai the locality had been successively occupied by 
,-i considerable population in British, Roman, and Saxon times. 
Of th^ earlier period, vestiges present themselves in nume- 
rous harr<-\\s along the margin of the higher ground, of 
which some have been examined by Lysons, and more re- 
cently by Mr. Gomonde and other members of the Glouces- 
tershire Archaeological Society ; in the encampments also on 
Crickley Hill and the height above Leckhampton. Near the 
former of those, at Dry Hill Farm, distant about 3^ miles 
from Cheltenham, a Roman villa of considerable extent 
was excavated about L 849, by Capt. Bell and Mr. \V. H. 
Gomonde, by whom an account was printed for presentation 
to bis friends. South-easl of that spot, near the Ermine 
Street, is the site of the villa at Witcomb, explored by 
Lysons; similar remains occur between the Ermine Street 
and Cubberley, and other traces of Roman occupation might 
be noticed, [nterments have been found on Wistley Hill, 
near the road to Cubberley, on Cricklev Hill, and at several 
other places. At Cubberley there are vestiges, it is believed, 
of a Saxon village. 

The extensive camp on Leckhampton Hill occupies a 

commanding position in the chain of ancient encampments 

which extended through the south western parts of (don 

rehire from the A.von to Bredon Hill, the frontier for- 

n has been supposed, of the Dobuni} It was just 

of the camps on Leek* of sncienl hill fortresses in Gloucester- 
iii Hill sud ' i :■•!. I. _v Hill in tlu< Hliiri; above mentioned, AjrchsBologia. 
Mi iioir b\ Mr. Lloyd Dakei on the chain vol. nix. p. 171. 


below that camp, near the road leading over the higher 
ground towards Stroud, that the discovery which is the sub- 
ject of this notice occurred, as related in the following state- 
ment received in October, 1844, from the Rev. Lambert 
]'». Larking : — 

"A few weeks since, some labourers, in digging for gravel 
on the hill above the Manor-house of Leckhampton, about 
two miles from Cheltenham, suddenly came upon a skeleton, 
in a bank at the side of the high road leading from Chelten- 
ham to Bath. It was lying doubled up, about 3 feet under 
the surface ; it was quite perfect, not even a tooth wanting. 
On the skull, fitting as closely as if moulded to it, was the 
frame of a cap, consisting of a circular hoop with two curved 
bars crossing each other in a knob at the top of the head. 
This knob, finishing in a ring, seems to have been intended 
for a feather or some such military ensign. The rim at the 
base is nearly a perfect circle, and the bars are curved, so 
that the entire framework is itself [semi] globular. The 
bars are made apparently of some mixed metal, brass fused 
with a purer one ; they are thin and pliable, and grooved ; 
the knob and ring are brass, covered with verdigris, while 
the bars are smooth and free from rust. When first found, 
there was a complete ehin-chain — of this only three links 
remain, those next the cap are very much worn. The skull 
is tinged at the top with green, from the pressure of the 
metal, and in other parts blackened, as though the main 
material of the cap had been felt, and the bars added to 
stiffen it. They are hardly calculated, from their slightness, 
to resist a sword cut, but the furrowed surface gives them a 
finish, and proves that they must have been outside the felt. 
Nothing else, whatever, was found. A black tinge was dis- 
tinctly traceable all round the earth in which the body lay." 4 

A sketch of this bronze frame-work was kindly sent to 
me at a later time by Mr. Gomonde, and engraved in this 
Journal. 5 It was described by him as found near a Roman 
burying-ground ; Sir S. Meyrick, however, to whom it had 
been shown by Mr. Gomonde, considered it, as has been 
already mentioned, to be the British " Penffestyn," 6 or 
skull-cap, mentioned in the Laws of Howcl Dda. 

4 Communication from Mr. Larking to s Vol. iii., ]>. .'!.*>•_'. 

Mr. T. Wright, Arehaeul. Journal, vol. i., fi In the Glossary of terms of British 

Dress ami Armour, by the Rev. John 


Excavations were made on the adjacent part of Leck- 
hampton Hill, and part id" an iron bridle-bit, with a ring for 
attaching the rein, 3-J inches in diameter (figured in Mr. 
Gomonde's "Notes on Cheltenham," pi. xi.), an iron spear- 
head, and a curved implement of singular fashion were 
found, with fragments of urns of glossy Mack ware, formed 
with small perforated handles as if for suspension. These 
reliques were disinterred between the quarry where the 
bronze skull-cap was found, and the road to Birdlip.' 

I as of Constantino and broken pottery, assigned to the 
Roman age, were discovered in the immediate vicinity. 
Another remarkable interment was found near the spot 
where the skeleton with the bronze frame had been brought 
to light. In this instance, the body had been deposited in 
clay, and the remains were much decayed by moisture ; the 
clay surrounding the skull was lull of iron studs, sufficiently 
indicating, as .Mr. Gomonde believed, that the head had 
been protected by a cap of singular construction, covered 
over with these iron studs. 8 A bronze spear-head, finely 
patinated, now in ('apt. Hell's possession, may deserve men- 
tion, having been found, as stated, on Leckhampton Hill. 

Tip' rare occurrences of any object of armour amongst 
the antiquities of the earlier periods found in our country, 
whilst weapons, personal on aments and domestic appk- 
ances are found in profusion, may, I would hope, justify the 
detailed character of the present notices. With the excep- 
tion of die bronze helmet discovered in forming the canal 
iieai- Northcote Hill. Herts, and represented in the " Vtatusta 

.Mmiuinenta." and another remarkable head -piece of bronze, 

consisting of a -hull cap with a perforated tube of consider- 
able length on its apex, found in L843, at King's Arms 
Yard, Moorgate Street, London, no reliques of the like 
description have fallen under my notice. The last named 

Williams, of which pari in th< other antiquities discovered, in hU " Notes 

Archseologia Cambrensis, the Penffestin on Cheltenham, Ancient and Medieval," 

plained to be a li Imel "Frollo Jvo, 1849. Prival ly printed. 

lnii- <>ii in- forehead, so thai Irohaeol Journal, vol iii., p. S58. 

u i ted on the rings of his An account <>t the examination of three 

Gr. ab Arthur. Under the barroweinthi locality by Mr. Gomonde 

iwi thattbi Penffestyn and Capt Bell, in December, 1844, is 

tinol ran in the Journal of the Archaeological 

J in of tli \ ■ I logical \ o \ ociation, vol. i. pp. 152, 164. In one 

">li i. I. has •■! Hi. e four perfect skeletons were found, 

.;• "i li,. ancionl it* and placed side bj side, the heads to the east, 

repri of the bronsi frame with the leg drawn up to the chin, 


remarkable object remains, as I believe, in the possession of 
Mr. Kirkman ; it was regarded by some antiquaries as a 
form of the " Penffestyn." It bears resemblance to the wpew 
or cap worn by the Flamines and the Salii, and still more 
closely to the head-gear seen on a votive monument found in 
Styria, and given by Montfaucon. 9 

The bronze relique to which I would now specially invite 
attention, has been already described in the account given 
by Mr. Larking. I may add the following observations. The 
hoop or rim is perfectly round, measuring l\ inches in each 
direction. This fact has been regarded by some antiquaries 
as a conclusive argument against the supposition that this 
frame of metal could have formed part of any kind of head- 
piece. Others, however, having carefully considered the 
details of its construction, and the pliable nature of the 
frame, formed of metal about one-twenty-fourth of an inch 
only in thickness, are disposed to conclude that this round 
form of the rim, in its actual condition, presents no such 
difficulty. As, indeed, one of the plates forming this rim 
bad become unsoldered, and has been re-united since the 
discovery, it is possible that a slight modification of the con- 
tour may have occurred, giving the perfectly round form 
which we now observe. On the other hand, it should be borne 
in mind, that many head-pieces, such as are worn by nations 
in the East, as also some of media3val date in Europe, 
are of perfectly circular form, and not shaped to the skull. 1 
The Roman bronze helmet found near Tring, a skull-cap, 
with a wide brim behind ('() like a coal-heaver's hat, is like- 
wise perfectly round. 2 The constructive peculiarities, obvious 
on close examination of the bronze frame found at Leck- 
hampton appear sufficiently to confirm the belief that it was 
a head-piece, and not as has been affirmed the upper portion 
of some kind of vessel or coffer. The transverse bands would, in 
the latter case, have been adjusted so as to cross each other 
precisely at right angles, and divide the little dome into four 
equal portions, the central knob and ring being its centre. 

9 Antiqu. Expl. Supp. tome ii. p. 123, lately round, and some of the mediaeval 

pi. 33, b%8. This singular head-covering very nearly so. The bronze frame, being 

here appears to be worn by females. so light in construction, may very well 

1 1 am indebted to Mr. Hewitt's kind- have assumed, when fitted with its lining, 

ness for the confirmation of this state- a somewhat ovalised form." 

Hunt On examination of the examples - Vetusta Monumenta, vol. v., pi. 26. 

in the Tower Armory, he assures me that It is not quite clear whether the projecting 

■• nearly all the eastern casques are abso- plate in trout or behind is deficient. 



This, however, is not the case ; the bands are placed so that 
tin' moiety <>f the frame, which would probably form the 
fore-part of the cap, is considerably larger than the hind- 
part, the effect being t<> throw tin- apex with its knob and 
ring backwards ; tin' knob itself is likewise bo shaped as to 
incline slightly in the same direction. These details can 
scarcely 1"' in licated in a drawing, but they are very per- 
ceptible in tin- examination of the original. The objection 
has also been made, that it' the frame \\wr a eaj>. what was 
the intention of tin-' ring at the topi Here it may suffice 
t<> point out the precise analogy of this knoli and ring with 
tin- fashion of the curious cap represented in Bahr's work on 
the Sepulchral Antiquities of Livonia." (See woodcut.) 


Thi- cap is formed of spiral bronze rings, described as 

strung upon wool, and on the crown is a knob from which 

ispended a small bell, like a hawk's bell, attached h\ a 

ring. Tin' Livonian tombs in question, are assigned, as I 

believe, to the I Xih or Kth century. 

h has been stated that when the relique Benl lor our 
examination by Capt. Bell was found, there was a perfect 
chain Berving the purpose of a chin strap. A single ring 
now remains, which may bave been pari of this : the loops 
are to be seen also, to which such a chain might conve- 

I l.ivin « Dr< i'n, Kerxes, described by Herodotus m hel- 

i i tuthor ootnpan ii bran, twisted in a barbarous 

n ii \ i i in. .11 I look v N. c 69 
i in tin' . xpcdii ion ••) 


niently be adjusted, and they are worn away by friction in 
a manner which seems to corroborate the statement. 

The object of the present notice is to invite further 
inquiry, in the hope that the true intention and date of a 
unique type, amongst the antiquities of bronze found in this 
country, may be ascertained. No sufficient argument can be 
drawn from the existing vestiges of the early inhabitants of 
the locality, which, as it has been shown, was occupied by 
the Dobuni, by the Roman colonists, and doubtless by the 
South Mercian Saxons. The notion has, as I believe, been 
commonly adopted, that this relique belongs to the Saxon 
period, and this supposition is countenanced by two disco- 
veries in this country of objects, apparently analogous in 
their character, accompanied by remains which may confi- 
dently be assigned to the Saxon age. The first discovery 
to which I allude has been recorded by Sir Henry Dryden, 
Bart., as having occurred near the Portway at Souldern, 
Oxfordshire. A skeleton was found there in 1844, laid in 
a cavity in the reck prepared for the deposit, and extended 
at full length, the head W. by S. On the right side of the 
head lay a pair of ornaments of bone, and about the skull 
were many fragments of thin brass, which, when placed 
together formed parts of two bands, the first measuring 
7 in. long, and § in. wide. This, Sir Henry supposed, had 
encircled the lower part of a leathern skull cap. The edges 
of the leather and of this brass band were held together by 
a thin concave brass binding, in the hollow of which frag- 
ments of leather were still to be seen. On each side of the 
helmet, attached to the brass band, was an ornamental hinge 
for a leathern chin-strap. Of the other band about 1 7 in. 
remained, in width one-eighth narrower than the first. It 
was probably the binding of the edge where there would be 
a seam, or intended to encircle the helmet close above the 
other binding. On both these bands were rivets, showing 
that the leather riveted was three-sixteenths thick. Nothing 
else was found with the skeleton, but several urns were disin- 
terred near it of the black pottery, showing the peculiar 
scored and impressed ornament which characterises the 
fictile ware of the Saxon age. 4 


4 See the account of Sepulchrtd remains Dryden's drawings, in Mr. Wing's An- 
found at Souldern, accompanied by repre- tiquities of Steeple Aston, p. 7-. 
mentations of three urns, from Sir Henry 


To one of our most intelligent and zealous labourers in 
the archaeological field, Mr. Bateman of Yolgrave, we are 
indebted for the second discovery, which may aid this 
enquiry as regards the date of the relique from Leck- 
hampton. In this instance, however, the frame-work, 
precisely similar in fashion, was of iron. It was disinterred 
in a tumulus near Monyash, in Derbyshire. The frame was 
formed of ribs of iroD radiating from the crown of the 
head, and covered with narrow plates of horn, running in a 
diagonal direction from the ribs, so as to form a herring-bone 
irn : the ends were Becured by strips of horn, radiating 
in like manner as the iron ribs, to which they were riveted 
at intervals of about I 1 , inch. AH the rivets had ornamented 
heads of silver on the outside, and on the front rib is a small 
cross of the same metal. Upon the crown of this helmet is 
the figure of a boar, of iron with bronze eyes ; and various 
remains, supposed to be of defensive armour, were found 
with this head-piece. These reliques, there can be little 
doubt, were of the Saxon age, and they are recognised as 
such by Mr. C. Roach Smith, who has given a full account 
with illustrations, in his Collectanea Antiqua. 8 

These facts may seem to corroborate the notion that this 
relique under consideration should be placed amongst Saxon 
antiquities, and examples of head-coverings analogous in 
their fashion may 1"' noticed on coins and in drawings in the 
MSS. of that period. It may be objected thai these are 
properly to be regarded as crowns, such as occur for instance 
on coins of the Confessor, although very early instances of 
the arched form of the regal diadem. In some instances 
the cynehealm of the Anglo-Saxon king has the aspect 
rather of an belmel than a crown, and appears as a conical 
cap formed like that from Leckhampton with transverse 
bands or ribs, and a knob or other prominent ornament on 
its apex. With these royal helms may be compared that 
worn by the warrior, apparently a principal officer, pour- 
trayed in the Cotton MS. Tiberius, B. V., and given by Strutt 
in his Horda as an example of military costume in the Xlth 

• .\.i\. which occurred in Antiqua, vol. ii., p. 238. The oitationa 

', i ' publi hed in the fr Beowulf, given by Mr. Roach Smith, 

.1 i \ ociation, r« ;arriing the Saxon creel of iii<- boar, 

rol. li ., p I olli « - 1 iii. a ari i sci i dingrj cui iou 



Arched Saxon crowns 
from Csedmon, MS. Xth 

century. 6 Amongst the singular delineations in the MS. of 
Caulmon's Paraphrase, preserved in the Bodleian, and written 
about the year 1000, certain head-coverings may be seen, 
to be regarded probably rather as insignia of dignity than 
regal, but sufficing to show that there existed at that period 
on laments for the head in no slight degree analogous in 
fashion to that found in Gloucestershire. 
(See woodcut.) One of those here repre- 
sented is worn by Lucifer. 7 It must be 
noticed that these are not open arched 
crowns, like the royal insignia of a much 
later age, but caps surrounded by a frame, 
to which they seem closely fitted. 

In addition to the examples supplied hj the discoveries in 
our own country, which have been noticed in Oxfordshire 
and Derbyshire, I have found one object only, apparently of 
analogous fashion, described by foreign archaeologists. In a 
tumulus at Aufsee in Bavaria, in a burial-place assigned to 
the early Germanic inhabitants of the vallies near the sources 
of the Maine, a skeleton was disinterred, with a frame upon 
the skull, described as a kind of helm, of polished metal 
like gold, and free from oxidation. On the crown of the 
head, instead of any apex or means of attachment for a 
crest, there was a flat round plate of the size of a thaler, on 
which was engraved an ornament like a rose. This plate 
formed the centre of a conical frame-work composed ot 
spirally-twisted bands, united by two or more horizontal 
hoops, placed at some distance apart. (See woodcut). With 
this interment were deposited 
heads of arrows and spears, 
and a singular kind of horse- 
shoe, the space within which 
was plated over with iron, as 
in modern times a tender foot 
is sometimes protected by a 
layer of felt within the rim of 
the shoe. Unfortunately the 
finder sold the bright metal frame for a trifle to a Jew, and no 

fi Strutt's Horda, vol. i ,pl.iv. Although 
the form is conical, and the apex is not 
furnished with the knob, this head-piece 


w ill di servos attention, in connexion with 
that found at Leckhampton. 

< Archseologia, vol. xxiw, plate 55. 



accurate representation has been preserved. It is not stated 
whether any trace of a chin-strap or of bucculce was found. 8 
There is no sufficient evidence bo determine whether the 
Leckhampton head-piece was intended to serve as a 
defence, or merely as an ornament. We might indeed more 
readily accept the former supposition, after the examination, 
for which we are indebted to Mr. Hewitt, of the latest pro- 
duction of modern ingenuity in the unproved head-piece 
devised during the last year for the artillery. One of these 
was recently shown by him at a meeting of the Institute; 
the skeleton frame-work of thin brass, with the ornament 
on the apex, is strikingly similar, even in the mouldings of 
its ribs, to the ancient relique which is in the possession of 
Capt. Bell. This slight frame had been considered a sufficient 
support to the defensive cap of felt to which it is fitted. 8 

Helmets of a similar fashion have been worn at various 
periods : and first, I would invite attention to those which 
appear on Trajan's column. We there find two kinds of 

longitudinally ribbed helmets, the 
close-fitting skull-cap with a knob 
on its crown, usually represented as 
pierced, and occasionally with a 
short plume affixed to it. Such a 
pierced apex would present a con- 
venient attachment for a pendant of 
horse-hair, the hirsuta juba which 
appears to have frequently formed 
an ornament of the Roman helm. 
These helmet- are worn by the Roman legionaries, they 
have almost invariably bucculce, or cheek-pieces, with a spira 
or fastening under the chin, and usually the falling piece 
behind to protect the neck. The examples here given show 
how closely this Roman head-piece resembles the relique 
from Leckhampton ; I have selected one. a simple skull cap, 
which occurs slung over the shoulder of a legionary, and 
another with its bucculce, represented as placed on an upright 
Btake by the side of a Boldier engaged in building some 

■ d«, Handbuch der AJtertlitl r, 

K , i i I i i,. di»- 

■ cord< d i._\ ll igen and 
fur Alb iiliuin. r. 

i \n \ i dlli n Helmet," 

produced bj Mr. Hewitt, in illustration "i 
■I ii 1 1 ique from Leokbampton, haa sinnr 
bei H '-"ii idi i ■■ 'i not i al isl ictorj , and it 
haa been withdrawn Ii waa an officer*! 
ii. .-i i | iii ee, ii"- 'ii aign apparent!) ■!< rii td 
a i tho e ihown on Trajan'a colnmn, 



Ribbed Helmets, worn by 
the Sarmatians. 
Trajan's column. 

military defence. 1 This helm very probably was the cudo of 
leather used, as we learn from Polybius, 
by the light-armed troops, and originally 
the hunting-cap, strengthened externally 
by ribs of metal. Another helm appears 
in the remarkable sculptures on the 
Trajan column which claims notice. 
This is the pointed head-piece worn by 
the barbarian cavalry and infantry — Sar- 
matians or Dacians, with ribs diverging 
from the spiked or knobbed apex, and 
occasionally with several parallel hoops, 
a remarkable feature of resemblance to 
the curious frame-work found in Bavaria, 
before noticed. A sculpture preserved at Rome in the 
Giustiniani Palace, represents barbarians with ribbed helms, 
and a knob on the top of the head. 2 

From a comparison of these facts I am inclined to think 
that the interment at Leckhampton, in a locality surrounded 
by vestiges of the Romans, may be assigned with greater 
probability to the times of their dominion in Britain, than 
to the Saxon age. The well-polished and finely patinated 
appearance of the metal, would moreover suggest the notion 
that it is Roman bronze rather than the mixed metal of 
any later period. In the examination of any novel type 
amongst antiquities presumed to be of the Roman period, 
the English archaeologist should never lose sight of the pro- 
bability that anomalous forms should occur, not conformable 
to those with which we are familiar in Italy and the 
dominions more closely adjacent to Imperial Rome. Auxi- 
liaries from many remote countries subject to her sway were, 
it is well known, sent to Britain, and they doubtless brought 
with them the fashions and customs, the armour, the 
personal and domestic appliances with which they were 
familiar. At the time of the Notitia, one of the chief 
Roman cities nearest to Leckhampton, namely Corinium, 
was occupied by Thracians and Indians. 

1 The accompanying representations of 

helmets from Trajan's column have been 
taken from the cart-fully executed plates 
by Nicola Moneta, after the drawings by 
Salvatoro Busuttil, in the valuable publi- 
cation " La Colonna Trajana, illustrate da 

Erasmo Pistoles." Roma: 1846. Folio. 
I am indebted to the learned historian of 
the Roman Wall, the Rev. Dr. Bruce, for 
the opportunity of consulting this work. 

- Encycl. Method. Division of Antiqui- 
ties, pi. 38. 



It must, however, be admitted that framed helms of 
similar tonus occur long subsequent to tin- Roman age, in 
which the fashions of earlier times may have been preserved. 
A good example is supplied bv Hefner in the subjects which 
lie has selected from a Ms. Psalter in tin' Royal Library at 
Stuttgart. He assigns its -late to the tenth century, but the 
costume and general character of the objects pourtrayed 

might place it as early as 

the eighth century. Of 

the two subjects here given 

(see woodcuts), the figure 

bearing the long-headed 

framea is a mounted 

warrior, in a tunic of scale 

armour. The other is a 

1 io\\ man en loot, armed 

likewise witli a scaly defence, with shoii sleeves ; tin 1 armour 

and tin' helmets are coloured as if to represent iron.'' 

Headpieces of this description must have proved very 
preferable to the ponderous helm of metal plate. As late 
as the Xlllih century, in the reign of Henrv 111., wo find a. 
remarkable illustration of their use in the subjects from the 
Painted Chamber at Westminster. The framework in these 
examples is mostly coloured yellow, the intervening spaces 
being red or purple, as if re- 
presi el ing a cap of cloth or 
leather strengthened externally 
by ribs of gilded metal. In 
Borne instances a band appi 
to be lace< 1 I hroug h I ho low er 
part of the frame, probably 
lor the purpose <>f attaching il 
to i ho cap. or of connect ing the 
entire holm to the coif of 

mail. (Si 8 WOodcul , 

In .-ill the examples hit herto 
cited, i ho metal framework was 
obviously an external defence and ornament, placed upon a, 

cap of cloth, loll, leather, or other suitable material, such as 

1 SI o) en .v ■>■ ( 1,1 > iii ii, par liahed by the Society of Antiquaries, with 

Divi ion I, u a Memoir l>\ the late Mr. Rokewode, 

inpli d 'in can tul Vi matt Monumenta, vol vL, pL 86, 86. 

i ■ pi l pub 


the Roman cudo or yalerus of skin, the " lether-helm^" of 
the Saxons, 5 the petturis or the palet of cuirbouilli in 
mediaeval times. The ingenuity of a later age devised a 
framework to be worn concealed within the cap for the 
purposes of defence. Of this Hefner gives a good illustra- 
tion amongst the varied types which he has selected from 
a hundred helms of iron found in 1841 in a cistern at the 
citadel of Chalcis, in the Isle of Negropont. They have 
been assigned to the XHIth and XlVth centuries. This 
simple and effective defence is given with those of the 
earlier date. 6 (See woodcut.) An iron 
scull-cap of open or framed work was 
worn within the hat in the times of 
the civil wars, and examples exist in 
the Tower Armory, in the collections 
at Goodrich Court and other places. 7 
Carre, in his " Panoplie," gives a repre- ^SJShS™!? 4 * 8 
sentation of a " calotte echancree " of 
this description fitted to such a form of hat as is now w T orn, 
and he describes a very light and effectual substitute as used 
by the French cavaliers, formed " d'une meche tortillee 
excellente contre le tranchant." This recalls the singular 
head-piece used by the ancient Livonians, previously noticed 
in these observations. (See page 14.) The most effective 
and ingenious defence was undoubtedly the secretle, or privy 
cap of fence, brought under the notice of the Institute by 
Mr. YV. J. Bernhard Smith, and described in a former volume 
of this Journal. It is of steel, so skilfully fashioned and 
lunged together as to be readily folded up and carried 
about the person, and on any sudden alarm expanded in a 
few seconds and adjusted by a little bolt, forming a perfect 
defence against a cut from any weapon. 8 I saw at Rouen 
another of these skilful productions of the armourers in the 
XV hh and XVIIth centuries. The late M. Langlois, also of 
Rouen, had one, and I have seen a fourth in Paris. 


In .Kline's Glossary, under Nomina " This concealed defence was in use as 

Annorum, we find "Galea, lether-helm, early as the rciLcn of Elizabeth. Sir John 

cassis, iron helm, corona, cyne-helm, apex, Smythe, in liis Discourses, 1589, f. 46, 

lu Inn s to]), crista, hehnes camb, COWU8, says, "The Archers on horseliaeke I 

helmes byje." would liave — with deepe Steele skulles in 

f - J. df Hefner, Costume du Moyen very narrowe brimbd liats." 

Age Chretien, Division 1., pi. 63. s Archaeol. Journal, vol. vii. p. 305. 



l:v RICHARD \\ T> TMACOTT, (Jus.), I! A . ! 

I do not propose to occupy the attention of the section 
with a history of art, nor with a description of any of the 
processes of sculpture ; but simply to discuss what may, in 
some respects, be termed a question of taste, (though other 
considerations of much importance are involved in the 
inquiry,) and upon which all who feel an interest in art, 
and in seeing sculpture practised upon some established 
principle, may be expected to have an opinion. The subject 
seems especially to call for careful consideration at this 
time, and I am glad of the opportunity afforded by a meet- 
ing like the present, where so many scholars, antiquaries, 
and artists are collected together for the express purpose of 
entertaining such questions, to bring forward a subject which 
1 venture to believe will be thought well deserving their 

Owing to Borne experiments that have recently been 
made, it has been much canvassed whether or not statues 
should 1"' coloured. 

That thejudgmenl wemay arrive at will settle definitively 
the practice can scarcely be expected. There always will be 
persons who will exercise their indisputable right to please 
themselves, both in the mode of producing and in estimating 
works in those imitative arts whose first appeal is to be 
made through the eye. Bui ii is important in its relation 
to the public education in art thai the opinions of those 

who have Studied its history and theory should, if possible, 

be ascertained respecting any remarkable innovation, or 
inroad upon long established practice. It is, in fact, the 
• buy <'l those who profess arl to watch over its character and 
interests; and if the\ have reason to believe thai true 
principles are likely to be losl sighl <>f. or tampered with, 


unhesitatingly to enter their protest, in order that the non- 
professional, and especially art promoters and supporters, 
may not be left without information and authority to direct 

The study of the finest productions in the highest walks 
of the arts of design has led to the establishment of certain 
fixed principles, or canons, upon which the judgment of ages 
has determined that each art can alone be safely practised. 
These are not accidental and arbitrary regulations ; they 
have been fairly deduced from the most perfect known 
works ; whose excellence may likewise be proved to result 
from the presence of these elementary conditions. In the 
imitative arts of painting and sculpture especially, the pro- 
per limits of each have been well and carefully defined. 
Sufficient room has been left for the exercise of individual 
taste and fancy ; but any great or striking deviation from 
these conditions becomes an infringement of the conventional 
and necessary rules by which it has been determined that 
each art is, or ought to be, bound. 

The desire for change is so strongly implanted in the 
human mind, that it is not easy to define its boundaries, or to 
say wdiere it should cease to claim indulgence and exercise its 
influence. But it cannot be doubted that its gratification 
must be subject to some limitation, and that there must be 
some laws of propriety and good sense beyond which it 
should not be attempted to pander to it. Irregular attempts 
to astonish may obtain for a time the admiration, the e3 r e- 
wonder of the multitude, and especially of the uneducated 
and unrefined, always too ready to receive with delight 
what is calculated to cause excitement to sensibilities that 
are not easily stimulated by ordinary means ; as in the 
lower class of drama, the utmost exaggeration of language 
and action are sure to have an immediate and unfailing 
effect on the spectators or audience, when the quiet though 
truthful representation of the self-same subject would in all 
probability appear dull and commonplace. On the same 
principle, in the present day, the painting and daubing of 
the clown's face till, literally, it loses all human character, 
constitutes one great source of admiration and enjoyment 
of that personage's role ; seems to pass for wit, and, indeed, 
goes far to make up the facetious character. 

The expression of an individual opinion, whether of 


approval or dissent in the matter before us. will very 
inadequately meet ;i question which should lie argued much 
more broadly, and should include tin- consideration of 

whether it is righl or wrong in art to paint Btatues. Asa 
matter of baste, or rather fancy, it must be left to the artist 
and tli<' purchaser j but the inquiry Bhould be made en 
higher principles than it' it were only to test the value of ,-i 
caprice. Tin' proposition to be discussed is, " Whether the 
practise is conformable with the principles upon which pure 
sculpture Bhould be exercised '. " 

The grounds upon which its advocates appear to found 
their recommendation of this practice shall, as far as 1 am 
competent to do it, Ik- set forth fully and fairly. So far 
from desiring to press my own opinions presumptuously, my 
object is rather to elicit argument and information ; and it 
will be my endeavour to conduct the inquiry proposed in a 
libera] spirit, and with every possible feeling of respect for, 
and even deference to. those who now stand forward iii sup- 
port of what others, equally conscientiously, are disposed 
to consider a dangerous novelty. 1 A difference of opinion 
upon particular details of practice is quite compatible with 
the most sincere acknowledgment of the ability and talent 

of those from whom we may dissent upon a few insulated 

points. Tic object is to establish a truth, not to achieve a 
victory. But if it shall he shown that the proposed practice 
i- not in accordance with true principles of art, it becomes 
the more necessary to declare ii against the opinions of those 
whose undoubted ability may be powerful to influence the 
public taste. And if. after all, an objectionable practice 
should obtain, lor ,-i season, after ;i protest against it has 
been recorded by those who have endeavoured fairly to 
weigh the arguments on both sides, if will ho seen that it has 
not been effected without a warning voice having been 
raised against ii. 

It i- (air to assume that the artiste who propose t<» intro- 
duce the novelty of painting or colouring statues, &c., 
conceive thai auch additions will improve sculpture. It 

1 I ;un bappj hi thii placi to acknow opposed to the practice he would l" glad 

llio valin of Mr Owen Joni 1'slittli 1 stabli lied in g ral polychromic 

ibject Although I do sculpture, hi " Ipologj " is written in a 

■ many oi thai gentleman's Fair ph it, 

com I i n 


would be absurd and unjust to accuse them of recommending 
it on any other ground ; with the intention, that is, of 
injuring or deteriorating their art. When, therefore, they 
profess and show they are not satisfied to see sculpture 
practised in its simple specialty — as an art dealing with 
form only — a sufficient difficulty — it may fairly be taken 
for granted that they think it is deficient in some quality 
wanting to its perfection, and that they can supply this 
want by the aid of another art. It is to be lamented 
that if this is their feeling the proposition is not thus 
eandidly stated, and that the Polychromists do not explain 
more fully and clearly than they have yet done the object they 
have in view, and the advantages they think will accrue to 
their art from it ; because then the question might at once 
be argued on its merits. But the advocates for the practice 
of colouring sculpture appear to be either unwilling or 
unable to enter upon any art-reasons for its adoption. 
Generally, they are satisfied with saying it was done by the 
ancient sculptors, and desire to found the modern practice 
upon precedent. It scarcely is possible to conceive that this 
comprehends all in the way of reason that artists of ability 
can give for desiring such an innovation on long accustomed 
practice. To advocate colouring sculpture upon no other 
ground than because ancient sculptors are said to have done 
it, seems to be simply a narrow prejudice ; and before the 
general body of, perhaps less well informed, sculptors, and the 
public, who cannot carry their respect for mere antiquity 
quite so far, can be expected to conform to the recommen- 
dation, surely the art-reasons for such innovation, and the 
principles upon which they found their new theory, should 
be freely explained. That sculpture among the ancients, 
Greek as well others, was sometimes painted or coloured, and 
that it had other ornamental accessories, cannot be disputed; 
the fact is asserted by ancient writers, and what is still more 
important, monuments have been found so decorated, which 
place the matter beyond question and contradiction. This, 
then, is admitted: but this authority, taking it fully for what 
it is worth — and some remarks will be offered further on 
upon some of the most generally received quotations from 
ancient authors, on this subject — no more proves the pro- 
priety or the desirableness of the continuance, or rather the 
renewal of the practice in the present day, and in the actual 


condition of sculpture, than the equally well authenticated 
feet of the early personages and characters of the Greek 
drama having smeared their tares with winedees. or eon- 
cealed them under hideous masks, proves the propriety of 
suggesting to our actors and actresses to do likewise. 

Again, admitting the fact, and even the value of the 
authority of antiquity for Polychromy, it Btil] may be 
questioned, first, whether painting or colouring statues was 
originated by any of tin 1 great masters of sculpture : 
secondly, whether the practice was general in the best time 
of sculpture ; and thirdly, whether it was employed by the 

- artists in their ordinary works — works, that is. uol 
executed for a particular purpose and under special 
conditions — a consideration, it will be presently seen, of the 
highest importance in this inquiry. There is not a shadow 
of doubi that all these three questions, bearing on the 
ancient authority, may be answered in the negative. 

It may be permitted here briefly to state an art-principle 
wliich will not be disputed : it may help to clear the ground 
for some subsequent remarks. 

The legitimate province of sculpture is to represent by 
form ; whal is not represented by form does not come under 
the definition of Bculpture. 

[f sculpture be painted it is a mixture of two arts: as, if 
a picture 1"- relieved or raised in any part, it is also a mixture 
of two arts. 

Let M- imagine thai in order to increase the effeel of some 
well-known picture, say the Transfiguration, portions of it 
were raised and sculptured, so as to produce, in fact, the 
:' or projection of the various figures and groups. 
Would it nol be denounced firsl as a most inefficient device; 
and, next, as an inexcusable departure I rum an established law 
of art ! It is much to be lamented thai while no painter of 
reputation, ancienl or modern, has attempted so toconl rai ene 
;hi admitted principle in bis own art, professors of the sister 
art of sculpture, many of them artists of unquestionable 
talent, such as Bernini, Etoubiliac, and others, have not always 
confined their practice within Buch wholesome and necessary 
restrain! : though, witli all their indulgence in the fantastic 
and picturesque, the sculptors alluded to are nol known to 
have had recourse to \ he painter s art. 

Ilavinc admitted trenerallv, the fad that there is t lit* 


authority of the ancients for colouring sculpture, it is now 
proposed to consider more at large the question, whether it 
is desirable to return to this practice. The legitimacy of 
mixing together two arts, which the principles essential to 
each require should be kept distinct, has already been 
disputed. The next inquiry will be, what are the objects to 
be obtained by painting or colouring sculpture 1 

1. Is it to render the imitation more close to nature 1 

2. Is it to attract attention 1 

3. Is it to gratify the sense by adventitious decoration 1 

4. Is it to give distinctness to the parts of a work when 
viewed from a distance. 

First, with respect to close imitation. 
It scarcely can be necessary to state in such a meeting as 
this, that it is a radical error to suppose that the province of 
the sculptor is to effect an exact imitation ; that is, such imi- 
tation as should produce illusion. We all know that, in many 
respects, this is impossible in sculpture. In others, where it 
is possible, the facsimile representation of inferior objects, 
such as veils, napkins, the stuffs and materials of drapery is, 
as all practical sculptors know, simply the work of (a superior, 
it may be, but) a careful carver. 

As I am addressing a general and unprofessional audience, 

it may not be out of place to state the principle by which the 

sculptor is governed in this respect. It is stated that there 

are certain objects in nature which do not admit of being 

exactly imitated in sculpture. But even if it were possible 

to carry the imitation of that which is the highest object of 

the artist's study — namely, the human figure — to such 

perfection as to induce the belief that it was real : that to 

any one entering a sculpture gallery the figures should bo 

closely resemble nature that, at first sight, they should appear 

to be living men and women standing on pedestals, would 

not the achievement cause a very disagreeable impression ? 

Undoubtedly it would. At present the lover and admirer of 

art is gratified by the contemplation of a fine and successful 

work of art, as a work of art. His imagination supplies all is wanting; and he does not ask nor expect that his 

senses shall be deceived. Nay, the moment he could bring 

himself to look at it as a positive and exact imitation of a 

human figure : the hair, the eyes, the lips, the nails — every 

part coloured and tinted, like life, but without life, he would 


be more disposed to shrink from than admire it, Let us for 
a moment imagine some well-known work, — the Apollo, the 
Laocoon and his Son-, the Farnese Hercules, so treated, and 
judge for yourselves what would be your feelings. Even 
such a near approximation to reality as is afforded by wax- 
work exhibitions, 9 is anything but pleasing to the generality 
of people, and especially persons of taste in art, though they 
ni.i\ be amused by the talent and ingenuity shown in thus 
producing resemblances. The dissatisfaction felt is to be 
accounted for on a perfectly intelligible principle. The 
reason for it is to be found in the fact that wax-work 
approaches too near to nature to I'- 1 agreeable as art, and yet 
i- not near enough, or true enough to nature — norcanitever 
30 —to make us forget it is art. Certainly there is no 
reason to believe thai ancient Greek sculpture ever fell so low 
in taste as to have a school of close imitators of the kind 
allude 1 to : or that the introduction of colour had any such 

As it is always desirable if possible to refer to existing 
examples, I will remind you of many sculptured works 
to be found in this country, from which you may form 
a judgment of the effeel of colour in increasing the truth 
of imitation. 1 have already touched on wax-work, 1 
now allude to tho painted monumental figures still found 
in many of our churches. They are chiefly of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, though the practice prevailed in 
iln- earliest period of such monuments; for the further wo 
go back t<> barbarism in art, or t<> the infancy of art, the 
more Burely do we meet with coloured sculpture. Now 
these are, undeniably, legitimate examples <>f polychromic 
sculpture ; and, of their kind, good examples: and what, 
is more t'> the purpose, they are infinitely Buperior in this 
respect t" ■•my ancient works of the kind that have been 
discovered. Probably, as they are of modern date, no value 
whatever will In- allowed them ; but had any figures or 

fragments resembling them been dug up in Greec ■ Ash 

Minor, there can be little doubt, judging from the examples 
thai have been quoted, they would have been hailed by the 

• I have no intention (■> insult legiti- the productions of Ant-rate artists the 

. -i. ,i! m with bad argument would equally apply. 

■ hi. in Tin- advocates for oolour say n is not 

• thai their object t" imiutu natun ' 

I . . ■ ii ii tip \ could I"- 


Polychromists as invaluable specimens of the practice, and 
triumphantly adduced as authority for its reintroduction. 
And how do these affect us, considered as works of art, 
independently of course of any interest that belongs to them 
oil other grounds \ Are not the best of them more suggestive 
of the toy-shop than the sculptor's studio f By far the 
most successful works of the kind, (and the effect they 
produce at first sight is described, by those who have seen 
them, as perfectly startling,) are to be met with in Spain 
where statues, as large as life, and represented in action, 
are to be seen painted with the utmost care and finish. 
It is known that while this taste prevailed, the sculptors 
laboured to acquire the skill of the best painters, that they 
might themselves insure all the pictorial effect possible to 
their statues ; and as the artists of the time, the sixteenth 
century, were amongst the most able that Spain has pro- 
duced, — as Cano, jMontanes, Hernandez — these performances 
far surpass anything of the kind found in other countries. 
But, while giving them all due credit for the peculiar excel- 
lence they exhibit, several accomplished writers on Spanish 
art 4 have not hesitated to record their unqualified condem- 
nation of the practice as opposed to all true principles of 
sculpture. But, to show the extent to which enthusiasm, 
and the determination to support any favourite theory may 
be carried, the ingenious author of a well-known treatise on 
Polychromy says, " Si une figure coloriee avec art et avee 
(/out ne fait pas bien, cest la sculpture qui est en defaut et 
in hi pas la polj/c/iromie." This is certainly taking a some- 
what unusual view of the position that sculpture might be 
supposed to hold in the question. 

In the examples referred to the gradations are studiously 
marked in the colours applied ; complexion, half-tints, veins, 
the eyes — all are carefully expressed. In the very few 
instances in which colour has been found on ancient sculpture, 
— and I believe there are none of the best period of Greek 
art — there is no attempt at gradation. The pigment is of one 
uniform tint, and appears to be laid on, or over, a thin coating 
of stucco, which covers, and must, more or less, clog and 
thicken the surface of the material of which the statue is 
formed. The flesh is usually expressed by a dark red, but 

* Sec Ford," Handbook i>t Spain ;'' Sir Edward Head ; Stirling, "Spanish Painters.' 1 


sometimes, judging from remains of colour on Terra Cottas, 
it was white. In figures on vases this frequently occurs. 
The eyes were of various substances, sometimes of glass or 
paste, Bometimes metal, sometimes even of precious stones ; 
and there are instances of inlaying metal of a lighter colour, 
as silwr. on bronze lips. 

It has tints been briefly Bhown thai colouring sculpture is not 
desirable on the ground of exact imitation ; and that the 
( !ri ek sculptors <>f the best period of ilic art, who are quoted 
;i- authorities for the practice, never could have had that 
object in \ icw. 

The next inquiryis with respect t<> attracting attention. 
They who consider that the whole and sole object of art 
i- to please tin' eye, may very consistently contend that all 
means that can be devised as conducing to that end are 
legitimate. They would, therefore, add extraneous decoration 
or ornament to sculpture in order to attract purchasers, by 
exhibiting to them either what is merely pretty or showy, or 
something that is calculated to excite or gratify certain 
feelings of mere sense. There have been, and it is to be 
n gretted, there are artists who are open to the reproach of 
doing thi- for very unworthy purposes; but it will he ad- 
mitted, to their honour, that English sculptors are not liable 

to tin' reflect LOB of making their art a menus of corruption, by 

the studied display of qualities and modes of expression that 
can only ho intended to minister to the grosser senses. But, 
where do such purpose is contemplated, a sculptor, jealous oi 
his lame and of the honour of his calling, should he careful not 
to Bubject himself even to the suspicion of practising what 
might be termed trick or claptrap, as a means of inviting 
attention to hi- merit-. It is, in fact, the mere chapman's 
excuse; and. though there maj be nothing absolutely wrong 
in it. in morals, ii surety places him who adopts it in a some- 
what different position from the class of artists to whom we 
should look lor the maintenance of ,-i high character for 
their profession. 

The next subject of inquiry, namely, whether the object 
of colouring sculpture was to give distinctness to the several 
parts of :i composition, will require a more extended con- 
sideration than has been given to the previous questions. 
In budyinc the practice of sculpture among the Greeks, - 

ma tor oi i he an w hum all I he modern schools 


have agreed to take as their exemplars, — it must be borne 
in mind that, without necessarily deriving- their art from 
any other nation or people, the mode of presenting it 
would most probably be much influenced by older and 
foreign usage, as the practice of other and, compared 
with themselves, more advanced nations became known 
to them. Thus, though sculpture was first known and 
practised in Greece later than in Egypt or Assyria (as 
it was also totally distinct in its types), still, though 
original there, the report and example of what was done 
in other countries would doubtless be the cause of the 
introduction and adoption among the Greeks of similar 
practices. As the custom of painting their sculpture pre- 
vailed among the older nations, it is reasonable to believe 
t the reports of travellers might have occasioned the 
introduction of a similar practice among the more recent 
settlers in Greece ; and thus it may be considered rather as 
a foreign graft upon their own rude and primitive attempts 
at art. 5 This supposition places the practice upon an entirely 
different footing to that which it would have had had it been 
a peculiar feature in Greek design, and originated by the 
great Greek masters ; when of course their taste would have 
been made responsible for its invention. Once introduced, 
usage gave it a hold upon the prejudices of the people 
who, as sculpture at that early period of their history 
was only, or for the most part, used for sacred purposes 
or illustration, no doubt soon closely associated all these 
modes and particulars of representation with the popular 
religious feelings ; and thus, probably, in the more bar- 
barous ages of Greek art the painting of the statues of the 
gods became a prescribed practice. The intuitive genius 
of this remarkable people soon, however, improved upon the 
rude means which at first seemed only to be employed to 
produce a pretty and attractive effect in decoration. In 

' It may he observed here that there considering monuments of this kind, that 

can lie no doubt that painting with these sculpture had a much more profound 

nations was in a great measure hieratic meaning, and was fulfilling a much more 

and symbolical In figures of mythologi- important mission in past ages than it 

cal personages, in kin^s and heroes, each has or perhaps ever can have with modern 

colour so applied, (and all are painted nations. We must always hear in mind, 

from head to foot,) conveyed a distinct that it was not alwavs produced merely 

meaning, probably recognised by the to gratify a taste lor art, or to furnish 

multitude, but certainly understood by galleries with pleasing objects of exhibi- 

the priests, as having a peculiar applica- tion and display, 
tion. We do not sufficiently reflect in 


their Polychromic architecture they appear fully to have 
equalled their earlier exemplars in the richness of em- 
blazonment] while they surpassed them in the delicacy of the 
forms of their ornament, in the appropriateness of application, 
the balance of quantities, and the judgment displayed in the 
several combinations and juxtaposition of colours : and thus, 
by their refined taste, they raised to the dignity of fine art 
that which among a Less-delicately organised people would 
be, and doubtless was, mere gorgeous and, comparatively, 
barbarous enrichment. It was the same in Polychromic 
sculpture; and in studying its existence among the Greeks 
at the time of their best Bculptors, it will be necessary, in 
older to judge fairly, to inquire how much of it was prc- 
Bcriptive, and of necessity, and how far the great masters 
of the art can be considered responsible as original or inde- 
pendent authority for Btatue-painting. 

The period when it is agreed, by all historians of art, that 
sculpture attained its highest perfection, ranges between 
480 B.C., and about 200 B.C. From the time, that is, when 
Myron and Phidias lived, and when the latter superin- 
tended the more important public works undertaken by 
order of Pericles, till the extinction of the immediate scholars 

of Lysippus, lil'ty or sixty years after the death of Alexander 
the Great 

Although an approach to a line style of art is traceable 
in the schools immediately preceding the age of Phidias, 
yet there can be no doubt that, previous to the time of 
that great master, sculpture was still of a hard and exag- 
gerated character. The sculptures from the temple of the 
Panhellenian Jupiter at Bgina, among other valuable 
examples, indicate both these facts. Phidias, and those 

under him. effected an importanl revolution in art. lie hail 

t he genius, and bis favour with Pericles ga\ e him the power. 
io break through much thai was prescriptive and traditional 
in sculpture; and, freeing it from these trammels, he pro- 
duced wh.-ii far surpassed all thai bad gone before it — as 
indeed il never baa been equalled Bince — in the statues 
and rilievi which decorated the Parthenon al Athens. Still, 
the reformation was partial. Imitation was indeed now 

founded on the close Studv of selected forms in nature, 

I 111 whai is Known as the grand Btyle in an ; but 
there us no doubl the improvement or the change did not 


extend to some important details of execution. Those 
liberties and innovations which Phidias suggested and 
effected in the general treatment of historical and poetical 
subjects, would not be permitted in the same degree in 
the representation of sacred personages. He would here 
find himself restricted by usage, from which it was 
neither safe nor lawful to depart ; and it is recorded 
that the mere introduction of two portraits, said to be 
of Pericles and of himself, in the accessorial rilievi that 
decorated the statue of Minerva, subjected the sculptor 
to an accusation of sacrilege. In statues of the gods, 
then, we must not always expect to find the free, untram- 
melled production of the artist ; but even where great 
improvements may be traced in some important points, 
be prepared to see some characteristics preserved of the 
original types. Nor was the artist bound by custom 
alone. The priesthood, always alarmed at any change 
indicative of the exercise of individual and independent 
thought, required a strict adherence to established forms. 
Any very sweeping innovation in the mode of representing 
the gods might have shaken the faith of the common 
people in the religion itself, and then, of course, as a 
necessary consequence, in its teachers and ministers. In 
this respect, then, there was policy in insisting upon his 
adhering to certain received dogmas in art. In obedience 
therefore to the universal feeling, Phidias made the statues 
of Jupiter at Elis, and of Minerva at Athens, of various 
materials. These works, we must bear in mind, were the 
offerings of a grateful people for most important victories 
achieved over a powerful enemy who had threatened their 
very existence as a nation. They were to be made out of 
the spoil taken from the vanquished foe. The Minerva 
especially was voted to crown the triumph over the Persian 
hosts, after the failure of the expedition into Greece under 
Xerxes. The old and accustomed means, namely, the 
employment of rich and varied materials, were, of course, 
adopted equally on this occasion. Ivory and gold, painting 
and inlaying, and every conceivable enrichment, were 
lavishly bestowed in order to make these votive statues the 
most costly of dedicated gifts. But chryselephantine and 
polychrome sculpture were not first known or invented at 
this time, nor was Phidias the first sculptor, by many, who 



practised it. Fortunately for art the greatest Bculptor who 
ever lived illustrated Greece at this period ; and thus it was 
that the richest works in Bculpture, in material, were also, 
by a happy accident, the most perfect productions of art ; 
but Burely do one would attempt to argue that they were 
the most perfect works of sculpture because they were com- 

I of gold, ivory, or any other particular material, or 

ise they were painted and enriched. 
It is not necessary to describe these works in detail, but 
it is difficult for the imagination to conceive anything more 
splendid and gorgeous than the effect of their varied enrich- 
ments, viewed in combination with fine architecture, the 
detail- tit' which wriv also richly coloured, and glistening 
under the bright sun and cloudless Bky of (-recce. The 
most poetical fancy would probably tail in attempting to 
picture to itself the real brilliancy of the scene, taken as a 
whole. But, as critics, let us not lose sight of the important 
fact that we are judging the works alluded to only in a 

■ combination as objects of spectacle and display. Does 
it follow that, considered individually, as works of .sculpture, 
the variety of materials and the flutter of colour would not 
be injurious to them, as these atl racted admiration, instead of 

eing drawn to those finer and simpler qualities which 
should specifically claim attention in this art. The fact is, 
the sculpture bo applied lost it- distinctive or Bpecial 
character. It was a portion of an architectural effect. 
Colouring, we know, was extensively employed in archi- 
tectural dec, .ration, and when the BCulptor was called upon 
to act in combination with the architect, his work, no doubt, 

subject to the Bame laws of treatment as other parts of 
the composition. He placed his groups in the pediment with 
its enriched coloured mouldings, against a background, Bome- 
times painted blue perhaps to imitate the Bky, but quite as 
likely merely to give increased distinctness and relief to his 
figures. He further increased their effect, as portions of a 
general design, with gilding and oiler accessories, and no 
doubt, also, sometimes with colour. But in all this, his object 

to make his sculptui e jubsen e to the \\ hole effect. In 
Bhort, ii became necessary to adapt the sculptures, in colour 
and in finery, jo to speak, to the objects around them ; so 
that in fact, as we are now considering it, instead of a prin- 
cipal n became ;i subordinate and onlj ministerial accessory. 


The necessity for giving this distinctness to the several 
parts of a work which was to be viewed from a distance, 
would perhaps be considered a justifiable ground for colouring 
sculpture. Many objects would probably be so placed that, 
in their unassisted simplicity of uniform colour, they could 
not be judged of in themselves, nor would they under some 
possible conditions, be sufficiently separated or detached 
from the architecture to be seen at all. The treatment 
of the frieze of the Parthenon, one of the finest examples of 
the class of art existing, illustrates this speculation ; while 
the peculiar technical treatment of these bassi-rilievi shows 
how deeply the ancient artists studied the various require- 
ments arising out of such circumstances in the preparation 
of their works. I need not now speak of the peculiar flat 
execution of the sculpture, but will observe that the darker 
and decided colour of the background — for it appears on 
examination that even now there are remains of blue colour 
discernible — may be accounted for, independently of its 
architectonic condition, as a means of giving distinctness 
and relief to the horsemen and other figures in the pro- 
cession. The reason for such adventitious aid to their 
effect will be found in the position this frieze occupied 
in the decoration of the temple, and in consequence, the 
peculiar quality and limited quantity of light it could 
receive. 6 

Now, so far as we have proceeded, the only two intelligible 
grounds for the introduction of colour in sculpture among 
the Greeks seem to be, first, to assist in giving completeness 
to architectural effect, and secondly, to insure distinctness to 
the parts of the sculpture itself. No one will argue that 

6 Among our obligations to the com- the bad effect it produces is quite enough 

mittee of artists who have so carefully to insure its unqualified condemnation. 

arranged the various courts at the Crystal The experiment here made of the light 

Palace at Sydenham, must be noted, espe- blue background only, with the rilievi left 

ciallv, the opportunity they have afforded white upon them, is sufficiently unsatis- 

tlie public of judging of the effect of the em- factory; but the grey, white, black and 

ploy men t of colour in sculpture and archi- brown horses, and their fltsh-coloured 

tecture respectively. Upon its applicability riders, with their gilded heads of hair, all 

to the latter art it is not necessary here to so admirable and so perfect in their 

offer any remark. Polychromy in archi- simple art, are here degraded into tawdry 

tecture has received full attention, and toys. It is remarkable, also, that the 

has been most ably discussed by many figures appear now to have lost their 

eminent writers. Where painting has symmetry, and the composition its unity, 

been applied to insulated sculpture (for while all the finer qualities of detail in 

the frieze of the Parthenon must be so which they iu fact abound, are entirely 

considered as it is here presented to us), suppressed, or lost sight of. 
it surely is not asserting too much to Bay 


in either case the object of the artist was to give to sculpture 
Bomething it required, or was in want of, for its perfection. 

It remains uow to make a few remarks on the ancient 
authorities for colouring (Greek) sculpture. In the first 
place, the presumption is wry strong that the assumed 
fad that the finest Greek sculpture was ever systematically 
coloured, rests on very questionable foundation. It is 
rather taken for granted from certain vague expressions of 
comparatively late writers, than proved from contemporary 
authority, or from any experience we have of the feet as a 
matter of universal custom. Pliny and Pausanias, and a few 
other writers, living long after the date of the sculptors whose 
works they refer to, mention works so treated ; and modern 
critics, few, or none of them practical artists, have founded 
various speculations upon these imperfect data. It certainly 
is remarkable, it' the practice <w er prevailed to the extent that 
is pretended, that among the very large number of marble 
statues of a fine period of art that remain to us to attest the 
indisputable superiority of the ancients in sculpture (proper), 
there is not a single example of the practice alluded to. It 
will Qot do in Bay this is owing to the great age of the works, 
and tlic accidents to which they have been exposed, lor many 
of th. mii have been found under circumstances that have 
insured their integrity a sufficient time to show the original 
surface. Besides, there was a period when the works of the 
ancients were studied and imitated in Rome with the most 
Bcrupulous exactness. The chambers of the Baths of Titus, 
and ofthe Villa "l Hadrian, have given their long-concealed 
and well-preserved treasures "l an to the Light, after pre- 
servation lioni injury for centuries \ and while the colours 
of paintings <>n walls have been found as bright and fresh as 
when they won' executed, none of these even comparatively 
late storks in sculpture have been found painted, or showing 

any indication of Colour, in the way tin- admirers ol 

polychromy have pretended. There is no intention here to 
deny the mere fact that colour was sometimes employed, but 
only to dispute the mm ersalitj <>l t he practice, and its being 
usual in the best period "I sculpt ure. 
The poetical and fanciful imaginings »»(' certain writers 

no .h, ni, i been accepted by some modern c mentators 

on an as th.- statement of facts, ami this has probably led to 


considerable misapprehension ; and as artists have not always 
the time or opportunity to inquire or examine for themselves 
into the value or correctness of the statements made to them, 
they are often unfairly influenced to adopt, as usages of the 
ancients, practices which, if they ever obtained at all, 
were partial and exceptional, A few examples of accounts 
of statues, improved or embellished by the authors who 
describe them, will illustrate the character of some of these 
so-called authorities, and a very little reflection will show 
how little such descriptions can be relied on. 

A sculptor named Aristonidas is recorded as the author 
of a bronze statue which represented Athamas sitting, 
overcome with remorse, after the murder of his son. In 
order to express with greater truth the effect of confusion 
and shame, the artist mixed iron with the bronze.; and 
this, "by its redness shining through the brightness of 
the bronze," caused an appearance on the surface like a 
blush." Now iron is not red, to begin with ; and then the 
redness is described as shining through the " nitorem " of the 
bronze, as though bronze were a transparent material. 

Again, another ancient authority is quoted as recording 
that Silanio (an artist who lived about 320 B.C.) made a 
statue representing Jocasta dying, and that by a peculiar 
mixture of the metals used in the composition of this work, 
a cast of paleness was given to the countenance. 8 

It is scarcely necessary to say that these accounts are 
utterly undeserving of credit — so far as they assert that those 
expressive tints were produced by any possible mixture of 
metals ; for the term used is " miscuit" " mixed together." 
Any one who has the slightest acquaintance with metallurgy 
must know that the effects thus described are incom- 
patible with the fusion of the different metals used for bronze 
statues : and even supposing, for the sake of argument, the 
possibility of keeping the metals distinct in a common 
melting, how then would it be possible to insure the blush or 
the pallor coming in the right place % It would not be easy 
to determine the precise colour that such materials should 
assume when they are intended to represent such refinements 

' " Aristonidas artifex cum exprimere s Els rb irpoadntov apyvpov ri av/xfii^ai rbv 

vellet Atliamantis furorem Learcho tilio rtx^TV, o*vs iK\nr6vTos avdpwnov /cot 

residentem poenitentia, ces, femtmque p.apaifo/x4vov \d0r] ireptcpdvetaii 6 x^kJs. 

', ut rubigine ejus per nitorem Pll't., Sjmp. v. 
teris reluccnte exprimeretur verecutidiui 
rubor." — Pun. N. H. xxxiv. 


as the complexion of persons under the influence of strong 
emotions, but we have yet to learn thai the addition of 
red cheeks or a pallid countenance would be an improve- 
ment to a bronze Btatue. It is probable that such works, 
as they arc here described, never bad any existence 
but in the imagination of the writer. The fact of cue of 
these authors mentioning the peculiarity of the work 
alluded i" as .'in "on dit" rather strengthens this opinion; 
for Plutarch does not, as is generally assumed, describe a 
work be had Been, or that even existed in his time. As its 
reported author lived between three and four hundred years 
before the birth of Christ, and Plutarch not till nearly one 
hundred and fifty after that event, thus comprising an interi al 
of between five and six centuries, < onsiderable allowance must 
be made for those who presume to entertain doubts. "They 
Bay," or " it is said/' cannot, in a practical matter like this, 
where there is no adequate contemporary testimony, nor any 
remaining monuments. I"' received as Buflficient evidence or 
authority. In the other instance alluded to, of the statue of 
Athamas, Pliny Bays "hoc signum extat TJiebis hodierno die" 
but he does noi Bay he had seen it. 

Callistratus describes, among several similar examples, a 
Cupid, the work of the celebrated Praxiteles. In enlarging 
(.n its claims to admiration, he Bays there was on his cheeks 
a vivid blush. 

In marble statues the colourmight be put on; but this 
must have been very coarsely, and almost in patches. 
Pausanias mentions various works of the kind painted with 
vermilion. Anion-- others he speaks of a Btatue of Bacchus 
thai was made of gypsum, and painted another of gold, or 
•jilt, with the face painted red. 9 Some fragments of statues 
were exhumed al Athens in the year L835-6, on winch 
colour was found, laid on in thick coats. Among them 
a female figure, of which the face, the eyes, and the 
(\ 1 1, nr,\ s were painted. 

I will venture to add one more illustration from M. Qua! re 
mere de Quincy's celebrated work, in proof of the inadequacy 
of ; 1 1 1 ■ i.' authority, or thai which is quoted as such, to esta- 
blish airj fixed doctrine upon this contested subject. There 
tui of a Bacchante, attributed to Scopas, who held, 

' I have not though! it ncci ary to Quatrem&re 'I' Quincy, "Surli Jupiter 
multiply in '.t the Olympic/!," whoha collected all, or nearly 

kind. Thowo who would examine farther nil, the notta t" tx round in tnciont 

._ Ol M v'.i \U i iij. ..ii tins mi i. .ii ubjj ''I. 


instead of a thyrsus, an animal (a kid) with its entrails 
exposed ; the marble represented the livid flesh, and one 
sole material offered the imitation of life and death, &c. : 
" Erat autem Hind capellce simulacrum lividi coloris. Etenim 
mxurn cadaveris quoque induerat speciem, namque et eamdem 
materiam in mortis et vitce imitationem diviserat." 1 The com- 
mentator on this passage supposes here, says M. Quatremere 
de Quincy, that Scopas had availed himself of a vein of 
marble which he found resembled the colour of the dead 
animal : " Nempe in marmor incidisse artificem aliqud parte 
lividum'y quam partem ille caute in effingendum capeUce mortuas 
imaginem verteret." M. Quatremere de Quincy at once pro- 
tests again this far-fetched explanation. He perceived in a 
moment its absurdity, or, at least, improbability, and enters 
into particulars to show that such an account of the wonders 
displayed in this work was quite inadmissible. He truly 
says, " Cette hypoih&se pourrait Men n'etrequ'unemeprise" — 
and then goes on to say, " II est plus simple d!imaginer " — 
something else — and gives his own quite as fanciful specu- 
lation as to how the performance was accomplished. 

Now the above are some of the leading authorities upon 
which stress has been laid for the fact of the ancients having 
habitually coloured their sculpture. Can it be seriously 
proposed to establish a general practice upon such doubtful 
expressions and insulated examples as these, and then to 
call it the authority of the ancients \ As reasonable would 
it be to take the authority of antiquity literally, and to 
affirm that living busts could be produced out of blocks of 
stone, or that bronze may be made to breathe, because we 
find in ancient writers such expressions as "vivos — e marmore 
vultus," or " spirantia — cera? or believe that pictures and 
statues lived, because it is said — 

" Et cum Panhasii tabulis, signisque Myronis, 
Pheidiacum vivebat ebur — " 

with endless other instances of the kind. 2 

But admitting, for the sake of discussion, the argument of 
authority. If the great sculptors of antiquity bowed, on 

1 Tb 5« fy x'juai'pay tl 7rAa<r/ua irfXiSybv interesting. But where, in addition to 

tV xp^ av > Ka ^ 7°P T ^ Te0f7)K&s 6 Aldos the practical difficulty referred to, there 

virtZvtro, koX fuav oixrav t))v v\rjv els is no concurrent testimony of the tune. Kal forijs Sifjpei ri]v fiifx-rjo-ti/. — . and not a single ancient fragmen#of a 

Cai.listr. in Bacch. Stat. statue, such as he describes, to support 

- The descriptions of statues by Callis- his marvellous accounts of blushing 

tratus are certainly very curious and bronze cheeks and glowing countenances, 


occasion, to public opinion in colouring and otherwise orna- 
menting Btatues of divinities, and others that were so far of 
a prescriptive character, or contributed with their art to the 
enrichment of architectural effects, there is still reason to 
believe that in their ordinary works they did not habitually 
use Buch extraneous accessories. The very manner of 
alluding to such works s that they were exceptional; 

and there is even authority, quite as respectable as that for 
colouring, for the admiration fell by the ancients for Btatues 
in pure white marble. 

It has been attempted to be proved that the " circumlitio," 
referred to by Pliny/ has reference to this practice of 
colouring Btatues. It cannot, however, by any ingenuity be 
mad.' to mean such painting or tinting with different colours 
as painter-sculptors are advocating. The great probability 
is that it refers to a most careful perfection of surface ; 
both by giving a certain degree of finish or even polish to 
the marble, and probably by rubbing in a preparation — a 
vaj*nish— -capable of imparting a rich roundness or appear- 
ance of i'atu to call it, (the " morbidezza " of the 
Italians) to the execution ; and enveloping the whole with a 
warm yellowish tone of colour, anticipating by these artificial 
means, the mellowing effect of age. Bui such a genera] 
tone cannol be considered in the category of colour, as it is 
now proposed to use it. It has been imagined. by some 
writers thai the varnish described by Vitruvius was intended 
to be applied over paintings and other works in order to 
erve them. fi 

To recapitulate in a few words. So farfrom denying thai 
the ancient statues w< re sometimes coloured or painted, the 
authorities for the practice have been fairly produced and 
considered in this discussion. The mode of effecting the 
colouring has been shown, also on ancienl authority. With 


d to ii- application to productions in bronze, the mar- 
vellous effects of which have bei □ as eloquently described, ii 

Indulgence must be granted for the inert ' Plin V H. lib, i <, and 

■ lulity 'A those who eannol give entire Lucian. Dial. Am 

i do ' " Dieebat Praxiteb \, interrogatua quae 

in i'i deny thai I were maxima opera sua probarel in marmori- 

i • in whom the) are boa, i|nii>us Niciaa manum admo 

I .| thai the tantum drcumlitioni ejus tribuebat." 

I ww.ii. 

ind ill' almost imperceptible an opinion ol M Latronne. 

■ have See Hittorf, "Sur la Polyehromii "Ac, 
! ipplii •! by I sal p. 110. 


has been shown that the authority for it is of very question- 
able value, and that the statements, if there be any truth at 
all in them, must be exaggerations. In colouring other works 
we now know how it was done. The description of ancient 
writers has been confirmed by modern discoveries, especially 
by the fragments that were found, as has been stated, a few 
years ago at Athens, painted thus coarsely, without variety 
or gradation of tint. Doubtless, when colour was employed, 
this was the ancient practice. 

Since this paper was read, it has been objected in reply 
to the* arguments adduced, that the advocates for painting 
sculpture do not intend to adopt or imitate this wholesale 
and crude colouring, nor do they intend to imitate nature. 
It is said it is not proposed, now, to cover statues thus 
coarsely and entirely, but only to introduce, here and there, 
delicate tints, mere indications of colour in some parts ; as 
the cheeks, the hair, the eyes (the colour of the eyes being 
different from the colour of the cheeks — and yet the imitation 
of nature not intended !). But surely this is proposing to 
do under the professed protection of the authority of the 
ancients, what the ancients did not do. I think the advocates 
for colouring sculpture will in candour agree with me, that, 
whatever opinions may be entertained as to the desirable- 
ness of the practice, there is not the most remote hint in 
any reliable written authority, nor in any recovered frag- 
ment or work of art, to indicate that this delicate and 
partial tinting was the ancient practice, or was ever resorted 
to, even exceptionally, by any of the great masters of the 
art — as Myron, Phidias, Praxiteles, Alcamenes, Lysippus. 

And had it been employed, what would have become of 
all this tinting after the lapse of ages % Yet do we feel or 
fancy that the existing works of the best Greek schools, 
however we may deplore the mutilations consequent upon 
age and accident, seem to require such accessories 1 Do we 
feel that the Theseus and Ilyssus, the Venus of Melos, the 
Apollo of the Belvedere, and others, show a deficiency that 
colour could supply \ Or in modern works, do we feel any 
regret that the Moses of Michel-Angelo, the bronze Mercury 
of Giovanni di Bologna, the Christ of Thorwaldsen, the 
Hercules and Lycas, or the fine statues of the Popes, by 
Canova, or the Michael and Satan of our own Flaxman, are 
without this embellishment ; or believe they would be 

VOI,. XII. i; 


improved by receiving it '.' The modern sculpture-Poly- 
chromista would then introduce an entirely novel practice — 
Be it so. They may take their stand as inventors if they 
will : and upon this ground may endeavour to gain converts 
to a ii'\\ Bystem ; but it is scarcely fair to profess they 
are, in this, following in the steps of the masters of Greek 

I have been obliged by the character of the arguments 
]>m forward by the advocates for painting Btatues, namely, 
the value of ancient authority, to make that, and I fear it 
has been done with much repetition, the chief object of my 
attention. 1 have presumed to question its force and its 
universal application to sculpture (proper), though fully 
admitting the fact of polychroinic ornamentation. But if 
supporters should think their favourite ancient authority 
more distinct and decided than has been here allowed, and 
that the practice of colouring statues was universal and 
habitual among the Greeks twenty centuries ago, — for re- 
member the period of the greatest Greek sculptors was 
between five and three hundred years before Christ, — is it. 
after all. a sufficient reason for our doing it — as mere copy- 

[f imitations of ancient statues and ancient idea 
far as they can be conceived independently of all ancient 
nation or sympathies, are required, then, where it is 
desired, let all these presumed appliances be added ; but 
Burely it would be mere pedantry to insist upon them in the 
application of sculpture to the requirements of a people, of 
whatever civilised nation, who differ altogether in their 
religion, poetry (thai is, in its machinery), feelings, and 
habits from the ancient Greeks; and this only because 
the ancient Greeks are believed to have employed them. 
Wnat hope can there be of ever succeeding in making art 
the expression of real sentiment and living thought, if we 
are systematically to ignore our own age and its wants, and 
only to pat it forward mechanically in short as the academic 
expression of factitious Greek sentiment— in such classic 
guise afi museums and galleries of ancient Bculpture Buggest ! 

rved, incidentally, thai degree of complacency the soaping and 

oj marble statues oiling it must undergo in order to iti 

Inbilion to the mnltipU being moulded. Thus private collectors, 

eulptor galli ri( liool of d< ign, » ould 

who Im'l devoted and study to 1 1 < . - nil be deprived of the advants 

■ •i colouring ol III pl< uun of fac res of 

iculptun could contemplate «iili anj possibly very fine productioni in sculpture. 


The argument that this new process might be found 
pleasing has not been openly put forth : the professed ground 
of its proposed introduction being always ancient authority ; 
and we are, therefore, scarcely called upon to discuss that 
secondary question. But it may be as well to be prepared 
for that plea. The first enquiry in that case should be, who 
is to be pleased % Pleasing a particular age or party is no 
proof of the taste being correct. The history of art affords, 
or should afford, sufficient warning that fanciful innovations 
and caprices of practice not founded on principle, although, 
at first, they may have had admirers and patrons, have 
always failed to secure a permanent footing ; and this even 
when, as has often been the case, their promoters have been 
artists of high reputation. What, for example, could be 
more pleasing, in the popular acceptation, than the produc- 
tions and style of Giovanni di Bologna, of Bernini, and of 
rtoubiliac 1 These were all men of unquestionable genius, 
and great power in art, who, in their own time, were loaded 
with honours, and reaped the substantial reward of universal 
popularity, and left crowds of imitators behind them. It is 
not overrating them to assert that the best productions of 
these sculptors will bear comparison in invention, originality, 
knowledge of form, and execution, with anything the more 
modern schools have to show. And now, with all their 
indisputable merit, for no one can deny them this character, 
how are their works looked upon, and in what manner are 
they referred to r i As warnings to students not to indulge 
in fancies that are opposed to the principles of pure art. 
We have not now to learn that contemporary favour or 
popularity is no security for future fame ; and it is remark- 
able how surely, sooner or later, false taste meets its fate.' 

I hope I may be pardoned for offering, in conclusion, some 
few observations upon a collateral subject, which has forced 
itself on my attention during the inquiry into the mere art- 
question it has been my object to illustrate. I believe it to 
be far from unimportant ; and I do not doubt that if my 
apprehensions are well founded, the higher class of Polychro- 
mist sculptors, and its advocates among amateurs, will agree 

" A strange reason is reported to have daction of painted or tinted sculpture : 
been given by some advocates for l J oly- namely, that we are not accustomed to it 
chromy for the objections that have .. in England. In what country, it may be 
been felt here against the proposed intro- asked, are they accustomed to it ! 


with me in deprecating the evils which seem to threaten art 
by the introduction of what is at present an almost untried 

There is no surer indication of the decadence of good taste 
in art, and therefore of art itself, than when, alter a con- 
siderable degree of excellence has been attained, a .passion 
- for elaborate execution and ornament. What in one 
age is only the effect of ignorance, in another indicates 
corruption. The history el' art, ancient and modern — for its 
rapid decline, even in Greece, ia very remarkable — supplies 
us with ample evidence of this, and it is unnecessary to 
enlarge upon it, or to detain you while proofs are advanced 
in support of an indisputable fact. Barbarous and uncul- 
tivated nations in their earlier attempts at art adopt all the 
means that occur to coarse sensibilities to give ell'ect to 
works of imitation. The employment of colours in sculpture 
is amongst them. In the same way, in a more advanced 
condition of society, when in any exercise of ingenuity or 
art (and it applies also to poetry and literature) a high degree 
of excellence has been attained, a desire of change arises ; 
some fresh interest is anxiously looked for, and the fancy 
requires gratification in novel excitement. Nor is it, in art, 
confined to those meretricious accessories which have been 
chiefly considered in the foregoing remarks : meretricious 
subjects may also be looked for as the natural consequence 
Or development of a taste for luxurious decoration. It 

Bhould be remembered, that in the period of what has been 
termed the sublime style of sculpture —that of Phidias, who 
was distinguished as the sculptor of the Gods, and the beauty 
of whose works was said to bave added something even to 
the dignity of religion, — 

. . . A.deo majestas opens Deum tBduayit, 

it is believed the female form was never represented without 
appropriate drapery. It seems to be established that it was 
after bis era thai this fresh stimulus of the senses was intro- 
duced ; and the undraped female figure has been exhibited 
from thai time amongsl the commonest subjects of imita- 
tion. \\ •• Bhould not read the lessons of bistory in vain. 
Sculptors should strive not to allow their art to degenerate 
into a |"' ible means of corruption. They must know bow 
lew who contemplate undraped statues, can bave the 


necessary knowledge to form anything like an accurate judg- 
ment upon their merit, their truth, and the higher technical 
qualities of the art, and consequently, that such works can 
usually only address the sense, and not the understanding. 
They, as guardians of, and caterers to, the public taste, 
should avoid and protest against any innovations which, 
by possibility, may have a tendency to deprave that taste, or 
to lower the high standard of art. The class of subjects 
likely to be preferred for the more favourable exercise of this 
character of embellishment, will soon show the direction 
from which danger may be apprehended. The attention of 
sculptors will not be given to heroic representation, or to 
subjects that are calculated to suggest ennobling thoughts, 
but rather to those of an opposite tendency, the sensual class. 
Assuming that the ancient classical mythology will, as usual, 
be the field of illustration, sculptors will scarcely choose the 
manly and developed forms of a Hercules, a Theseus, or an 
Achilles, for his delicate tinting or colouring, but will naturally 
prefer the soft and voluptuous female form, as Venus, 
Nymphs, Bacchantes, Dancing-girls ; or the famous courtesans 
of antiquity, the Glyceras, the Phrynes, and Laises of the 
olden time, with no stinted exhibition of their imagined 
charms : or if male subjects, those of the class of Cupids, or 
young Bacchuses. Such as these lend themselves especially 
to the attractive accompaniments proposed to be introduced 
— the delicate tinting of flesh — but which would appear out 
of place, nay, probably, even very offensive in representations 
of more virile character. It is surely not too much to say 
that a male statue, such for instance as the Farnese Hercules, 
the Barberini Faun, or even the Belvedere Apollo, if pre- 
sented to public exhibition in flesh tints, with the hair 
painted, and the eyes coloured, however delicately and care- 
fully this might be done, would not for a moment be tolerated. 
Would any father of a family willingly take his wife and 
daughters into a gallery so peopled ? The feeling of pre- 
judice which some persons entertain with respect to all 
exhibitions of classical sculpture, and which it is impossible 
, to blame where nude displays are made apparently only for 
the sake of exhibiting the naked human figure, would have 
ten-fold force under such circumstances. This really 
comprehends the whole question, and it is difficult to 
conceive how the modern Polychromist can escape from the 


Far be it from me to suppose for a moment that artists 
of merit and acknowledged reputation have had the most 
remote idea of exercising their art to an immoral purpose, 
or of exciting an interest in sculpture, by merely ap- 
pealing to the lower senses. But though such a notion 
mav never have crossed their own minds while engaged in 
the fascinating production of beautiful works, it may be 
permitted to point out how others, not so circumstanced, 
may possibly 1"' affected ; (specially too, when, obviously, the 
subjects are oot chosen for any instructive purpose or elevating 
object. It may be true that while fancy-sculpture — in dis- 
tinction to portrait-sculpture — is so often exercised with no 
higher aim and purpose than to please the eye, or obtain 
patronage, the study and exposition of the merely beautiful 
in form, may possibly appear an all-sufficient aim and object 
to the artist ; and then, of course, it would matter very little to 
him where he sought for his subjects, and what names he gave 
his statins. I cannot hut think that art has a higher mission 
than this — merely multiplying forms of beauty — and even 
admitting, in sculpture especially, that beautiful form should 
be its exponent or language, and, as we must do. that we 
can nowhere find more admirable examples of the true 
principles of art, or of models of form, than are left us in 
tli«' works of the Greeks, still, the illustration over and over 
again of obsolete fables and their actors, however well done, 
however successfully imitated from the antique, is calculated 
rather to retard the useful progress of the art, than to lead 
to the true development of sculpture in its highest and most 
worthy purpose; such a purpose, in fact, as we know it was 
the intention of the great sculptors of antiquity to attain, by 
the application of their art to the noblest subjects of their 
religion aid their heroic national history. 

r.s. — I regret extremely thai I am unable to append to this paper the re 
mark - it gave rise to on various kindred points of art, From Bome of the eminent 
person! who were presenl at 1 1 1 « - reading. But my acknowledgments are 
especially doe to tin- Dean of St. Paul's (Dr. Milman), to Mr. Hawkins of 
ii. Briti li M'i '11111, to Mr. 0. Morgan, M.l'., ami to Mr. GL Scharf, for 
their highly interesting observations on ancient sculpture, and for the 
additional light tiny threw on the particular subject discussed in the paper ;. 
ami I ■ opportunity to beg these gentlemen to acoept my ainoere 

rateful thanks lor their valuable assistance. 

K. W., .Ir. 


We have now arrived at the turning-point in the history 
of Godwine and his family, to the event which for a 
moment displaced them from their power, only to return to 
a more sure possession of it. We all know how Eadward, 
the son of a Norman mother, and brought up at the Norman 
court, had well-nigh eschewed the feelings of an Englishman, 
how his court was filled with hungry foreigners, whom he 
quartered in the highest dignities of church and state. 
Against this state of things, Godwine and his sons stand 
forth as the representatives of the national feeling, and 
hence, as Malmesbury tells us, the difference of statement in 
the Chronicles, according as their authors were of Norman 
or of English descent. The one party of course represent the 
Normans as intruders, stirring up faction in the realm and 
usurping dignities to the exclusion of the natives ; while the 
great Earl of the West-Saxons appears as the champion of 
justice and liberty against the encroachments of the 
foreigner. The Normans of course, as we have seen, 
recognise in him and his sons nothing but abusers of the 
King's simplicity to promote their own aggrandisement. 
That Godwine was the real champion of English liberty 
and nationality is clear from every statement : that he and 
his sons had no objection to combine their own advancement 
with the good of their country, is only saying that they were 
but men. 
. There are several various statements as to the details 

of the event which first brought the Earl and the 
JSi of Two feeble King into collision ; but there is no doubt 
cii'^'uk-k 11 the as to its being entirely owing to the insolence and 

violence of the foreigners. Eadward's sister, Goda, 
had been given in succession to two French husbands, Drogo, 

* Continued from vol. xi. p. 330. 


Count of Mantes, ami Eustace. Count of Boulogne ; the son 
of the former had been provided by his uncle with a com- 
fortable Earldom in England ; ami now Count Eustace, 
shortly after his marriage with the widowed princess, comes 
over also : Malmesbury says lie Joes not know for what 
cause, hut that whatever it was lie wanted, he gained it of 
the King. That one of his party attempted to obtain 
Lodgings in a lunise at Dover against the will of the owner; 
that the householder, resisting his entrance, was either 
wounded ! or killed by the Frenchman ; that the foreigner was 
killed in self-defence by the English ; that Eustace and his 
party then attacked ,the English indiscriminately, and after 
murdering men, women, and children, were driven out of the 
t«>wn. — thus much is admitted on all hands. But the two 
versions of the Chronicle differ in an important respect ; one 
represents this ebullition of French insolence as having taken 
place immediately on the landing of Eustace, the other on 
his return from the court ofEadward. The conduct of Eustace 
and his party was in itself equally had in either case ; but it 
may be observed that, if it happened immediately on their 
landing, it might have appeared as something more than a 
violation of the King's peace ; it might have presented the 
appearance of an actual hostile invasion, no less than the 
proceedings at Pevensey and Senlac fifteen years later. 
The two versions also differ as to what immediately followed. 
It must be remembered that Dover was a town within 
Godwine's own Earldom, and that it was consequently his 
business to protect the innocent parties and to punish the 
aggressors. According to one version, ESadward, Listening; to 
Eustace's statement of the matter, without hearing the other 
side, commands Godwine to proceed at once to Dover, and 
inflict a military chastisement on the town which had so 
grievously failed in respect to the King's brother-in-law. 
Godwine refuses to perform any Buch office; the men of 
hover are under his government, and none of his people 
Bhall, with his consent, sutler execution untried: let the magis- 
trates of ih" place be summoned before the Wit an," and 

1 Wounded, according to oni for ion of whose "Curia Regis "I suppose does mean 
.■hi. I-, followed by Malmesbury, the Witan. The Chronicle merely says thai 
i rding t'> the oth< r w t Ion, the Earl would nol consent i<> the inroad, 
i i <_-. i lorence and most ol the beoan < he was l"ili i" injure bis own 


i ! . l i r \ . 


abide by their judgment. The Witan are summoned to 
meet at Gloucester ; Godwine, Swegen, and Harold, with 
their followers, assemble at Beverstone in that county, ready 
to go to the assembly, " to have the counsel of the King, 
and his aid, and of all these Witan, how they might avenge 
the King's disgrace, and the whole nation's." In the 
meanwhile certain foreigners possess the King's ear, and 
prejudice him still more against Godwine and his party : the 
northern Earls, Leofric and Siward, join in the cabal. 
Godwine's party, " on the other hand, arrayed themselves 
resolutely, though it were loathful to them that they should 
turn against their royal lord." No hostilities take place, it 
being agreed that the matter should be judged in another 
Gemot to be holden in London. This is the first version in 
the Chronicle, followed in its most important particulars by 
Malmesbury. The other story sa}'s nothing about Eadward's 
commands to Godwine, but states that immediately on hearing 
what had been done in a town within his jurisdiction, he 
and his sons gathered together an army, threatening to make 
war on the King, unless Eustace and certain other French- 
men were given up to them. Eadward, who was at Gloucester, 
does not seem to summon a Witenagemot, but sends 
for Siward, Leofric, and lladulf, with their military forces. 
No battle however ensues, but hostages are mutually 
given, and the matter referred to a Gemot at Southwark. 
This was owing to the moderate counsel of Earl Leofric, 
who objected to fight with his countrymen, though the 
army was ready to do so. This account is followed by 

It is not easy to reconcile these two narratives ; it is not 
easy to account for their differences. It is plain that the first 
is the one most favourable to Godwine, and that a sort of 
apologetic tone in his behalf runs through this whole version of 
the Chronicle. Yet this is the version followed by Malmesbury, 
whose prejudices are certainly on the Norman side, while our 
English Florence adheres to the latter. Of modern historians 
Dr. Lappenberg chiefly follows Malmesbury, Mr. Turner 
adheres to Florence. Thierry and Dr.Lingard draw particulars 
from both. Before we consider how far this may be safely 
done, it will be as well to examine a difficult passage which 
occurs in each, and which I purposely passed over in a 
summary way in abridging the two narratives. 

Vol.. XII. II 


In the first story I said that while Godwine was at Bever- 
stone, ■' certain foreigners possessed the King's 
ear." The Chronicle says — "Then had the 
1 Wallace menn ' wrought a castle in Herefordshire 
among Earl Swegen's following, and wrought all 
the harm and besmear (disgrace) to the King's men 
thereabout that they might." Then, while Godwine is at 
Beverstone, "the \\" .- * - 1 i --- -< ■ menn were beforehand with the 
King, and accused the Earls, that they might not come in 
his eyesight, for they Baid that they would come for the 
Bang's deceit." Now who are these " Waslisce menn '." The 
translation of the Chronicle has " Welshmen;" Malmesbury 
calls thorn -• Walenses/ 5 but tells the story rather differently, 
Baying that Godwine came to Beverstone with an army, and 
i out as the reason for his assembling it, "ut "Walenses 
compescerent, qui, tyrannidem in Ue^eni meditantea, 
oppidum in pago Herefordensi obfirmaverant, ubi tune 
SwanuSj unus ex t \ 1 i i >-> Godwini, militia' prsetendebat excubias." 
This last clause is not easy i" understand, and sounds like a 
misinterpretation of the words of the Chronicle, which I take 
to mean Bimply that the castle was built within the limits of 
Swegen's Earldom. 1 Buspect also that the worthy monk 
of Malmesbury wandered slightly in his ethnology, and 
mistook for Welshmen people who were nearer akin to his 
own French friends. Certainly the proceedings attributed 
to these •' Waelisce menn/' their castle-building and their 
familiarity with King Eadward, are something not a little 
extraordinary mi the part of genuine Cymry, subjects of 
either Gruffydd. Dr. Lingard interprets " W»Hsce " hereto 
mean Bimplv in its original Bense, "foreigners," Le., in this 
case, Frenchmen, and Dr. Lappenberg silently takes thesame 
view. I do not however understand the former writer, 
wlidi he says that "three armies from the three Earldoms 
of Godwin, Sweyn, and Harold, directed their march 
< I Langtree in Gloucestershire, to punish, as was 
pretended, tin- depredations committed en the lands of 
Harold by tin- French garrison of a castle in Herefordshire." 
Now the version which mentions the castle in Hereford, says 
oothing about armies at Langtree, but of a gathering 

i mi i!ii primitive wore Wal$h and ■trangera." Common 
Smith, "To wealth ol England, cap. 18 

■ fr rhi in « 1 1 1 • - 1 1 


originally designed to be peaceful, at Beverstone ; the pretext 
of punishment is from Malmesbury, while I do not know 
the authority for saying the incursions were made on the 
lands of Harold, whose Earldom was on the other side of 

The other difficulty is in the other account : Godwine's 
demand in the Chronicle is for the surrender of 
Eustace and his men, " and the Frenchmen who French in 
were in the castle." This, in Florence and Dover Castle - 
Hoveden, appears as " insuper et Normannos et 
Bononienses, qui castellum in DoroverniaB clivo tenuerunt." 
But Dr. Lappenberg interprets it to mean " all the French- 
men who were in the castle in Herefordshire ; " adding, 
" either Florence must have had before him a defective and 
unintelligible MS., or Eadward must already have entrusted 
the Castle of Dover to the French ; a supposition which 
would account for the insolence of Eustace, but which is 
highly improbable." How " the castle " can mean " the 
castle in Herefordshire," I am wholly at a loss to understand, 
as in the version of the Chronicle which contains this 
passage, there is nothing at all about the Herefordshire 
castle. There is indeed no castle mentioned at all, and the 
allusion is far from clear, but I think that the authority of 
Florence is quite sufficient to make us interpret the " castle " 
of Dover Castle. Dr. Lingard infers from the passage, that 
while Eustace hastened to the King to complain of the 
insult, many of his followers obtained possession of, or 
admission into, the " Castle on the Cliff." This seems a 
very probable explanation. 

Now which version are we to believe 1 It is of course our 
business to reconcile both as far as possible, but 
if this attempt fails, I think our credence is most Harmony of 
due to the second version of the Chronicle, that theversions - 
followed by Florence. The other is evidently the 
work of a partisan ef Godwine's, striving to put his conduct 
in the most favourable light, while this one, though not 
manifesting any animus against him, makes no such studious 
apologies. From one expression, " the people were ordered 
out over all this north-end and Siward's Earldom and 
Leofric's and elsewhere," it is clear that the account was 
composed out of Godwine's jurisdiction. I accept, however, 
the statement of the former, that the fray took place on 


Eustace's return, because that narrative enters into some 
small details of his journey, which there could .be no 
motive for inventing. 1 also accept its statement that 
chastisemenl was ordered by the King, and that Godwine 
refused to ohey. Bui 1 must confess that 1 doubt whether 
Godwine went into Gloucestershire with quite such peaceable 
intentions as the first version represents him. He would pro- 
bably go prepared for either result, with a body of followers 
sufficient to overawe the King and his foreign favourites, 
and ready to appeal to arms if necessary. This first version 
represents them as going peaceably to a Witenagemot, and 
implies that resistance only came into their heads as an 
afterthought. 4 1 think no formal Gemot was summoned at 
Gloucester, for if so, why could not the matter have been 
judged then and there instead of being adjourned to another 
assembly at Southwark '. Dr. Lingard seems also to reject this 
first Witenagemot at Gloucester. I therefore adopt the second 
version, only correcting it from the first by the statement 
that it was on Eustace's return that the affray happened ; 
and taking in the fact that Godwine refused obedience to 
Ivi Iward's commands to chastise the people of Dover. His 
appeal for a juster treatment of his people having been 
once rejected, it would be repeated at the head of the choicest 
men of the three Earldoms, coupled with threats of an 
appeal to force if justice were any longer denied. Any 
wrongs committed by foreigners in Herefordshire, or else- 
where, would of course excite Godwine and his party still 
more. Etadulf and his Frenchmen would be naturally 
anxious for battle; Siward and his Danes might likely 
enough have some grudge against Godwine and hisWest 
■ ns; Leofric of Mercia naturally steps iii as mediator 
between the extreme parties, and counsels a peaceable 

settlement in the Witenagei , This seems far more 

probable than the adjournment from one Gemot at Gloucester 
to another at Southwark, while the gathering together of so 
many great earls and thanes would almost present the 
appearance of a formal assembjy of the Witan, so thai it 
mi.'lii be loosely spoken of as if it had really been one. 
To the Gemot .'it Southwark all England seems to bave 

4 Mr. Kemble in Incidentally telling not enter fcl large into the question 

tl a i Itui in Ihh list di Qe i (ii 260) he 

thou -ii lie doc i c< tfl the ( • louccster onei 


come, ready for discussion either with words or with blows 
as occasion might serve. The conclusion every one knows, 
namely, the banishment of Godwine and his sons ; Swegen 
was first outlawed, doubtless, professedly at least, for his old 
offence ; Godwine, Harold, and the rest, 5 refusing to appear 
unless hostages were given for their safety, were banished, 
being allowed five days to take them out of the realm. God- 
wine, with Gytha, Swegen, Tostig and Judith, and Gyrth, 
went to Flanders — " Baldwines land," as the chroniclers call 
it — to the court of Tostig's father-in-law ; Harold and Leof- 
wine, for some unexplained cause, chose Ireland 6 for their re- 
fuge. No mention is made of the younger children ; possibly 
they were not born. An act of treachery on the part of 
Eadward, or those who acted in his name, may be accepted 
without hesitation, as recorded by the chronicler less 
favourable to Godwine. Harold and Leofwine went to 
Bristol to take ship ; Bishop Ealdred was sent with a force 
to overtake them, "but they could not, or they would not." 
The foreigners now have it all their own way ; even Queen 
Eadgyth is banished to a monastery, divers bishoprics and 
dignities are conferred on Frenchmen ; Harold's earldom, 
however, falls to the lot of iElfgar, the son of Leofric. ' 

In the various narratives of Godwine's return, there is 
no important difference. But we cannot help 
observing the wide difference of feeling displayed Return of 
by the people in different parts of the kingdom. Godwine - 
Harold lands at Porlock as an enemy ; all 
Somerset and Devon meet to oppose him in arms, and 
several men of rank are killed in open combat ; whereas, as 
Godwine and his other sons sail along the coasts of Wight, 
of Sussex, and of Kent, the inhabitants everywhere flock to 
their standard, vowing to live and die with them. It is a 
glorious tale to read how England stood ready to receive her 
champions ; how no influence could induce a single man to 
lift a weapon against the national chiefs ; how the foreign 
intruders, counts, bishops, and all, fled wildly to escape in 
any quarter from the vengeance of the nation which they 
had insulted. The Somersetshire story is the only dark 

5 " Tliey very properly declined under Conquest, Harold's sons take refuge in 
Buch circumstances to appear." (Kemble, Ireland, ami tln-nce return to Sow erst t- 
Saxons in England, ii, 231.) shire, just as their father did. 

6 It should be noticed that after the 


Bhade on the picture. My own notion is, as I have before 
hinted, that the government of Swegen, as might be expected 
from his character, had been Less popular than that of 
Godwine and Harold, and that some old grudge may 
probably have led to the collision. But in any ease the 
difference of feeling in the two districts needs explanation, 
and it may possibly be a Btain upon Harold's character, if 
he, for once in his life, resorted to unnecessary violence. In 
either new, it is uot fair in Thierry to omit all mention of 
Harold's Somersetshire affray ; while, on the ether hand, it is 
equally unfair in M. de Bonnechose to represent Godwine 
and Harold as plundering in Sussex and Kent, on the mere 
testimony of such a writer as Wendover, in opposition to the 
earlier authorities. That there was some standing feud 
between the men of Somerset and the house of Godwine we 
may infer from the fact that, when Harold's sons, after the 
Conquest, landed in that county, they were resisted, just as 
their father had been, by the people of the district headed 
by an English commander. 

Tint- was achieved the great triumph of the national 
party. In the words of the Chronicle, "they outlawed all 
the Frenchmen, who before had upreared unjust law, and 
judged unjusl judgments, and counselled ill counsel in this 

land, except so many as they agreed upon, \\h the King 

liked to have with him, who were true to him and to all his 

people." This was a great error, which Godwine, in some 

accounts, i- stated to have opposed in vain ; when the hour of 

trial came, when Godwine and Llarold and Stigand were no 

longer at hand to maintain the cause of England, these foreign 

priests and knights became chief agents in carrying out her 

subjugation. For the present, England was England once 

again ; Godwine the Earl, and Stigand the Archbishop, stood 

forth as the chiefs of the national State and the national 

Church; Harold returned to his old Earldom; Eadgyth 

to lea- strange and melancholy royalty ; one alone of 

thai greal house appeared uol to share the general j<»v. 

■ n, touched with penitence for his crimes, had gone 

barefooted to Jerusalem, and died Bhortly after on 

i hi- return, either in Lycia or at Constantinople. 

The latter is the statement of the Chronicle, the 

formerof Florence and others; Malmesbury alone 

r< pre 'Mi him a being slain by the Saracens, the others as 


dying of a disorder occasioned by the extreme cold. But 
all seem to agree in representing this pilgrimage as an 
expiation voluntarily undertaken at the bidding of his own 
conscience. Dr. Lingard, oppressed by the seeming necessity 
of making something out in behalf of Saint Eadward, tells 
us, " but to Sweyn Edward was inexorable. He had been 
guilty of a most inhuman and perfidious murder, and seeing 
himself abandoned by his family, he submitted to the discipline 
of the ecclesiastical canons." Now, I really am quite unable 
to find, at any rate in the writers nearest to the time, anything 
at all about Eadward's inexorable justice, about Swegen's 
abandonment by his family, or about the discipline of the 
ecclesiastical canons. From the Chronicle onwards they 
represent Swegen as having already gone to Jerusalem, 
starting direct from Bruges, and as having no share in the 
return of his father and brothers. They say that Eadward 
restored their honours to Godwine and his sons, except 
Swegen, " who had already gone " — jam abierat. Florence, 
and those who copy from him, add " ductus pcenitentia," or, 
as Malmesbury phrases it, " pro conscientia Brunonis cognati 
interempti." This latter writer does not indeed directly 
state that Swegen was already gone, but this is because he 
does not follow chronological order, but gives us little 
separate biographies of Swegen and Tostig. The only 
narrative I can find at all like that of Dr. Lingard is contained 
in the veracious chronicle of Wendover, among all the Norman 
scandals against the family, which Dr. Lingard, whenever 
he allows himself the free use of his own clear judgment, is 
the first to reject. Wendover does not use the pluperfect 
tense, and for " pcenitentia ductus," says, " pcenitentiam 
agens." Now, while the former phrase must strictly imply 
" led by repentance," i. e. in his own mind, the latter may 
fairly mean " submitting to the discipline of the ecclesiastical 
canons." But according to the more trustworthy statements, 
if Swegen was indeed a great criminal, he was also, according 
to the ideas of those times, a great penitent, and it is rather 
hard to deprive him of that character, merely to exalt 
St. Eadward and the ecclesiastical canons. But even 
Wendover says nothing about the inexorableness of the 
King and the abandonment of Swegen by his family. 
Eadward had no opportunity to be inexorable, nor Godwine 
to abandon a son who was somewhere between Bruges and 


Jerusalem. What might have happened, whether Swcgen 
had abandoned the world for rwr. or only for a season ; 
whether, it' he had lived to return, he would have applied for 
the restitution of his Earldom, or whether it* he had, 
Eadward would have been inexorable or Swegen been 
abandoned by his family, are points which I cannot profess 
to determine ; they do nol belong to history, but to that 
philosophy of romance 7 which J)r. Lingard is generally 
the firsl to despise. 

According to some Norman writers, Godwine delivered to 
the King, as hostages for his good behaviour, his 
lwine son Wulfhoth, and his grandson Haken, 8 theson of 
Swegen, and Edward committed them to the safe 
keeping of his cousin, the Duke of the Normans. 
According: to one account, il was to reclaim these hostages 
that Harold afterwards went on his unfortunate journey into 
Normandy. But I must Gonfess thai 1 Bee very little reason 
to believe that Buch hostages were given at all. The Btory 
mi tin' authority of Eadmer, William of Poitou, the 
Roman do Rou, and the later writers^ Bromton and 
Hemingburgh. Against it is the inherent improbability of the 
case, the entire silence ofthe early English authorities, and a 
Btatement not easily reconciled with it in at least one 
Norman writer. Ordericus Vitalis. The Chronicle and 
Florence mosl distinctly tell us that Godwine and all his 
family were restored to entire favour with the Kin--, and to 
all their possessions and honours, Swegen alone excepted, i'ov 
the reasons before given. How can this be reconciled with 
the -tat i 'in i 'tit thai a sod and a grandson of Godwine were at 
this M rv moment sent into captivity in a foreign land ! And 
whin G-odwine and thr national party were in the full Bwing 
of triumph, when the name of Norman was almosl Bynonymous 
with that of outlaw, it does 3eem wholly incredible thai the 
weak monarch should have been allowed to send two English- 
men of the dominanl familj as hostages to the very prince 
whose subjects were being driven ou1 of the kingdom, 

■ i'j Talking of the* philo* relatea the story in nearly the un< 

n'.|.liv ol romance," I may mention th I m un,or, 

,, has in th ned Dr Lappenberg says that Homing- 

,; . i ills the son of Swej ne, " < ttherin. ' 

riolationa i .1 In the 1 listorical Societj sedition .-it l< act, 

■ ., , i . he fl ures as " i facu ." ■■> • be <i<hh in 

lurnii i be W itan, Bromton. 

.ii i then If. Thierrj 


Florence, in recording the death of William in 1087, tells 
us that, on his deathbed he released from prison, among 
others, " Wulfnoth, the brother of King Harold, whom he 
had kept in prison from his boyhood," but that the worse 
tyrant who succeeded him speedily remanded the unfortunate 
prince to a dungeon at Winchester. But he does not say 
that Wulfnoth was a hostage ; he might have been im- 
prisoned after William's conquest of England ; in which 
case he must certainly have been the youngest of the 
brothers. Ordericus, as we have also seen, saj^s nothing of 
Wnlfnoth's being either a hostage or a prisoner, but repre- 
sents him as living piously, and apparently peaceably, as a 
monk at Salisbury. 9 On the whole I incline to believe that 
this story of the hostages is simply one of the many fictions 
of the Norman party. The mode in which it probably arose 
I shall have to discuss when I come to treat of the life of 

The later writers generally afford less entertainment in 
their narration of these events than might perhaps have been 
expected ; but I cannot resist the temptation of inserting the 
inimitable, though not over-historical, relation of them to be 
found in good Bishop Godwin, in the life of Archbishop 
Ilobert. " He [Robert] began, therefore, to beat into the 
King's head (that was a mild and soft-natured gentleman) 
how hard a hand his mother held upon him when he lived 
in Normandy : how likely it was that his brother came to 
his death by the practise of her and Earle Godwyn ; and 
lastly, that she used the company of Alwyn, Bishop of 
Winchester, somewhat more familiarly than an honest woman 
needed. The King somewhat too rashly crediting these 
tales, without any further examination or debating of the 
matter, seased upon all his mother's goods, and committed 
her to prison in the Nunry of Warwell ; banished Earl 
Godwyn and his sonnes, and commanded Alwyn, upon pain 
of death, not to come forth of Winchester." Then follows 
the story of the ploughshares. 

9 Dr. Lingard quoting the passage of the second capture mentioned by Florence 

Ord< TH-uss:ns, u Alfgar,atter the conquest, and by Dr. Lingard himself in p. 51.')! 1 

became a monk at Rheims, in Champagne. do not see how the statements of Florence 

Wulfnoth, so long the prisoner of William, and Ordericus can be reconciled, and 1 

only obtained his liberty to embrace the somewhat doubt the existence of this 

same profession at Salisbury." i. 4 1(>. But /EWgar. 
when did Wulfnoth obtain bis liberty after 

Vdl,. XTI. T 



The great Karl of the West-Saxons did not Long enjoy bis 
restored ascendancy. In L053, the year after his 
return, he died. The Chronicle informs us only 
' : that he was taken ill. while dining with the King 
;it Winchester, "on the second day of Master," 
when he fell down suddenly in a tit. was carried out into the 
King's chamber in the expectation of his recovery, but that 
he never recovered, and died on the next Thursday. 1 
Florence adds, that his sons. Harold. Tostig, and Gyrth, 
carried him out. On this the Norman fabulists have built 
up, as might have been expected, a marvellous superstructure. 
Such a death of their great enemy might by itself have been 
represi uted as a manifest judgment on the traitor ; but this 
would hardly have been enough. We are told, therefore, by 
[ngulf, or pseudo-Jngulf — 1 will not enter into that question 
— and by Malmesbury, that as Eadward and Godwine were 
Bitting at table, discoursing about the King's late brother 
.Hll'n- 1. Godwine Baid that he believed the King still 
Suspected him of having a hand ill his death, but thai he 
prayed his next morsel might choke him if he were guilty of 
any share iii it. Of course his next morsel did choke him ; 
he died then and there, and was carried out by Harold. 
Now it perhaps occurred to the uext generation, that, under 
the circumstances as imagined by them, the deceased /Elfred 
was .-i rather extraordinary subjeel of discourse to arise 
between Eadward and Godwine. Henry of Huntingdon, 
gifted, it may be, with less power of invention than some 
others, makes the conversation take a somewhat different 

I urn. and a hardly more probable one. Godwine, "'/'//'/•' suns 

el proditor " is reclining by 8 ing Eadward .'it Windsor, \\ hen 
he apparently volunteers the remark, that he has been often 
falsely accused of plotting againsl the King, but that he 
trusts, if there be a true and just God in heaven, he will 

make the piece of bread choke him if he ever did so 

)>lo|. The true and |u I God, we are told, heard the voice 

; pom '."i.rt. post of the Chronicle. Hoveden oopiee Flo 

i ii Lnppi , reooe. 

"On the Mill i [| '. In at in-- .n , in mediaeval Latin, (<• 

'•■mi- davi Hut Florence meant have acquired the more 
ii,. fifth day ol ihi See Ducangewi voc. 


of the traitor, who, as the chronicler charitably adds, 
"eodem pane strangulatus mortem praegustavit seternam." 
But this was a very lame story. The conversation about 
YElfrcd was too good to be lost, so some means must be 
found to account for the introduction of a topic which 
one would have expected both parties to avoid. Some 
ingenious person hit upon an ancient legend which 
Malmesbury had indeed recorded in its proper place, but had 
not thought of transferring to this. There was an old 
scandal against iEthelstan, otherwise one of our noblest 
monarchs, to the effect that he exposed his brother Eadwine 
at sea, on a false charge of conspiracy, brought by his 
cup-bearer. Seven years after, the cup-bearer, handing- 
wine to the King, slips with one foot, recovers himself with 
the other, and adds the facetious remark, " So brother 
helps brother." But King JEthelstan is thereby reminded 
how this same man had made him deprive himself of the 
help of his brother, and takes care that, however strong he 
may be on his feet, he shall presently be shorter by the 
head, which had no brother to help it. Thus in iEthelred 
of Rievaux, in Wendover, in Bromton and Knighton, we 
read how, as Eadward and Godwine are at table, the cup- 
bearer slips and recovers himself, how Godwine says, " So 
brother helps brother," how Eadward answers, " So might 
my brother iElfred have helped me, but for the treason 
of Godwine." Then, of course, Godwine curses himself and 
dies. One or two little improvements are to be found in 
different writers. Thus Bromton makes Harold appear as 
the cup-bearer, and his father's remark is addressed to him. 
One only wonders that the disputes between Harold and 
Tostig were not somehow lugged in here also. The same 
Bromton puts into the royal saint's mouth, on seeing 
Godwine's fall, the brief and polite remark, " Drag out the 
dog ! " Wendover, who says that Eadward blessed the morsel 
before Godwine swallowed it, expands this laconic terseness 
into, " Drag out that dog, and bury him in the highway, for 
he is unworthy of Christian burial." On this his sons carry 
out the corpse, and bury it in the Old Minster, 3 without the 
King's knowledge. 

■ /.,. the Cathedral (" in episcopate by Alfred the Great, afterwards failed 
Wintonise," as Malmesbury lias it), as Hyde Abbey. 
opposed to the ''new minster" founded 


Such was, as Dr. Lappenberg truly observes, " the last 
attempt of the Norman party to avenge them- 
n, ar • Belves upon the lion's skin of their deadliest 
mc - enemy." We have seen bo* simple and natural 
the tale is in its first estate, and how it has 
gradually grown into the lull dimensions bestowed upon it 
by Norman calumny. Bach passer-by has deemed it his 
duty to throw an additional stone upon the corpse of the 
dead traitor. We, at this distance of time, may be allowed 
lasi their fables aside, and to draw our information from 
the more trustworthy records of his own time and nation. 
The impression conveyed by them is that the great Karl was 
a man. in his own age, of unrivalled natural ability, and of 
unrivalled acquired experience, who devoted the whole of 
his mighty powers to the genuine service of his country, but 
around whom there hung the dark suspicion * of one foul 
crime, never indeed proved, but on the other hand never 
fully disproved. That Godwine was innocent is the con- 
clusion to which the weight of evidence inclines, lmt that lie 
should have been even suspected tells against his general 
character. When the iEtheling Eadward at a later period 
died I3 ;it the court of his uncle, and opened the way 

he succession of Earold, the advantage to the latter was 

so palpable that i only wonders that he was never accused 

of ;i hand in his death. 5 Yet I am not aware that even 
Norman enmity ever ventured upon such a calumny, while 
English writers have at least Buspected Godwine of the 
murder of Alfred under far more aggravated circumstances. 
We may therefore fairly conclude thai the charge which 
would have been at once felt as carrying its own refutation 
with it in the case "I the son, had not the same intrinsic 
improbability when applied to the lather. Godwine was a 
bold, far-seeing, unscrupulous politician, seeking the good of 

Iwine indeed appears also eon- in the two latter with liis great ii\:;ls 

1. two "!• three other 1 - "l Siward and Leofrio Bromton indeed 

work repugnant to the feelings of our age. in thai Emma «;i^ Bpoiled 

Such are the disinterment 0] Harold the " Godwini oonsiliis," but it ia clear that it 

■ > ' ter, and the w ta done by Badward'a mi re tion, and 

bj her on Dr. Lappenberg baa made out a tolerably 

■ -i But in none of theae is God- \ ' ein the Kii u I cation, 

i 1 the sole or the prime ' Palgrave and one or two other modern 

II don< by the command writ< ra bint ;>i it , lmt I remember nothing 

mil < iiiilwiiic hi ilu< sun in 1 lie old authors, though 

,; ears in company with so 1 Saxo dot make Harold murder an 

1 11 n "i the !■• aim : in the ESadwnrd, even the holy king him elf, 
two ■ ' ■ I Wc 


his country, but not neglecting his own or that of his 
family. Like nearly every other exalted person of his time, 
he did not scruple to enrich himself at the expense of the 
monastic orders, and he showed more regard to political 
than to ecclesiastical propriety in the promotion of Stigand 
to the highest place in the English Church. His own family 
he loaded with the honours of the state ; in promoting such 
a son as Harold, he consulted the good of his country as 
much as his own paternal feelings ; but it was an unworthy 
nepotism which led to the restitution of the murderer Swegen. 
The distinguishing point in God wine's character among the 
Danes and English who surround him, is his being so eminently 
and strictly a politician. He stands out as something quite 
unlike the fierce, violent, generous, openhearted, bloody- 
handed chief of vikings or bandits which one regards as 
the type of the half-civilised leader of his day. He was 
indeed a brave warrior, and owed his first promotion 
in a great measure to his military capacity ; but the 
character of the warrior is with him something altogether 
secondary. His special home is not the battle-field, but the 
Witenagemot : friends and enemies alike extol his eloquence, 
his power of persuasion, which could sway his auditors in 
what direction he pleased. His foes insinuate that while 
thus gifted with the nobler, he did not altogether eschew 
the baser arts which have been familiar to the politicians 
of all ages. Bribes and promises, favour and disfavour 
discreetly apportioned, are mentioned among the engines of 
his policy. He is the minister, the parliamentary leader; 
Eorl and Ceorl, Dane and Saxon, alike submit to his 
influence, but it is always influence, never violence ; he is often 
accused of fraud, never of force ; 7 with any man of Teutonic 
speech his controvers} 7 is always one of words and policy ; 
it is against the Norman alone that he resorts to the spear 
and the battle-axe. A true politician, he knew how to bide 
his time and adapt himself to circumstances ; an Englishman, 

6 This accusation, as regards Godwine, got possession of the nunnery of Berkeley, 

rests on the very unsuspicious testimony (See Fosbroke's History of Berkeley, p. 7.) 

of the Chronicle ; as regards Harold, on No one can doubt that the story is the 

the very suspicious one of Domesday. merest fable, but it marks the estimate 

(See Ellis's Introduction,!. 313. ii. 142.) of the man. Godwine is represented as 

1 Archdeacon Mapes, more familiarly gaining his point by art, Leofric or Siward 

known by his Christian name, has trans- would probably have been introduced 

mitted a strange story of the nefarious expelling the inmates vi et nrmis. 
trick by which Godwine is said to have 


the Future chief of the English party, he knew how to submit 
to the Danish rule, and how to rise to greatness under it; he 
knew also how Long thai rule was to he borne, and when it was 
to be broken off. When first standing forth as the champion of 
the sons of Emma, he yielded, because he saw resistance was 
vain, to the - :i of the first Harold. When the male 

line of the great Cnut was extinct, he saw (liar the moment 
was come to raise up again the throne of Cerdic and Alfred, 
and for England to have once more a King of her own 
blood. The pretensions of Svend and of Magnus he entirely 
aside ; perhaps, as Thierry imagines, he might have 
secured his own election when Eadward was unwilling to 
accept the proffered crown ; hut his ambition was of a 
cautious and practical kind ; he knew that to rule in the 
name of a weak sovereign was a less invidious position than 
himself to wear a disputed diadem. According to a refined 
political creed of which his times had no notion, he may 
have earned the names of rebel and traitor by an armed 
opposition to his sovereign, by returning like a conqueror 
from the banishment to which Kingand Witan had sentenced 
him. Godwine's guilt or innocence in the matter simply 
turns upon tin' old question of non-resistance to authority 
in any case. This I will not enter upon here. But 
undoubtedly many Englishmen reverence the names of 
I lampden and Sidney ; all. 1 believe, unite in homage to those 
of Langton and Fitzwalter, and to the Great Charter which 
they wrung by open rebellion from the despot of their 
times. Winn Godwine appealed to arms against foreign 
domination, beat least did do more than they. An atrocious 
deed of blood Is perpetrated by the King's foreign favourites 
within Godwine's own earldom ; in any case the King protects 
the guilty, most probably he requires Godwine himself to 
punish the innocent, [fa subject may in anj case <liaw his 
Bword against his sovereign, surely he may in such a ease as 
Unquestionable mo I m< oof the eleventh century allowed 
themselves that libertj on far Blighter provocations. He is 
banished, the euiltv remain unpunished, the foreign influence 
U predominant, lie returns, prepared for battle indeed, but 
do battle if Deeded ; everywhere he comes with a friendly 
greeting, everywhere he is received as a friend. The voice 
• .fan injured people demand his restoration ; placed again 
m bifi old honoui there i nol the slightest sign of any 


deviation from his old politic moderation ; not an English- 
man is harmed in life, limb, or estate ; of the foreigners 
themselves not a man is personally injured, even banishment 
is confined to those who had wrought injustice in the realm. 
Whatever his birth and parentage, whether the son of the 
South-Saxon captain or of the western peasant, he had won 
his greatness for himself; he died the virtual sovereign of 
England, and transmitted his power to a nobler, hardly a 
greater, successor. Between him and his son there is the 
same sort of difference as between the great father and son 
of Macedonian history ; Godwine is the Philip, Harold the 
Alexander, of his house. Harold appears as a hero, with all 
the virtues and the faults of the heroic character ; Godwine 
is as far from a hero as any man on record ; a cool, crafty, 
deliberate politician ; moderate, conciliatory, persuasive, not 
clear perhaps from fraud and corruption, but never tempted 
into violence or insolence. Traitor or no traitor, he was at 
least England's chosen leader ; he ruled her well, and she 
mourned his loss. We have seen his character as drawn by 
his enemies, let us conclude with the picture as transmitted 
by admiring and lamenting friends. The old biographer of 
Eadward, quoted by Stow, s knows not, or regards not, the 
accusations of perfidy against the father, of violence against 
the son. In his eyes Godwine and Harold stand forth as the 
pattern of every princely virtue. 

" Duke Godwine (saith he) and his sonnes being reconciled 
to the King, and the country being quiet, in the second yeere 
after died the said duke of happie memorie, whose death 
was the sorrow of the people ; him their father, him the 
nourisher of them and the kingdome with continuall weeping 
they bewailed ; he was buried w T ith worthie honor in the old 
]\I<»nasterie of Winchester, giving to the same church gifts, 
ornaments, and rentes of lands. Harold succeeded in his 

8 Stow quotes from what he calls original which he employed. If anyone 

"Vita Edwardi;" now the only "Vita should object, with M. de Donneehose 

Edwardi " I know is that of iEthelred of (ii. 100), to its authority, that an author 

Rievaux, who certainly speaks in a who dedicates his work to Queen Eadgyth 

widely different strain. I perceive that is not altogether an unprejudiced witness 

Dr. Lingard (i. 344) quotes second-hand as to the character of her father and 

from Stow, and Mr. Thorpe (Lappenberg, brother, it is easy to place him in a 

ii. 250) and M. de Bonnechose (ii. 92) dilemma; as these who give the worst 

third-hand from Dr. Lingard. But Stow character of Godwine and Harold add 

cannot have invented the bit grapby, and that Eadgyth did not at all resemble 

1 trust that some one versed in MSS.. and them, and even took the Norman side 

early printed books may discover the ugainst the latter. 


Dukedome, which was a great comfort to the whole English 
nation, for in vertue both of bodie and minde ho excelled all 
people as another .In las Macchabeus, and was a friende to his 
countrie, diligently supplying his father's place, and walking 
in his Bteppes, that is to say. in patience, mercie, and 
afifabilitie to well willers, but to disquiel persons, theeves, 
ami robbers, with a lyon's countenance he threatened his 
just Beveritie." 


Win ii originally writing the present essay, I was not 
aware that tin' Chronicle of Radulphus Niger, referred to 
by Sharon Turner in support of Godwine's peasant origin, 
existed in print. I have since found that it was published 
in L85] by the Caxton Society, and I have accordingly 
referred to the passage. He gives us the following account 
of Godwine : — 

" Anno ah ineariiatione Domini mlxti Edwardus films 
Ethelredi, frater Edmundi Ironside ex patre, frater et 
Ilardeennti ex Emma niatre, suscepit regnum Anglorum, 
auxilio Godwini comitis cujus filiam duxit, Bed earn minimi 
cognovit, unde ambo in coelibatu permanserunt. I lie rex 
Westmonasterium fecit el ditavit, multaque miracula ■ 
Godwinus comes filius bubidcifuit ; in mensa re^-is Edwardi 
offa sufifocatus est, ft ab Earaldo filio sub mensa extractus. 
Hie Godwinus a rege Cnutone nutritus, processu temporis 
in Daciam emu breve regius transmissus,callide dux it sororem 
Cnutonis." P. L60. 

The l.i t paragraph I have already referred to. In an 
earlier portion, under the reign of Harthacnut, lie gives his 
version of the death ofiElired, which is Borneo bal Btrange : — 

"Edwardum fratrem suum a Normannis revocans, secum 

pacifice aliquamdiu habuit. Nam alter frater, Aduredus 

Bcilicet, ad Btipitem ligatus a Godwino in Hely peremptus 

ber decimatifi commilitonibus apud Guldedune, post 

mortem Haroldi, antequam regnarel Hardecnutus consilio 

indi archiepiscopi." I'. I 57. 

The i' i i 1 1 1 < 1 1 \ of this Chronicle, though somewhat late, 

ij without its value. Ii clearly points to an independent 

h tradition as to Godwine's peasant origin, as it is 

nii|>" to appose thai Etadulphua Niger borrowed bis 

informal i"ii fr< 'in i be K nyl linca Sacra 




I am permitted by Lady Stourton to whom it now belongs, 
to lay before the Institute a manuscript which will, I doubt 
not, be found, both on account of its beauty as a work of 
art, and of some circumstances of historical interest with 
which it is surrounded, to be eminently deserving their 

It is a book of Catholic devotions, one of the class called 
Missals in ordinary parlance ; but like many other manu- 
scripts usually so denominated, not a Missal in any proper 
sense of the word, but one of the class more properly called 
Ilorcp, being a miscellany of prayers, collects, psalms, anti- 
phons and pious ejaculations, adapted to the private use of 
a person of a devotional turn of mind ; and we may add, 
for some person living in the world and not wholly given up 
to the religious life. It is adorned with various miniatures, 
representing, for the most part, early saints in the Christian 
Calendar with principal events in their lives, or peculiar 
events in the history of the Saviour. The text which follows 
the drawings, has usually reference, more or less direct, to 
the person or events which are there represented. 

In form it is five inches by three and three quarters, and 
two inches in thickness. It is of the finest vellum, and is 
bound in crimson velvet, with silver corners slightly 
enchased. The number of leaves is 284, and there are 34 
large miniatures. The clasps have been removed. Some- 
thing appears to be wanting which preceded the shield of 
the arms of Hastings and the calendar at the beginning ; 
and a very accurate observer who prepared an analysis of its 
contents, Mr. C. Weld, has remarked a slight dislocation or 
perhaps the loss of a leaf near the middle of the volume. 

Besides the miniatures, there are ornamental borders to 



every page, consisting of flowers, animals, and arabesques, 
well selected, varied, and drawn, while the larger works are 
remarkable for the i.-i-t' 1 with which they are designed, and 
the delicacy with which they are executed. Attention may 
be called to the architecture and back-grounds of many of 
them, to the observance of the rules of perspective, to the 
air which is given to the figures, and to the expression in 
the countenances. Altogether, there are few works existing 
of this class in England which in these respects can pretend 
tn nioiv than a comparison with this manuscript, and 
scarcely any thai surpass it in beauty. 

It is a work of French or Flemish art ; and the costume 
guides us with tolerable certainty, to the latter half of the 
fifteenth century, 1470 to Usu, as the period of the execu- 
tion. Concurring to the same conclusion, is the language 
of a note in the English tongue near the beginning — "The 
9ume of these Indulgences been xxvi. thousand yeres and 
wwi. dales| This writen in the chapel of Jherusalem, and 
this is registred in Rome/' This will at least prove that it 
eannol bave been written much later than the date which is 
here assigned to it. 

Tin' introduction of these low words of English while all 
the rest is in Latin, seems to show that it was prepared 
originally for the use of some person of the English nation. 
But this admits of still stronger proof from the selection 
which is made of the names of s;iints whose days arc here 
particularly indicated in the calendar. There is an evident 
leaning to the introduction of the English saints. Thus we 
have St. Chad, St. Cuthbert, St. Richard, Elphege, Dunstan, 
AMliolin. Swithen, Wolfram, St. Alban, and some others; 
persons whom an Englishman may be supposed to wish to 
have placed in bis private calendar, bul not claiming parti* 
cular interest with a poison of any other nation. 

Assuming then, thai we have sufficienl reason to believe 
thai it was a work of foreign art, French or Flemish, exe- 
cuted by ;i person eminent in this branch of art, about a.d. 
I 175, and prepared for the use <>l an Englishman, it may 
ho added, thai bo costh a work would hardly have been pre- 
pared hut at the expense of some poison of wealth and con- 
sideration; .'Hi 1 1 i ho next question is, are there any means of 
determining for whom tin' hook was originally prepared. 

It musl be acknowledged, that here wo have no external 


evidence whatever : but the book seems itself to carry with 
it an indication which can scarcely mislead, of the person 
for whom it was executed, and to whom it originally 

On the first leaf we have an heraldic drawing of singular 
beauty, and, doubtless, by the same hand that prepared the 
miniatures in the volume. It presents the arms of Hastings, 
the black maunch, surrounded by the Garter. Now this 
must have been the insignia of some member of the family 
of Hastings who had been admitted into the Order. Of 
these there was only one who lived within the period to 
which the book can possibly be assigned, namely, William, 
Lord Hastings, who was made a Knight of the Garter in 
1461. and who was put to death by the Protector, Richard, 
Duke of Gloucester, in 1483. Two Hastings', in later gene- 
rations of the family, viz. : Francis, Earl of Huntingdon, 
elected into the Order in 1549, and Sir Edward Hastings, 
Lord Hastings of Loughborough, in 1555, lived too late to 
be the owner of the shield here so beautifully delineated. 

We seem, therefore, driven to the conclusion that the 
book was originally prepared for William, Lord Hastings, 
the Lord Chamberlain in the reign of King Edward IV. 
The religious character of Lord Hastings is manifested in 
the ecclesiastical foundations made by him, and his care in 
providing for the solemnities of his funeral and obits ; while 
his long residence at Calais affords a presumption that he 
may have been brought into connection with some eminent 
French or Flemish artist, by whom the work was executed. 

It did not, however, remain in the family of Hastings ; 
and when we next get any authentic information respecting 
it, Ave find it in possession of the family of the Earl of 
Arundel, first, the Fitz- Alans (so called) or Arundels, and 
next the Howards, who enjoyed that eminent dignity by 
descent from the Arundels. It will be more convenient, 
and the facts will be presented in a more intelligible manner, 
if we trace the history of the book for the last two centuries 
backwards, beginning with the present possessor. 

It was acquired by Lady Stourton, in 1835, by purchase 
from the English Dominicans in their convent at Hinckley, 
in Leicestershire. This Society was settled originally at 
Bornheim, near Antwerp ; they fled to England in 1794, when 
the French overran the Low Countries. They first found a 


settlement at Carshalton, in Surrey, from whence, in 1810, 
tin ■ \ removed to Einckley. 1 

This convent was founded in the year 1658, bythe Baron 
ilr Bornheinij according to Mr. Petre, but Philip Howard, 
a Dominican, (the third son of Henry Frederick, Earl of 
Arundel) who was afterwards made a Cardinal, had so much 
concern in the foundation, that he has usually been consi- 
dered as tin- founder. He was, at least, the first Prior. 

Among the gifts which he bestowed on the convent was 
this precious volume. This had been the uniform tradition of 
the House, and it is put beyond doubt, by a memorandum 
in tin' hunk itself, in the hand-writing, as I am informed) 
of Father Vincent Tony, who was for a long time the 
Vicar-General of the Dominican Order in England, and a 
contemporary of Cardinal Howard. It is in these terms : 
"Conventus Anglo-Bornhemiensis, dono-datus ab Em'"" 
Dno Cardinal] de Norfolcia fundatore ejusdem Conventus, 
1659.— V. T." 

It is thus traced, on what we may deem sufficient evi- 
dence, to the possession of a member of the house of Arundel 
in the middle of the seventeenth century. 

In a hand-writing of about a century earlier, we find 
another piece of evidence to the connection of it at that 
time with ;iii earlier member of the same illustrious house, 
but one who lived before the dignity had descended upon 
the Howards. This was Henry Arundel (or Fitz-Alan), 
Lord Maltravers, then the son and heir-apparent of William, 
Earl e|' Arundel, and himself afterwards Earl of Arundel, 
the lasl of the earls of the ancient male line of that 
Maltravers, it need hardly be observed, was an old barony, 
merged into the Earldom of Arundel, and was generally 
adopted for the designation of (he eldest sons of the Earls 
during their father's life. This Henry, Lord Maltravers, was 
hem about the first year of the reign of King Henry 
VIII.. 1509, and succeeded his father in I :> 13. Me bald 
various offices of trust, and was indeed one of the most 
conspicuous noblemen of the time. He died in 1579. The 
book contains a couplet written h\ him on a blank leaf. 

A brief genealogical statement will shew the descent from 

of tin' English Colleger and.Convi dI i tabli bed on il><' Contini m." Bj 
ill" Hon I dward Petre, :i", 1849, p. 1 1.' 


him of Cardinal Howard, and the probability that a book 
once his might fall into the Cardinal's hands. 

Lord Maltravers and Earl of Arundel, had one son, Henry, 
called Lord Maltravers, who died without issue in 1556, at 
the age of nineteen, and two daughters ; Jane, Lady 
Lumley, from whom there are no descendants, and Mary, 
who married Thomas Howard, the fourth Duke of Norfolk 
of the Howards. This lady died on August 25, 1557, at 
Arundel Place, in the parish of St. Clement Danes, and there 
her only child was born on the 28th of the preceding month 
of July, a son named Philip. This Philip became Earl of 
Arundel in right of his maternal descent, the superior title 
of Duke of Norfolk having been lost by his father's attain- 
der. Philip was the father of Thomas Howard, Earl of 
Arundel, who is honoured in his line for the patronage 
which he extended to the arts, and for his great services to 
his country in having enriched it with so many choice 
remains of antiquity. He was the father of Henry Frede- 
rick, Earl of Arundel, the father of Cardinal Howard : so 
that the Cardinal w r as the fifth in descent from Henry, 
Lord Maltravers, who has inscribed this couplet on a blank 
page of the book : — 

When you yo r prayers doe rehers 
Remembre Henry Mawtrevers. 

These few words, however, open two questions, both re- 
quiring to be answered if we propose to give a trustworthy 
account of the descent of this book from persons who lived 
in the reign of King Henry VIII. : First, to whom did 
Lord Maltravers address this couplet 1 and secondly, how it 
happened that when the book was in other hands than his, 
it should still remain in the possession of the Arundel 
family % 

Both these questions may, I think, receive a satisfactory 

And now it is necessary to advert to a circumstance to 
which, hitherto, no allusion has been made, that there are 
bound up with the beautiful book we have been treating of, 
ten leaves, forming another book, similar in form to the one 
before described, but of far inferior execution ; and similar 
in subject also, being the " Office of the Holy Trinity." This 
portion of the volume contains its own story : there being 


written in it in the hand of* the Princess Mary, daughter of 
King Henry VJI1. the following "words : — 

Myne own.- good Kate a*- ofte as you can not se me bndyly with your 
prayers I pray you vygyte me and tryth tins specially because 
it is to ih<- hole Trynitielwherin you Bhal doo a great pleasure 
unto me whycb am your lovyng mystres and ( vex \\vll be 


Tin' ten-leaved book, annexed to the principal book, was 
therefore the gift of the Princess Mary to some lady of 
her household, then about to leave her service, and the 
lady's name was Catherine. We have further assistance 
towards ascertaining who this lady was, in finding depicted 
on tli«' second leaf the arms of Arundel ; but not Arundel 
only, but Arundel quartering Maltravers, plainly guiding us 
in the Lord Maltravers of the time. And when we find 
that the Lord Maltravers. of whom we have been speaking, 
married a lady of rank whose name was Catherine, is it too 
much to presume thai this was a farewell gift of the Princess 
Mary to a lady of her household, in contemplation of her 
becoming Lady Maltravers '. Or thai the other portion of 
the volume was a gift, at the same time, of Lord .Maltravers 
to the same Lady, who caused them both to be bound 
together in the volume as we now have it. 

There is something of the sentimental in the couplet 
inscribed by Lord Maltravers, which certainly favours the 
notion that if it were presented by him, it was presented 
under no ordinary circumstances : a signification not onbj of 
more than common regard, inn of a devotional spirit in the 
giver, and a recognition of the same spirit in the person to 
whom it was presented: while this view of the Bubject 
explains in the mosi satisfactory manner how the hook 
remained in the family of Arundel, and descended in the 
line of that house. Or if it be thought too bold a conjec- 
ture, that it was presented as a token of affection to Lady 
Catherine by Lord Maltravers before their marriage, the 
interesting supposition may be formed respecting it, 
thai it had been the property of Lady Catherine before her 
marriage, and that this couplet bad been written in it by 
Maltravers either before or subsequent to their union. 
Blither supposition serves equally well to show how it is 
found descending from the time of King Henry VIII. in 
the line of the Earl of Arundel, Bince ii was from this 


union that the persons who afterwards enjoyed the dignity 
of Earl of Arundel descended. The question simply is, 
whether it is more probable that the book was an offering 
of gallantry or affection to the young lady, who was about 
to become his bride, or that it was already hers, and she 
permitted him, before or after marriage, to inscribe the 
couplet, intended to call him to her remembrance in her 
more serious hours. 

The Lady Catherine, who married Lord Maltravers, was 
one of the daughters of Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset ; 
and though I have not succeeded in finding any list of the 
household of the Princess Mary sufficiently early, yet it is 
highly probable that she may have been one of that house- 
hold, and spoken to by the Princess in the terms of familiarity 
which we see that she used : for she was no very distant 
relative of the Princess ; her grandfather, Thomas Grey, 
Marquis of Dorset, having been half-brother to Queen 
Elizabeth of York, grandmother of the Princess. Add, that 
the Greys were a cultivated, a learned, and a devout family, 
and that Lord Maltravers, then become Earl of Arundel, was 
a strenuous supporter of the claims of the Princess Mary to 
the crown, even as against the claims of the Lady Jane Grey, 
who was niece to Lady Catherine. 

On the whole then, the history of the book seems to be 
this : — that it was prepared by some eminent French or 
Flemish artist for William, Lord Hastings, the Lord Deputy 
of Calais about the year 1475 : that it passed, it is not 
known how, into the possession of either the family of 
Grey or that of Arundel, and was the property of the 
Countess of Arundel, who was originally Lady Catherine 
Grey, one of the household of the Princess Mary; that while 
in her possession, there was bound up with it a smaller 
piece, being " The Office of the Holy Trinity," which had 
been a present to Lady Catherine from the Princess ; that 
they became jointly the property of the grandson of Lady 
Catherine and the Lord Maltravers Earl of Arundel, Philip 
Howard, Earl of Arundel, from whom they descended to his 
great grandson, Philip Howard, who bestowed the book on 
his convent of Dominicans at Bornheim ; that it remained in 
the possession of this community when, in 1794, they fled 
to England ; and that it was disposed of by them to its 
present possessor in 1835. 


It remains to 1"' added, that while the manuscript was in 
possession of the Dominicans at Bornheim, and they were 
still residing at that place, it was broughl under the notice 
nf English antiquaries in a communication to the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, anonymous, but by Mr. Webb, who gave 
a brief description <>f it. This was booh followed by a com- 
munication from tin 1 Abbe Mann, of Brussels, containing fur- 
ther details, including fac-similes of tin- couplet written by 
Lord Maltravers, ami of the motive inscription of the Prin- 
cess Mary, Both these writers followed a tradition of the 
Dominicans that the manuscript had been the property of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, and presented by her to one of her 
attendants, named Catherine. But this attribution of it 
was shown to be erroneous, in a subsequent communication to 
tin same Miscellany, by Mr. Brooke, the Somerset Herald at 
Arms, who perceived, what no one could doubt, that the hand 
writing of the passage subscribed with the name "Marve" 
was nut that of the Queen of Scots, but of the Princess 
Mary of England, lie also pointed out Lady Catherine 
Grey as the lady to whom, in all probability, the latter por- 
tion of the volume had been presented, ami he showed how 
it would naturally descend from Lord and Lady Maltravers 
to Philip Howard, the Cardinal of Norfolk. These commu- 
oications maybe found in Gent. Mag. lor 1789, pp. 77!' and 
1078; and for L790, p. 33. 

<©rtgtnal ^Documents. 



We are indebted to Mr. Clayton for a transcript of an original letter, 
without date, addressed to "Dame Alys de la Rokele," by some person 
unnamed, who should seem to have been in attendance on Queen Isabella, 
widow of Edward II. It communicated some news that had reached the 
Queen of a great battle, in which the King of Navarre, the Duke of 
Burgundy, Sir John of France, the Duke of Normandy, the Count of 
Blasois, the Duke of Athens, the Duke of Britany, the Count of Ilurbonie 
(qy. Aubigny), the Count of Blois, and the Count of Armagnac had been 
taken prisoners. It also mentioned a victory by the fleet of the north over 
the Scots, and the taking of Calais and Boulogne. It is written in French, 
on a slip of parchment lOf inches by 2.-J-, and was found among the 
muniments of Alan Clayton Lowndes, Esq. of Barrington Hall, Essex, 
annexed to a roll in the nature of a rent-roil or custumal, showing the rents 
and services of the tenants of the Manor of Wykes, near Manningtree, in 
the same county. The roll bears date the 27th Edw. L, but the letter 
must of course have been written several years later. On the back of 
the letter, in a contemporary hand, were some memoranda or notes of 
services (days' work), partly rendered and partly due, of some tenants 
of the Manor of Wykes, and among them of a few who, from the difference 
in christian names only from some on the roll, were probably their sons or 
other heirs. The letter read in extenso, except where the abbreviated 
words seem to admit of doubt, is as follows : 

Honn's ez reuerencys en touez chosys trechere dame, volyez sawer qe 
ce sunt le nouelys qe vynderunt ale Reygne Issabel ore lundi procheyn de 
le grauns qe sunt prys de Fraunce, le roy de Nawerne, le duk de Burgoyne, 
Syre Johan de Fraunce, duk de Normondye, le counte de Blasoyne, le duk 
de Athoneys, le duk de Bretaynne, le counte de Hurbonie, le counte 
de Bloys, le counte de Ermanak. Ez sews furunt le seyniurys qe fuerunt 
de le baytalye. Ez barount de Stafforde ez Cralbe, ez Syre Johan Darsy, 
cu le ' flote de Norz, sucrunt de vers les ezscos, ez les pryterunt, ez les hut 
amene a noztere seyniur le roy. Ez la vile de Caleys la meyte ezt ars, ez 
la vile rendu; ez la vile de Boloynie ezt ars ez rendu: ez nous ahuiiz - 
perdu nos archerys ez gransmye 3 de nos awtre gens. 

§ Adcuz trechere dame ez vou doyne bono vye ez lono-e. A dame Alys 
de la Rokele. 

' In the original, " le le flote." ' Grauns mye ! great part My or mi, 

" Probably " ahvuiiz," tor avons. the half. See Lacombe, au«l Kclham. 

vol.. XII. I. 


This news it has been found impossible to identify with any events of that 

period. It must have been false in its details, though most likely some 
it battle had been fought, the results of which were thus misrepresented. 
At no time do we find the above-mentioned princes and nobles, or the 
greater part of them, prisoners. Boulogne was not taken by the English at 
the same time as Calais; and the surrender of the latter was not contem- 
poraneous with any great battle. The report respecting those towns makes 
it evident that the letter was written while the war was carried on in that 
part of Frame, and before Calais had been any considerable time in the 
possession of the English. The only campaign in that locality before the 
taking of Calais was that in L346-7, which was signalised by the victory 
of Creasy, and the siege and surrender of Calais. That battle was fought 
on the 26th of August, 1 3 4 G . The victorious Edward, without delay, 
marched through the Rouhmnois, burnt St. Josse, Neuchatel, and Bstaples, 
and reached Calais on the 31st of August. The siege commenced a few 
days after, and continued till August in the following year, when the place 
surrendered ; it remained in the hands of the English till 1558. The 
affair of the fleet with the Scots is not very intelligible. Lord Stafford 
was at Cressy, and therefore could hardly have been in that expedition. 
David, King of Scots, was taken prisoner at Neville's Cross, in October 
1346. An attack by the fleet may have occurred shortly before that event, 
but was less likely to have happened in the following year. We may 
therefore conclude from all these circumstances, that the battle referred to 
was that of Cressy, and that the letter was written very shortly after it, 
viz.. early in September, 1^-lG. 

We have not found the names of any distinguished prisoners taken at 
Cre--v. Froissart is silent on the subject, and from the description of the 
battle it is most likely they were very few . The I 'mint of Blois was among the 
sl.iin : Lord Aubigny was present and attended King Philip from the field ; 
the Duke of Normandy, afterwards King John, was engaged in the siege of 
Aiguillon, in Guienne ; the Duke of Britany, Charles of Blois, was taken 
prisoner the following year at Roche d' Errien. If the King of Navarre and 
Duke of Burgundy had borne a share in that campaign, much more, had 
they been captured, Froissart would hardly have failed to mention them. 

Boulogne, near Paris, had been taken and burnt a few weeks before: this 

may account for the report as to Boulogne-sur-mer, which no doubt was 
the town meant in the letter. 

Though not able to discover exactly who Maine Alys de la Rokele was. 
we would make a estionj ae i" how this letter may have happened 

to find a place among the muniments of the Barrington Hall Estate. The 
memoranda at the back seem to show that, baving fulfilled its miBBion, it 
came into the hands of some steward of the manor mentioned in the Roll 
to which it was annexed, who made that use ol the back of it to winch at 
nil times letters bave been subject, uml noted thereon a few particulars 
to what tenants' services were in arrear ; and though attached to the 
Roll for a temporary purpose, it baa accidentally been preserved to the 
pr< i nl time. We are thus led to look for some connexion between the 
rard and the lady to whom the lettei was addressed; and if, after so 
long a time, we should find the evidence fail to show this distinctly, we maj 

perhaps be able to establish g I grounda for believing that such a 

coi .it In Hadox's Form. Angl., p. 349, \t a powei oi 

attorney from William de Bohun, Earl oi Northampton, dated at Raxnsden 


Belhouse (Essex), the 6th of June, in 33 Edward III. (1359), authorising 
his dear and well-beloved Godfrey de la Rokele to deliver seisin of certain 
lands at Duwnham (Essex) that had been given by the Earl in exchange, 
and to accept seisin of others that had been taken in lieu of them. This 
was business likely to be transacted by a steward. A few years later, viz., 
in 44 Edward III. (1370). a Godfrey de Rokele was steward of the Honor of 
Rayleigh and Hundred of Rochford, in Essex, 1 which then belonged to 
Humphry de Bohim, who, as heir both of his father and uncle, was Earl of 
Hereford, Essex, and Northampton ; the same having been granted by Ed- 
ward III. in 1340 to his father, William de Bohun Earl of Northampton, who 
died in 1360.- This family, as is well known, held numerous manors in Essex. 
Among them were those of Wykes and Hatfield Regis ; the former had been 
confirmed in tail general to William Earl of Northampton in 6 Edward III. 
(1333), 3 and on his death it descended to his before-mentioned Bon 
Humphry, Earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, who died, seised of 
it in 1372 ; 4 the latter, which in the seventeenth century became part of 
the Barrington Hall Estate, also devolved on him, having been granted to 
his grandparents Humphry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and the 
Princess Elizabeth his wife, and their heirs, by her brother Edward II. 5 
Another part of their patrimonial property was the seiguory of the Manor 
of South Okendon, in Essex, which for several generations had been held 
of them by the Essex family of Rokele ; but had been recently carried, by 
the marriage of one of two coheiresses of the elder branch, to the family of 
Bruyn. 6 The Rokeles were a knightly family, and the coheiress who 
married a Bruyn, namely Isolda, daughter of Philip de Rokele who died in 
1295, was one of the ladies attending on Queen Eleanor,' the mother of 
Edward II. and Princess Elizabeth, Countess of Hereford and Essex. If, 
as seems highly probable, a cadet of the Rokele family were steward to 
either of the Earls above-mentioned, that was not by any means an ignoble 
condition, unbecoming the son of a knight ; but an office to which, seeing 
the long feudal relationship that had subsisted between the two families, he 
was likely to have been appointed ; and the interval of twenty-four years 
between the supposed date of this letter and the time when Godfrey de 
Rokele appears to have been steward of the Honor of Rayleigh and 
Hundred of Rochford, does not render it improbable that he may also have 
been the steward of Wykes and other manors of William Earl of North- 
ampton, when the letter was written. Dame Alys de la Rokele, whom we 
do not find mentioned elsewhere, may have been his mother or other near 
relative, if not his wife. The connexion of the Rokeles with the Bohuns 
fully suffices to account for her having some friend in the Court of Queen 
Isabella, and as Humphry, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and his brother 
William, Earl of Northampton, were actively engaged in the campaign of 
1346, the Rokeles, and especially the steward of the latter, could not fail 
to take great interest in the events of the war, even if none of their own 
family were among the retainers who fought under the banner of the gallant 
Earl William, when he led the second divison at Creasy. 


1 Cal. Rot. Pat. p. 186; Morant, i. * Morant, to. 

p. 277. ■ Morant, ii. p. 503. 

-' Morant, i. p. -74. " Morant, i. p. 99. 

3 Cal.Rot.l'at. p. llo ; Morant, i.'7. ' Ibid, and Hail. MS. 1541, p. .'». 

Poccrtiings at the /tunings of the :iUchncoIogicnl Institute. 

December 1, IS") 1. 

(i.taviis fiiOBGAK, Esq. M.P., F.S.A., in the Chair. 

Mr. IfoBOAH gave the following description of a remarkable Roman 
tomb, vi rv recently found at Caerwent, Monmouthshire : — 

" On 20th November last, a curious ancient Bepulohre was discovered by 
Borne workmen who were making deep drains in a field in the immediate 

-~ vicinity of Caerwent, Monmouthshire. The 
field adjoins the south side of the turnpike 
load leading from Caerwent to Newport ; 
the grave is about 20 feet from the road, 
and about a quarter of a mile from Caer- 
went. This road is a portion of the Julia 
Strata, the ancient Roman way, which 
passed through the middle ot the rectangular 
space enclosed within the stone walls of the 
Roman station, Venta Silunun, or Caer- 
went. 1 It is probable that other graves 
may exist by the side of this road, though 
p the drainers have not met with any re- 
mains of that nature. 

" The grave, of which the top was about 
four feet below the surface, consisted of an 
oblong outer chamber, 8 feet 9 inches 
long. '.'> feet 6 inches wide, and 3 feet high, 
neatly constructed with large thin slahs of 
paving stone without anj cement. The 
sides oonsisted each of two slabs, one of 

which was li feel long and ."> wide, and 

the other smaller, l' feel 9 inches by 3 
feel ; the ends consisted each of one slab. 

The slabs were about 3 inches thick, 

\eiv neatly squared, and being set upon 

-J their edges, formed B rectangular chamber, 

■ i . — i — i — j the earth retaining them in their position. 

Within this ohamber was a large roughly 

bewn stone coffin, formed out <>i a single 

block of the buff-coloured and tone found in the neighbourhood, the 

t lui ton rod of the New Ps sage. This coffin was externally < feel 3 

\ | . ii. on, and an account 

ii in < 'u\<' a 
i Monmouth ihire, vol I 

Roman remains Found there are described, 
\ rcbsologia, rol. ii. p. 8 ; i ol, f» p. 40 : 

vol mi. p 1 10. 


I I 

inches long, by 3 feet at the head, 2 feet 6 inches at the feet, and 2 feet 
in depth. The space between the coffin and the slabs forming the walls of 
the chamber, was closely filled in with what seemed to be small coal, 
onburnt, rammed in tight and hard. This only came up to the top of the 
coffin, which was covered with a very large slab of the same stone, 8 inches 
thick, roughly hewn like the coffin, without any letters, characters, 
emblems, or sculpture of any kind. The top of this stone was some inches 

1 2 3 FEET. 

Section ot a Roman Tomb found at Caerwent. 

below the upper edge of the upright slabs forming the chamber, and the 
cavity between the sides and ends of the cover of the coffin, and the walls 
of the chamber was, as it were, roofed in by smaller slabs of paving stone 
which rested on the top of the cover and the edges of the slabs. This is 
the description I received from the workmen who found it, but who before 
they gave notice to any one opened and examined it, and it had been rifled 
before I beard of the discovery. On removing the stone cover, the stone chest 
was found to contain a leaden coffin. This, however, consisted of a closely 
fitting leaden lining of the cavity in the stone, soldered at the corners, and 
lapped about 1^ inches upon the sides of the stone coffin, the exterior edge 
of which is somewhat rounded, as shown in the section. The lid of the 
leaden lining was a plain oblong sheet of lead laid over the cavity, and 
unsoldered ; it had been, however, supported by three iron bars laid across 
the cavity for that purpose, but these were so corroded by decay as to 
have become only a mass of yellow ochreous rust, and had fallen to the 
bottom, leaving however marks on the lead and stone. On stripping back 
the lead, the workmen told me the coffin was found to be filled with clear 
water, at the bottom of which the skeleton was lying, partly covered with 
ochreous sediment. They emptied out all the water, took out all the 
bones, and carefully felt with their hands through all the sediment, in the 
hopes of, as one told me, of finding rings, and from what I have since 
heard there is reason to believe that something was found, though they 


declared to me that they found nothing. The interior of the leaden lining 
w.i- 6 feet 3 inches long, and 18 inches wide at the head, 16 at the feet, 
and 1- inches deep. The head was towards the east, and the hones were 
of a fnll-grown man in the prime of life, as I judge from the state 
of the jaw and the teeth : the workmen had, however, extracted all the 
teeth, and though the bones were tolerably hard, the skull was broken in 
l'\ having fallen down, and most of the hones were altogether 
wanting, or broken up. In the absence of all sculpturo or inscription, and 
anything that may have been found in the coffin having been lost, it is 
impossible to form any conjecture as to the person interred ; from the 
locality we may, 1 tliink, conclude that he was a Roman inhabitant of 
Caerwent, and a person of distinction from the mode of his interment. 
Specially remarkable circumstances, however, seem to me to be, the leaden 
lining to the Btone coffin, and the singular fact of the coffin being sur- 
rounded by a closely rammed body of small coal. This must have been 
brought from a considerable distance, the nearest spots now known from which 
Ould be procured being either the Forest of Dean, or the Monmouth- 
shire coal field, either being some 12 or 15 miles distant. In the excava- 
tions made to get to the grave, a great quantity of large pieces of stones 
of different sorts were found. Borne were of the Charston sandstone, some 
of hard grit stone, and some mountain limestone. Many were much 
blackened with smoke, some were reddened by the action of lire, and 
Borne of the limestone was partly burnl into lime on the outside. I was 
informed that these stones had the appearance of having been arranged as 
forming flues, or passages to carry off smoke, and that one run in the 
direction of the road, and another towards Caerwent. 1 did not, however, 
see them, and it is difficult to understand the use of BUch flues of rough 
Stones, apart from any building, and running near the then surface of the 
ground, perhaps in a heap of stones above it. The ground in the vicinity 
of the coffins had all been tilled in, and consisted of gravelly earth and 
stones of various sizes, but these larger stones were all together near the 
grave, though rather above it, and between it and the road. The field 
- meadow, of which the surface was a smooth sward, with no 
indication of anj thing beneath it." 

Btone cists containing coffins of had, of the Roman period, have very 
rarelj been found in England. Mr. Hawkins Btated, in his account of the 
Roman sarcophagus found in the MinorieB, and now preserved at the 
British Museum, that it presented the only example of that mode of inter- 
ment which had fallen under bis observation. 5 Hasted relates that in 

ftVel at Whatinere Hall, in the parish of Slurry, Kent, a large 
slab wa- ton ml at B depth of 5 feet, under w hich wa> a -tone coll in enclos- 

aother of lead, put together in six pieces without solder. It con- 

ta ned a skeleton of small Mature. An earthen found near the 

spot, which was Bituated on or v« r\ mar the Roman toad from Canterbury 

to the station at Reculver. 

Mr. STates observed that the remarkable feature of the interment 

bed bj Mr. Morgan, namely, the coal used for filling the space 

around the stom ted the enquiry whether coal had been used 

I or worked to any extent by the Romans, during their occupation 

ot Britain. Ii wa probable that their workings were not carried to any 

,\l • I- ■ I I I I' 'I I ll I "I K< III, VOl Ml. |i G I ... 


great (lcpt)i, and in some parts of South Wales it was well known that 
coal might he ohtained almost immediately under the surface. 

Mr. Clayton remarked that according to the facts which had fallen under 
his observation in Northumberland, in the course of his late explorations at 
Housesteads and other sites on the Roman wall, there is abundant 
evidence that fossil fuel was used by the Romans. The Stations per lineam 
valli were certainly supplied with coal, which must have proved a valuable 
resource in that severe climate ; traces of ancient workings had been 
observed, and in the buildings which Mr. Clayton had excavated, he had 
repeatedly observed the soot and cinders, indicating frequent use of coal in 
the Roman settlements in the north. 

Mr. MORGAN observed that he hoped to see the site of Venta Silurian, 
which might be termed the Monmouthshire Pompeii, fully explored ; such 
an investigation could not fail amply to repay the labours of the archaeolo- 
gist, and it had for some time past been contemplated by the Caerleon 
Antiquarian Association. He hoped that a commencement would be made 
during the ensuing spring. 

The Rev. Joseph Hunter gave an account of an illuminated Book of 
Prayers, presented to the convent of Bornheim by Cardinal Howard, and 
produced on this occasion by the obliging permission of Lady Stourton, 
now the possessor of this beautiful MS. Mr. Hunter's memoir is given in 
this volume. See page 65. 

Mr. Alexander Nesbitt gave the following description of the " Dun- 
vegan Cup," which, through the kindness of Norman Mac Leod, Esq., 
was brought for examination. A representation of this curious wooden 
vessel was communicated to the Society of Antiquaries by W. Daniell, 
Esq., R. A., in 1819, and it has been engraved in the Archasologia, 
vol. xxii., pi. 33, p. 407. Another representation, from a drawing by 
Mrs. Mac Leod, is given by Dr. Wilson, in his " Prehistoric Annals," 
p. 670. 

" The very singular drinking-cup known as the Dunvegan Cup, from its 
having been long preserved at Dunvegan Castle, in the Isle of Skve, as an 
heirloom of the Mac Leods of Mac Leod, has been mentioned by Sir Walter 
Scott in the notes to the Lord of the Isles, by Dr. Wilson in his 
Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, and in the Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland for 1852, vol. i., p. 8. The 
extreme rarity of such examples of the skill of ancient Irish silversmiths, 
and the very curious nature of its ornamentation, may warrant a somewhat 
more detailed notice than has hitherto been published. 

" It is a cup of wood, probably either yew or alder, such as in Ireland is 
called a ' mother, ' square above and rounded below, placed on four legs, 
and almost covered with mountings of silver, decorated with niello and 
gilding ; the whole measures 10| inches in height, A\ inches in breadth at 
the mouth, and 5.J, at the broadest point, which is somewhat below the 
middle. Dr. Wilson (Proc. of the Soc. of Antiqu. of Scotland, 1852, 
Part I., p. S) surmises that the cup is older than the inscription, which is 
on a broad silver rim at the mouth, and bears the date of 1403 ; however 
this may be, there can be no doubt that the whole of the ornamental 
mounting is of the same period, or that this period is not far distant from 
the date given by the inscription. The same ornaments in niello are to be 
found upon the rim at the mouth and on the lower part, and the pierced 
work of parts shows an evident imitation of the tracery and foliations of a 


late period of pointed architecture ; mixed, however, with those, are to be 
fouiul the filagree ornaments and the knotwork which in England charac- 
terise the work, of very early times, but which are well known to have 
remained in 086 in Ireland until native art was entirely superseded by 
English, and in the Celtic parte of Scotland, almost until our own time. 
There are no traces of that singular ornamentation produced by the inter- 
lacing of animals bo much used in Irish work of the Kith and XI 1th 
centuries, That dislike of uniformity and the ingenuity in inventing new- 
varieties of ornament, which are manifested in Irish work of all dates, are 
fully displayed here ; with very \'< * exceptions, all the corresponding parts, 
though alike in form, have entirely different ornaments. 

" Many different processes have been employed in the decoration of the 
silver mountings, viz., gilding, which has been used on almost every part 
of the Burface not covered by niello; inlaying of niello into patterns out for 
its reception ; raising a pattern in relief in thin silver, probably by stamping 
with a die ; piercing plates with foliated openings; attaching wires of various 
sizes and forms, some flat and some twisted, or filagree work ; and engraving. 
Besides these, additional variety of effect has been produced by placing 
behind BOme of the pierced openings small plates of silver hatched or 
engraved on their surface, and not gilt, in order that they might contrast 
with the gilded silver through which the openings are pierced ; behind other 
openings remains of cloth are found, winch, though now completely faded 
and almost colourless, may once, by its bright colour, have produced an 
effective contrast to the surrounding metal. Empty sockets remain which 
once held Btones 01" glass, and others of smaller size still retain heads of 

" These various methods of decoration are applied in the following 
manner ; the mouth has a rim of solid silver gilt, 2 inches in depth, on the 
opteide of which is engraved an inscription in black letter and in two lines; 
the Bpace8 between the letters are hatched with fine lines intersecting 
diagonally. The angles of the rim have strips ornamented with niello. 
Tie- inside is unite plain, excepting that the letters il)<3 are repeated on 
each side upon a small hatched Bpace. 

•' Aln.nt 1 ' inches above the feel is a projecting ledge •: of an inch in 
width; tlii- is covered with thin silver; that which covers the upper 
surface is, and bears a raised pattern, apparently stamped : the under 
surface is curved and plain. At each angle of the upper Burface is one of 
the empty ockets mentioned above, and on each side two three-sided 
pyramids with granulated surface-, making them resemble piles of pins' 
heads, From the rim to the ledges run straight strip- of thin silver 
embracing the angles ; Lh< se are stamped <>r repoussd in patterns, and in 
other part- pierced, and the surface covered with oielloor gilding ; beneath 
the openings small pieces of i agraved silver have beeu placed, most ( ,t' crhioh 

are now (ranting ; by this meani three different col >. viz., those ,,f the 

gilding, tin- ilver, and the niello, are broughl into play. Midway between 

are other bands, I ol an b broad, the central parts of whioh are 

enlarged into circles of J ' inch diameter; thi te bands are highly ornamented 
with filagree ol rieti of pattern, and with pierced foliated openings; 

<>■ of the circle these opening ■ are .. arranged as in boi legree to 

nble tin- ti circular < lotbic window. 

" In between the hands in the centre and at the angles both 

and below, was fixed a mall lip of silver gilt, and ornamented with 


filagree, 1| inch long by ) inch broad, each slip having a small coral bead 
at one end ; of these only seven now remain. 

" In the part below the ledge, the central bands are similar (though of 
different patterns) to those occupying the same position above ; those at 
the angles, however, differ from the angle-bands of the upper part; they 
are wider, and are ornamented with filagree, disposed in compartments 
divided by narrow strips, with patterns in niello. There are no small 
strips on this part of the cup. 

" These bands all meet a circle 3 inches in diameter, which bears upon it 
a knot pattern ; in the centre of this, at the bottom of the cup, is an 
empty socket, 1 1 inch in diameter, which no doubt once held either a 
stone or a piece of mosaic glass. 

" The legs are meant to represent human legs, but show no attempt at 
correct modelling; their only ornament is a twisted wire running down the 
front ; the feet are covered by shoes, which have a coating of niello, the 
legs being gilt. 

" From the above detail, it will be seen that the cup, when in a perfect 
state, presented a very curious polychromatic effect; including that of the 
wood, not less than six, and perhaps even seven, colours were brought into 
play in its decoration. 

" Excepting in the rim, the silver is used with great economy ; it is too 
thin to possess sufficient strength, and accordingly many parts have 
suffered much from handling ; in such portions of the ornament as are much 
raised, the filagree work is fixed upon thin plates which are let into sockets, 
and the back is packed with cloth or pieces of wood. 

" The inscription on the rim is in that character in which many letters (as 
i, m, n, and u) are scarcely distinguishable ; it has consequently been 
repeatedly mis-read ; which has happened particularly with the proper names. 
The following reading, that of Mr. Eugene Curry, of the Brehon Law 
Commission, it is believed, is correct : — 

Kahla inge y neill uxor ioh'is meg 
93° Oculi omn i | te spat do e et tu das 

uigir p'ncipis de 
esca illor I t e op° 

firraanac me n* 
fecit. Atio do'. 14. 

i.e. Katherina ingen ui Neill (O'Neill's daughter) uxor Johannis 
Meguighir (Mac Guire) principis de Firmanach (Fermanagh) me fieri fecit. 
Anno Domini, 1493°. Oculi omnium in te spectant Domine et tu das 
escam illorum in tempore opportune 

" The latter part, it will be seen, is the 15th verse of the 144th Psalm. 

" John Mac Guire is mentioned several times in the Annals of the Four 
Masters; he became one of the chiefs of the clan in 1484, when two 
Maguires were nominated after the murder of Gilla Patrick by his five 
brothers, at the altar of the church of Achadh-Uchair. Nothing is recorded 
of him in these annals except the successful forays which he made chiefly 
upon other branches of the Maguires, and his death in 1503, which is thus 
chronicled : — 

" 1503. Maguire, i.e. John, son of Philip, son of Thomas More, i.e. 
Gilla Duv, the choice of the Chieftains of Ireland, in his time the most 
merciful and humane of the Irish, the best protector of his country and 
lands, the most warlike opponent of inimical tribes and neighbours, the 
best in jurisdiction, authority, and reputation, both in Church and State, 
died in his fortress at Enniskillcn, on Sunday, the 7th of the Calends of 



April, after having heard mass, and after the victory of Unction ami 
Penance, and was buried in the monastery of the friars at Donegal, which 
he had selected " (as his place of interment). 

" Of Katharine O'Neill no notice seems to occur in these Annals." 

Mr. Walford communicated the following notice of the fragment of a 
sepulchral brass, purchased in London for the British Museum. It is a 
portion of a .-mall kneeling figure in armour, No clue has been obtained 
srtain from what church it had been taken. 

The quarterings upon the tabard of the figure on this brass are as 
follows: 1. Lozengy arg. and </«., Fitz William; 2. Chequy or andoer., 
Warenne; ■">. Arg. a chief gu., overall a bend <<:., Cromwell; 4. Chequy 
or and gu., a chief erm., Tatshall; 5. Erm. a fess gu., Barnake; 6. Arg. 
."> cinquefoils and a canton gu., Dry by of Tatshall; 7. Gu. a lion ramp, or, 
Albini; 8. Az. 3 garbs or, Blundeville; 9. A:, a wolf's head erased arg., 
Lupus; 10. Arg. a cross engrailed gu., Green of Drayton; 11. Chequy 
('/•and a~. within a bordure gu., Mauduit; L2. Crti. 3 waterbougets erm., 
Rooa of Derbyshire and Notts ; 13. Quarterly or and <iu. within a horduro 
bezanty, Rochford; 14. Missing; 15, As the 1st. On the honour point 
18 an annulet. 

The person represented in this tabard was evidently a Fitz William, and 
as the quarterings comprise those of Green of Drayton and Mauduit, he 
must in all probability have been a descendant of Sir John Fitz William 
who died in 1 118, by ESleanor, daughter of Sir Henry Green of Drayton, 
by his wife Matilda, daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Mauduit. The 
annulet is no doubt a mark of cadency, and may be assumed to have 
indicated, at the date of this brass, a fifth sen ; and Beeing thai no male 
adant of that Sir John Fitz William appears to have had five sons 
within the period to which th'- brass can be referred, except John Fitz 
William, of Sprotborough, who was living in 9th Henry VIIL, and Sir 
William Fitz William of Gainspark, who died in 1534 ; the person repre- 
sented was most likelj either Ralph, the fifth son of the former, <>r Thomas, 
the fifth son of the latter. Of this Ralph little seem- known but that he 
travelled into Spain, an event in those days sufficiently rare to he recorded. 
Win n or where he died dees not appear, though, as he did not subscribe 
die tion of Vouchers made by bis brother Hugh in L565 (See 
Bridge's Collins, iv. pp. ."'7 it is probable he was not then 

ither was a Damoryand an heiress, and if the brass repre- 
sents him, we ma) Buppose the missing coat, No. 14, was Damory. Thomas, 
the fifth Bon of Sir William Fitz William of Gainspark, was of Norborough, 
Northamptonshire : when be died, or where he was buried, does not appear. 
lie wom a balf-brother of Anne, wife of Sir Anthony Coke of Romford. 
The quartered of her father, as impaled with her husband's on hia 
temh, is given in Lysons' Environs of London, iv. pp. L93 1. The 
rings differ materially from these. Thej compri e Lisures, Lacy, 
Bertram, Clinton, Marmion, and Fitzhugh ; while Green, Mauduit, Rooa, 
and Rochford are absent li might, then fen, lie supposed that these 
i..- th.- arms of her brother, but the Pedigree in Bridge's 

that the FitZ Williams were 

titled to quartei Green and Mauduit; I'm-, though the male issue of 

li.i 1 failed, they, who repn tented ■> i ter, were net the heir-, 

a i.i ah. i of then ancostn v Sir Anthonv 

• !:.•■ I in 1576, which would eem to be ■> lew yean later than this 



brass; and probably in the meantime the error had heen discovered, and 
the quartered coat recomposed. To the quarterings given hy Lysons, the 
above-mentioned Ralph had as much right as Thomas or his father ; and 
therefore the variation between them and these does not determine to 
which of those two fifth sons the brass is to be appropriated. Neither 
branch of the family appears to have had any right to the arms of the 
ancient Earls of Chester. The only ground for their claiming them seems 
to have been their descent from Albreda, daughter and heiress of Robert de 
Lisures, who had been the widow of Richard Fitz Eustace, Constable of 
Chester, and was half-sister of Robert de Lacy, Lord of Pontefract, who 
died without issue, and was succeeded 
by a half-brother of Albreda, that took 
the name of de Lacy, and became con- 
stable of Chester. 

The Rev. F. Dyson described the re- 
mains of a singular cruciform conduit 
funned of stone and wood, found at the 
Holy Well, Malvern Wells, dining 
the construction of some new baths in 
September last. A block of blue lias 
rock, measuring about 22 in. by 18 in., 
formed the centre of four water-courses ; 
three of these contributed streams of 
very pure water, which flowed out through 
the fourth in an easterly direction through 
a trunk of oak. The channels for the 
water measured 5 to 6 inches in dia- 
meter. Some portions of the old stone covering had subsequently been 
found. Mr. Dyson stated the supposition, that the cruciform fashion of 
this conduit might have had some connexion with the name of the " Holy 

9ntfgttitfe* ana" fflSHToriui af 3rt erfttbttrtr. 

By Mr. Falkxer, of Deddington. — A bronze socketed celt, found at 
Danes Hill, near Deddington, Oxfordshire. A bronze Roman lamp, with 
two burners, described as found at King's Holme, near Gloucester, where 
Roman remains have, at various times, been discovered. A bronze lamp 
with a single burner, found there in 1790, a bronze patera, stilyard, and 
several other reliques of the Roman period, are represented in the 
Archfcologia, vol. x., p. 132. They were in the possession of Samuel 
Lysons. A leaden coffin with various antiquities had been brought to 
light there a few years before, and more recently an amphora and numerous 
Roman coins were found. 1 

By Mr. Way. — Impressions from two British or Gaulish gold coins. 
lately found in Surrey and Kent. One of them, now in the collection of 
the Bon. R. Neville, had been picked up by a labourer engaged in " fag- 
ging " oats, last harvest, in the West Field, at Ilathresham Farm in the 
parish of Eorley, Dear Reigate. The soil is clayey, and the field had 

1 Archseologia, vol. vii. pp. :i7''. 379 ; 
vol. xviii. ]>. 1 '__. The place called Kings- 
holme is situated on the Krmin Street, 

and remains of buildings were to be seen 
there supposed to he the site of a residence 
of tin- kings of Mercia. 



been ploughed rather deeper than in previous seasons. One side of this 
coin is convex and plain ; on the other, which is in remarkable preservation, 
appears the horse galloping to the left, with certain symbols in the 
held. According to the observations whiqjp Mr. Way had received from 
Mr. Evans, this Coin is of B very rare and unpublished type. It is singu- 
lar in two respects, as having so well formed a horse, in conjunction with 
the plain OT nearly plain obverse, and in having above the horse the 
symbol of a hand clenched, and apparently holding a branch. A hand 
below the horse, Mr. Evans Btated, is not uncommon on a class of Gaulish 
coin- with the androcephalous horse, but he bad not met with the hand in 
any position on a British coin. The class of cuius to which this belongs, 

was. however, current and Btruck in both 
countries. The weight is 83 grains. The 
other gold coin had been recently picked 
up by Mr. Worsfold of Dovor, on the sur- 
face of ploughed land on a farm called 
Stone Heap, in the parish of Northbrook, 
north-west of Dovor. Mr. Worsfold had 
sought in vain for any cairn or barrow 
from which the name of tins farm might 
have been derived ; he informed Mr. Way 
that he intended to present the coin to the 
Dovor museum, which has recently been 
enriched by numerous local antiquities, 
especially the collections formed by the 
Rev. W. Vallance. This coin is of a type, 
as Mr. Evans remarks, of ordinary occur- 
rence both in Kent and elsewhere ; and 
the only remarkable feature is an adjunct 
under the horse, which appears to be in- 
tended for a bird. 

By Mr. c. Tucker.— A large bronze 

Bpear-head, found with Beveral others in a 
very decayed condition, at a spot called 

"Bloody Tool,'' in the parish of South 
Brent, Devonshire, on the verge of 
ooor. The place is now a swampv 
hollow, but no longer a pool, and no 
record b is been found of .m\ conflict 
which might explain the name assigned 
to it. With the spears, whioh were acci- 
dentally brought to lighl in digging, there 
were four pieces oi broti q tube, which 
maj bavebeen fixed on the lower extremi- 
of ile- •baft-. Th( i ivets of 

bronze bj which the spear-heads were 
attached to the baft, remain pi rfect. The 
length of the -pear head, n nearlj 
could be a jcei tained, bad been I I inche . 
the "Nile i breadth of the blade, 
The length of the tulx iboul 7 inche : diameter, even-tenths, 
laperiti tremity, which i- closed like the ferrule of a 


t I 




walking-cane. The spear-heads, with one exception, were barbed, and 
bear resemblance to that found in the Severn, near Worcester, represented 
in this Journal) vol. ii., p. 187, and supposed to have been a fishing-spear. 
The blade in that example, now in the possession of Mr. Jabez Allies, 
is shorter, and of greater breadth ; in both the socket is singularly short. 
See Mr. Allies' Antiquities of Worcestershire, 2nd edit., p. 30. All the 
spears found at Bloody Pool were broken into three pieces, and within 
their blades is a sort of core, not metallic ; none appeared in the ferrules. 

Mr. Franks observed that there had existed much uncertainty in regard 
to the ancient use of rivets to affix bronze spear-heads to the shaft. No 
example of a bronze rivet, as he believed, had previously been noticed ; he 
had been disposed to think they were rarely, if ever, used, and that they 
were formed of wood. Spear-heads of bronze are either formed with side- 
loops, or apertures in the blade itself, supplying the means of attachment 
to the shaft ; or where no adjustment of this kind is found, the socket is 
perforated for a rivet, which would necessarily injure the strength of the 
wooden shaft. Mr. Clibborn, who had carefully investigated this subject 
in Ireland, where bronze spears occur in great variety, thought that the 
rivets might have been of iron. 

By Mr. G. V. Du Noyer. — Representations of the ancient cross and 
effigy of St. Gobnet, an Irish saint who lived in the seventh century. 
Amongst the remarkable early oratories of stone existing in the great 
Island of Aran, in the Bay of Galway, as noticed by Dr. Petrie (Round 
Towers of Ireland, p. 346) there is one of diminutive size assigned to this 
saint. Near the old church of Ballyvourney, co. Cork, are the foundations 
of her house, according to tradition, or more probably of her church ; this was 
a circular building, of the bee-hive form, about 20 feet in diameter, and the 
upright stones which formed the doorway are still standing. In the 
Ordnance Survey the site is erroneously marked as the " Base of a round 
tower." Within a few fields of Ballyvourney chapel stands " St. Gobnet 's 
stone." (See woodcut.) On the S. face of this slab is engraved, in lines 
now becoming faint, a cross pattee within a circle of two lines, measuring 
13 \ inches in diameter, and on the top of the circle is an outline of a 
human figure in profile, most rudely designed. A long cloak completely 
envelopes the figure from the neck to the feet, and the hair appears to be 
divided over the forehead and falls behind. In one hand is represented a 
short pastoral crook or cambatta, which seems to be of that peculiar Irish 
form, of which examples in bronze are preserved in the Museum of the Royal 
Irish Academy. Mr. Du Noyer regards this little figure as representing 
St. Gobnet herself, and thinks, from the form of the pastoral stall', that tlie 
slab may be contemporaneous with her times. Mr. Westwood expressed 
his opinion, that its date is not later than the eighth, and possibly as early 
as the seventh century. The effigy of St. Gobnet, who was believed to be 
descended from Conor the Great, King of Ireland, is of oak, measuring 27 
inches in length, and G inches across the breast, and it is preserved in the 
Roman Catholic chapel at Ballyvourney. This little image is regarded by 
the country people with peculiar veneration ; it is exhibited on the altar, on 
her feast day, and scarcely on any other occasion. It was originally painted 
in oil colour, the mantle being dark blue, the skirt of the robe below the 
girdle deep crimson, the upper part of the figure and the amis pale yellow, 
which may have been white now discoloured by time. Over the head is 
thrown a veil or coverebief, the left hand is raised and laid flat on the 



bosom, whilst the right falls straight at the Bide and grasps the mantle. 
Such wooden effigies, Mr. Du Noyer observed, are veryrare in Ireland : he 
supposed the date of this figure to be the middle of the XlVth century. 


Bv Mr. Farrer.- An antique tripod candelabrum, and o tazza, both "I 
bronze, from Italy. An ivory cup loulptured with subjects From tlio history 
• ■I Noah, and Bel with jewels ; apposed to be o work of the \ I tli or Xllth 
contui ure <»l St. John the oulpturod in ivory ; heighl 

tuple of JCIVth centun art, from Flanders. A small 
shrine, in form of ■■! miniature chapel with a high ridged roof, encased in 
silver plate with repou < ornament ; on the fronl are throe figure . the 
central one in pontificals with ;i cro ior in the left hand : on either side is 


a figure in armour. Date, about 1470. — A steel hunting-horn, elaborately 
chased with foliage in strong relief, and a steel guard of a sword, chased 
with chivalrous subjects. — A silver medallion, representing William, Duke 
of Saxony, 1586, represented on horseback, with a display of heraldic 
escutcheons surrounding the figure. 

By Mr. Nesbitt. — Casts from several carvings in ivory of mediaeval 
Greek or Byzantine style. The most remarkable of these measures 9f in. 
by 6| ; it formerly was a part of the richly-decorated cover of a MS. 
belonging to the Cathedral of Besancon ; and an engraving of it in this 
state will be found in Gori (Thesaurus Veterum Diptychorum) ; it is now 
preserved in the Cabinet des Antiques of the Bibliotheque Impcriale at 
Paris. From its form it would seem probable that it was originally the 
central piece of a triptych. The figures sculptured upon it are about 6 in. 
in height, and represent Christ standing upon an elevated pedestal of three 
stages, two circular and one square, and placing his hands upon the heads 
of an emperor and empress, the former of whom stands on his right, 
and the latter on his left. On one side of the head of Christ are the 
letters IC, and on the other XC ; over the emperor the inscription 
PflMANOC BACIA€VC PHMAiniM, and over the empress, 
€VAOKIA BACIAIC PnMAIHN. The persons represented are 
therefore Romanus Diogenes, Emperor of the East from 10G7 to 1071, and 
his wife Eudocia, widow of Constantine Ducas. 

As in consequence of the unvarying character of Byzantine art there is 
great difficulty in assigning to their proper period the examples which 
occur, one of the date of which as in thi3 case, there can be no doubt, is of 
peculiar interest and importance, and it may be desirable to notice in some 
detail the costume of the several figures, and the distinctive peculiarities of 
the style of the sculpture. 

The figure of Christ is attired in a loose tunic with large sleeves, over 
which is worn a piece of drapery ( ? a toga) a part of which is fastened 
round the body, while another part is thrown over the left shoulder, and 
hangs down over the left arm. The feet have no shoes but only sandals. 
A nimbus with three rays surrounds the head. 

The costume of Romanus consists of — 1. An inner garment with embroi- 
dered sleeves fitting somewhat tightly to the arm. 2. A robe reaching 
to the feet, with loose sleeves, and embroidered on the shoulders, at the 
bottom, and the sides (the dalmatic ?). 3. A broad strip of rich embroidery 
hanging down before and behind (the head being passed through an aperture), 
the end brought round in front from the right side across the body, and 
carried over the left arm (the Pallium Imperatorium ?). The empress has 
garments of precisely the same fashion as the two first of the emperor, but 
the outer garment is a cloak fastened over the right shoulder and held up 
by the left arm, this cloak is entirely covered with embroidery, and on the 
breast is a large patch also of embroidery, but of a different pattern. This 
is clearly the same decoration as that which in the mosaics of S. Vitale in 
Ravenna is seen in gold on the purple robe of the Emperor Justinian, and 
in purple on the white robes of his attendants. It is also to be observed 
on the robes of consular figures on diptychs, as on that of Halbcrstadt, and 
may possibly be the representative of the latus clavis. 

The crowns worn by the emperor and empress are very nearly alike, a 
broad fillet with a quatre-foil ornament in front ; on that of Eudocia there 
seem to have been ornaments at the sides as well as in front. The fillet 


appears to enclose a cap, and long pendant-; hang on each side. The feet- 
's by embroidered shoes. Plain nimbi surround the heads. The 
right hand of the emperor and the left of the empress are placed on their 
hearts, probably as a sign of devotion. In the Hotel de Cluny is a Byzantine 
lief in ivory, the design of which resembles most closely that of the 
Bubject of this notice. Christ places his hands on the heads of the Emperor 
Otho II. and hi- wife Theophano, daughter of Etomanus III.. Emperor of 
the Bast. This lias been supposed to he commemorative of the marriage 
of these personages, A.-.D. 972, hut M. Lenormant, in the notice which 
panies tin; engraving of the bas-relief of Romanus in tin- last vol. of 
the Tresor de Numismatique et de Giyptique, inclines to the opinion, that 
on this last the coronation of Komanus and Eudocia is commemorated. 

The figures in this instance are unnaturally long and very stiff' in 
attitude ; the faces are lung and meagre, and wanting in expression, 
although as well as the hands, naturally modelled. The feet of the 
emperor and empress are absurdly small, those of Christ natural. The 
draperies of the figure of Christ are arranged with some elegance, though 
with a tendency to long straight folds ; those of the imperial figures have 
almost the >ti,l'ue.-s and straightncss of hoards, they are almost covered by 
a conventional representation of embroider? or jewel-work. On the whole, 
however, this bas-relief shows a state of the art of sculpture far superior to 
any contemporary work in the west of Europe. 

Another of the casts exhibited, the original of which is believed to exist 
in a private collection in Paris, would appear to be of Byzantine work, but 
of a much earlier date, probably anterior to the period of the [conoclasts. 
Ppon it Christ is represented as a young beardless man, the face is pecu- 
liarly full, and the figure rather short in its proportions, it has, however, 
little trace of antique art. Over the figure is an arch, in the spandrels 
of which are peacocks. 

Twenty-four other casts were from a twelve-sided box, preserved in the 

treasury "t the Cathedral of Sens, twelve being from the sides and twelve 

from tin cover which slopes on every side and meets in a point at the top. 

A band of enamelled copper, apparently Limoges work, of aboul 1300, is 

fixed round the bottom of the lid. The bos has evidently been taken to 

pieces and reconstructed. The date of the ivory bas-reliefs may he placed 

with Bome probability in the Xlth or Xllth centuries. The subjects are 

chiefly from the histories of Joseph and of David. The figures have a fair 

of life and movement, and some half-figures of angels, in the upper 

if the pieces belonging to the cover, some grace and beauty ; the 

it not very finished or careful. The whole have been 

engraved ami noticed in Millin' Voyti e dan- lea Departements da Midi 

de hi Prance. 

By the Rev. T. IP so. The central portion of an ivory triptych repre- 
senting the Virgin with the infant Saviour in the upper compartment, and 

below if the Crucifixion, with the Virgin and Si . John; date, X I Vth century. 
It wa- found in Saydon square in the Uinories, September, 1853. 

dr. Hewitt.— A specimen of the •• New pattern Artillery helmet," 
for an officer, a recently proposed. It is formed of felt with a knob for a 
plume on the crown of the head, from which diverge four bands of gilt 

forming a framework resembling the supposed load piece found at 
Leckhampton, exhibited by Captain Pell at the previous meeting (Journal, 
vol. \i. p. 413). Mi. Hewitt pointed out the remarkable analogy of form 


ami construction, which appears to corroborate the belief that the relique 
found in Gloucestersliire had been part of a defence, for the head, and 
offered some remarks, on examples of helmets in later times with a ring 
on the apex, probably for the attachment of the cointise ; especially that 
supplied by the sculptured effigies of Sir William de Staunton, who died 
132G (Stothard's Monumental Effigies, p. 47). 

By Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. — A leaden disk, diameter 2\ inches, 
charged with a lion rampant ; it was found during recent repairs of St. 
Wollos' Church, Newport, Monmouthshire. — A singular object of brass, 
purchased at Nuremberg, apparently a kind of seolipile intended to be used 
with a small lamp for fumigation, or diffusing scent in an apartment ; it is 
a curious example of the ingenuity and caprice of the old German workers 
in metal. 

By Mr. Fitch. — An enamelled ornament of copper, bearing general 
resemblance to a six-petaled flower ; it was found at Southacre, Norfolk. 
It is formed with a small loop on one side, in the same manner as certain 
enamelled escutcheons, of which several examples have been given in this 
Journal, and like these, it was probably a pendant decoration attached to 
horse-furniture. The object recently added to Mr. Fitch's cabinet of Norfolk 
antiquities, is, however, of a fashion hitherto not noticed ; a six-leaved 
ornament is introduced on a blue ground in the centre, and thence radiate 
six projections, each charged with a quatrefoil filled with blue enamel. 
Diameter about 2\ inches. Date, probably XVIth century. 

By Mr. W. J. Berxhard Smith. — A richly-engraved wheel-lock of steel, 
of most elaborate workmanship. Amongst the ornaments is conspicuously 
introduced the double-headed eagle of the Empire. 

Impressions from Seals. — By the Hon. R. C. Neville.— Impression 
from a small brass matrix, of pointed-oval form, found in front of the 
V Brick House," at Debden, Essex, on October 16, ult. The device is a 
tonsured head, seen in profile, and over it is a mullet. The inscription is 
as follows — capvt SERVl uei. 2 Date, XlVth century. 

January 5, 1855. 
Frederic Odvry, Esq., Treas. Soc. Aniiqu., in the Chair. 

Mr. E. W. Godwin sent an account of the recent excavation of an exten- 
sive Roman villa at Colerne, about six miles from Bath, and exhibited a 
ground-plan, with representations of the mosaic floors which have been 
uncovered through the exertions of the Rev. G. Heathcote, Vicar of Colerne, 
and under Mr. Godwin's directions. His memoir will be given hereafter. 
It is to be regretted that the owner of the site is not disposed to preserve 
these remains, in which he takes no interest, and the building will probably 
ere long be again concealed from view. 

Mr. Greville J. Chester communicated a note of bis recent examina- 
tion of a tumulus on Pen Hill, one of the highest parts of the Mendip range. 
The mound was curiously constructed. The outside was completely covered 
with large pieces of red sandstone, beneath which there was fine earth. In 
the centre were two layers of stones, between which appeared a large 
deposit of charred wood and wood-ashes, but no traces of bones were to be 

- This inscription lias occurred on on the fictitious matrix of stone, noticed 
other mediaeval seals. It was introduced in this Journal, vol. x., p. <'<:;. 



discerned. MoBt of the barrows in the neighbourhood, Mr. Chester oh- 
served, bad been opened several years ago : in some of them urns had been 
found, and, in one instance, weapons of flint. 

The Rev. 11. M. Si \kiii communicated an account of Roman remains 
found during the previous montb at Combe Down, near Bath, and of a 
remarkable inscription of which he Bent representations, On Dec, 11, in the 
ationsina garden belonging to Major Graham, the workmen 
found two stone coffins, placed north and south, the feet being towards the 
south. They measured externally about 6 feet 8 inches by 1 foot 3 inches, 
the length <>t' the cavity being about 6 feet -"> inches, and the ends of the 
coffins were rounded, as noticed in other Roman interments at Bath. The 
cover of one of these coffins was unite plain : within were found some very 

bones, the thigh bone measured 18 inches in length, and -1 inches in 
girth : a jaw bone of unusual size was also found, with the teeth in good 
preservation, and Beveral fragments of iron, supposed to have been the 
nails of Roman sandals. The other coffin had its covering formed of four 
Btones, one of them being an inscribed tablet, taken doubtless from some 
Roman structure and applied to the purpose here described. This stone, 
which measures about 2 feet 7 inches by 18 inches, covered the breast and 
body of the corpse. There were three skeletons without skulls deposited 
outside this coffin on the east side of it, and within itwas found a skeleton 
with a perfect scull and jaw, the latter discoloured by a small bronze coin, 
now nearly decomposed, which had probably been placed in the mouth as a 
naulum for the transit over the Styx. At the feet lay three bcuIIs, sup- 
posed to have belonged to the bodies, of which the headless remains were 
found outside the coffin. The position of these coffins is 17 feet to the 
north of the three interments found in the same plol of ground lasl Bpring, 

er with the stone cists containing burned bones and the head of a 
horse, ribed by Mr. Scarth in this Journal, vol, si., pp. 281, 40& 

dderable quantity of coarse unbaked pottery and a few fragments of 
'• Samian " ware were found around the coffins. The tablet brought to 
ingular position has been regarded by antiquaries, who take 
interest in the vestiges of the Roman period, as a valuable addition to the 
inscriptions which relate to Britain. Some portions of it- surface have 
Buffered injury, and various interpretations have been proposed, no slight 
difficulty having arisen in deciphering an inscription in damaged condition, 
by the aid of facsimiles and impressions taken with moistened paper, which 

upplied by the kindness of Mr. Scarth, A discussion took place on 
the i »n, in which the Rev. Jo eph Hunter, l>r. Bruce, 

Mr. Pranks, and other members took pi rt. 

A 'e accurate representation having keen subsequently obtained, we 

have been favoured with the following observations by the Rev. Joseph 

1 1 untir : — 

" The copy of the Bath inscription (as shown in the woodcut) differs in 

.in the copy originally sent from Bath to the 

to, and in a private communication to m\ elf; so thai any attempt 

the one mill needs differ from an attempt upon the other. 

oce i in the ub titution of -\\ a lid for \.c lib 

where th< < and the R were bo decided in the (in t oopj b - uol to leave room 

oi amended n ac 1 

•• I think with you thai we have now ol the in cription a correct]) 

docipl and, with the exception of i ae word, I think 


the reading and moaning may be as well made out. I do not at all think if 
1 saw the original I should fi rm a different judgment. 

TIT VI l' 

" For the safety. — or whatever salus in this connection, where we for ever 
find it, may mean, — of the Emperor Csesar .Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, 
happy, invincible (or unconquered) Augustus (supply a prenomen where the 
is damaged, probably one represented by two letters, as cn) Nsevius, 
a freedman of Augustus the adjutor of the procurators, (then cornea the 
doubtful word, which perhaps may he PROVINCIE,) restored from its founda- 
tions (this building, temple, or whatever it was, for the edifice was there 
to speak for itself), when it had been thrown down by an impious act of 

•• Another reading of the doubtful word may be PRIMARIVS, and I think 
some one suggested PRETORIVM. 1 fear the word is too far gone for any 
one tu venture to pronounce conclusively what the reading of it is. 

•• A question arising upon this inscription is, which of the emperors, 
who called themselves Antoninus, it commemorates. It is a question of 
about fifty years \.< . 180 — 230. On a first view one would refer it to 
Marcus Aurelius, the immediate successor of Antoninus Pius, the first of 
the Antonines, and I see not why it should not belong to his reign, unless 
i lie shown (a point 1 have not examined) that his name is never found 
in inscriptions with the additions Felix and [nvictus. If it shall appear 
that his name dor- not occur with these additions, then undoubtedly it may 
signed to the three years' reign of Eeliogabalus, or to any intermediate 
emperor who called himself Antoninus, and who is known to have used 
those additions. But at present 1 see no improbability in assigning it to 
the emperor so well known by bis name of Marcus Aurelius. 

•■ There cannot, I conceive, be a doubt that there had been some tumult 

at Bath, whether a religious or a political ferment we should probably know 

bad not the edifice been left to -peak For itself. An edifice of some kind had 
been destroyed which this public officer of the Btate restored. I should he 
glad to think that it was a temple or other building raised for purposes of 
heathen devotion, and that the discovery made known to us by Mr. S earth 
might Bupply the occasion of bringing any Roman inscription to bear 
upon that very dark Bubject, the Btate of Britain in the Roman times in 
re peel to the prevalence of Christianity. <>n this it would be premature 

r more than a possible iUggG tioD ; but the conjecture receives wiinc 

countenance from the fact, thai another of the Bath inscriptions, of very near 

the date to which this nni i be assigned, records the restoration to its 

proper u a of a ' Locum Religiosum per insolentiam erutum.' Professor 

. who wrote a Dissertation on thi^ inscription, printed in the Philoso- 

ctions, vol. \l\iib, •"■ d it to the reign ofSeverus. 

•• NflBviufl the Adjutor, a Roman officer, to whose duties sufficient atten 

t '.ii eem bardly to have been paid bj the writers on Roman Antiquities, 

■ em to have been the proper officer to uperintend this re edification. 

I bolievo, is not found in any other inscription discovered in 


England. But in Gruter, civ., no. 9, we have — P. Naevius, Adjutor, in an 
inscription found at Tarracona. We find also, in Gruter, ccclxxi., no. 8, 
Adjutore Procc. Civitatis Senonum Tricassinorum Meldorum, &c, which 
shows that the Adjutor to the Procurators is not an officer unknown to 

We are also indehted to the learned historian of the Roman Wall for 
the following remarks : — 

" I have carefully examined the corrected copy of the Bath inscription. 
In transmitting my views of the way in which it is to be read I beg 
that they may be regarded simply as a contribution towards ascertaining 
truth. In the case of inscriptions that are damaged or obscure it is 
always dangerous to pronounce an opinion without having submitted each 
letter to the examination of both sight and touch, which I have not had 
it in my power to do. As far as my present knowledge goes, I am dis- 
posed to expand the inscription thus : — 

Pro salute Imperatoris Csesaris Marci Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis 
Invicti Augusti . . . Nsevius Augusti libertus adjutor Procuratorum 
principia ruina oppressa a solo restituit. 

" It may be translated in something like this form: — For the safety 
of the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the pious, fortunate and 
invincible Augustus. . . Xtevius, the freedman of Augustus and the assistant 
of the Procurators restored these chief military quarters, which had 
fallen to ruin. 

" The first question that arises here is respecting the emperor specially 
addressed. I find that the names and epithets used in this inscription 
are in others applied both to Caracalla and Heliogabalus, with the exception 
of the word invictus ; and in no other instance that I can find is this 
applied to either of these emperors. I incline to Mr. Franks' opinion, that 
Heliogabalus is the person here intended, for the following reasons : — 
1. On the murder of Heliogabalus his name seems to have been erased from 
inscriptions, or the slabs themselves thrown down. This stone having been 
used to cover a tomb must have previously been removed from its original 
position. 2. From the indistinctness of some of the letters, I take it for 
granted that the inscription is not deeply carved ; this, together with the 
omission of the A in Caisaris, and the occurrence of tied letters, seem to 
indicate the later, rather than the earlier period. 3. Had Caracalla been 
the person intended, one of his well-known epithets, such as Parthicus, 
Britannicus, or Germanicus, would probably have occupied the place of 
invictus; so far as I have noticed, Heliogabalus had earned no such dis- 
tinctions : his flatterers therefore, on his assuming the purple, would have 
no resource left but to bestow upon him the indefinite title of invictus. 

" The next thing which occurs is the name of the dedicator. Mr. 
Hunter remarked that the name naevivs occurred in Gruter. It is not 
without interest to observe, that one of the examples furnished by that 
author (p. civ., no. 9) contains that name with the epithet adjutor 


V. S. 


" The Nsevius of the slab tumid at Bath was a freedman of Augustus, and 


an assistant or secretary of the procurators of the province. We are not 
without an authority For the reading Adjvtor Pfocuratorum. In Gruter, 

p. CCClxxi., no. 8, the following occurs : 



With reference to the office of procurator, Dr. William Smith, in his 
Dictionary of Antiquities, art, Provincia, has tliis remark: — 'No 
quaestors w< re Bent to the provinces of the Caesar. In place of the quaes* 
tors, there were Procuratores Ccesaris, who were either equites or freed- 
men of the Caesar. The procuratores Looked after the taxes, paid the 
troops, and generally were entrusted with the interests of the tiscus.' 
The individual in question was a freedman of the emperor's, and though 
at the time that the dedication was made he was only an assistant to the 
procurators, he might he in training for the personal assumption of the 

•• The woid which I conceive to he prindpia presents the greatest diffi- 
culty. It appears that the stone is damaged in this part. We are neces- 
sarily driven to conjecture in order to supply the vacuity hetween the N 
and the i at the end of the fourth line. The inscription speaks of the 
restoration of something which had become ruinous. If I correctly read 
the other parts of the inscription which seem to he quite plain, this is the 
only word left to reveal to US the precise object of the dedicator's exertions. 

In the Btation at Lanchester, a Blab has been foimd (Horsley, Durham, 

No. .\ii.j, containing on its third and fourth Lines the folio win.;' words : — 


Here we have evidence that there was a class of buildings called prindpia 
which like other buildings would fall into ruin and require restoration. 
This word seems best to Buit the damaged part of the inscription before 
The only letters that we require to draw upon the imagination for are 
the first i i" the word, which has probably been attached to the top of the 
left limh of the n. and the o, for which there is sufficient room on that 
injured part of the atone between the n and the i. Perhaps the word 
prindpia might be translated officers' barracks. The remainder of the 
inscription requires no remai h 

We are indebted to Mr. Scarth's kindness for the friendly permission to 

at, with these remarks by Mr. Hunter and Dr. Bruce, the accompanying 

representation of ihi> inscription, previously to the publication of a memoir 

on the Bubject, which Mr. Scarth has prepared for the forthcoming volume 

of the Transaction of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society. We 

refei our readei to the more lull statement which will there be 

of the various interpretations offered bj other antiquaries. The 

I tone, it 1 1 1 : i \ be observed in conclusion, was purchased by Mr, 

bortlj alter the discovery, and pre ented to the Batb Institution, 

where it maj now be examined, through the liberality of thai zealou and 

intelligent investigator of the remain of Aqua Holis, 

Mr. Poyntek offered some observations on the early Christian 

which decorate the vault of the mo qui of Sta. Sophia at Constantinople. 
lie pi., dm • d of the brilliant vitrified materials employed in 


these works, comprising ml, green, two shades of blue, gray, amber- 
coloured tesserae, and tessera) enclosing a thin foil of gold or silver ; the 
silver, which is remarkably brilliant in effect, being, as it is believed, 
peculiar to these mosaics. These specimens had been given to Mr. 
Poynterby a member of the diplomatic body at Constantinople ; they had 
fallen and been thrown aside during the recent repairs of Sta. Sophia. 
They had apparently been originally set in a layer of fine plaster. 

Mr. DlGBT WYATT gave an account of the peculiar character of the 
mosaics of Sta. Sophia, with remarks on the distinctive peculiarities of 
Roman and Greek mosaics. He brought for examination the work recently 
produced by the Prussian Government, illustrating the Christian monu- 
ments of Constantinople, from the Vth to the Xllth century. 1 For the 
opportunity of inspecting this splendid volume, the members of our 
Society were indebted to the Institute of British Architects, from whose 
library it was brought, and Mr. Wyatt also laid before the meeting, through 
the kindness of Professor Donaldson, the publication entitled, " Aya 
Sophia, «fcc, as recently restored by order of H.M. the Sultan Abdul 
Medjid ; " from the drawings of the Chev. Gaspard Fossati, the Architect 
employed during the works carried out in 1847-48. 2 The first church 
•dedicated by Constantine or Constantius, 326-360, was destroyed by fire 
in the Vlth century, and rebuilt by Justinian ; it was completed in 537, 
every care being taken in its construction and decoration to obviate the risk 
of injury from any like disaster, and it has been preserved to the present 
time notwithstanding the frequent conflagrations that have occurred at 
Constantinople. In 1453, Mahommed II. destroyed all the arrangements 
adapted to Christian worship, and the golden mosaics of the vaultings 
were concealed by whitewash. They had been brought to light anew for 
the first time during recent restorations under the direction of the Chev. 
Fossati, and it has been related that on one occasion the Sultan being 
present when a portion of these gorgeous decorations, consisting of figures 
of sacred personages and Christian emblems, was revealed to view, he 
remarked in French to the architect, " you must cover over all this, the 
time is not yet arrived." 

The gold-ground mosaic, Mr. Wyatt observed, was an old Roman art, 
of which numerous examples exist at Pompeii. This was the opusfigu~ 
linum, as distinguished from the lithostratum, or mosaic formed of stones 
and opaque materials. Until about the year 500, almost all the churches 
in Italy were decorated by the Roman artists in mosaic, and after that 
time by Greek artists : the principal example of the early time being 
procured at Sta. Maria Maggiore, executed in 432. The vaultings at Con- 
stantinople may be regarded as the first great type now existing of Greek 
mosaic. Mr. Wyatt offered some valuable remarks on their technical exe- 
cution, and the characteristic peculiarities of the Greek work as compared 
with the Latin. He has subsequently entered into greater detail on this 
interesting subject in a memoir addressed to the Institute of British Archi- 

1 Alt-ChristHcheBaudenkmalevon Con .Mr. C. Nelson, lion. Sec, on Feb. 5, 1855, 

stantinopel vom v. bis xii. Jahrhundert, and it 1ms been printed in their transact 

&c. By W. Salzenberg, Berlin, 1854. tions. 

Large folio, with 39 plates. A full notice 2 Lithographed by Louis Haghe, London, 

of this important work was communicated 1852, Folio. 
to the Institute of British Architects, by 


and we would refer our readers to the report which has been pub- 
lished in their Transactions. 

Mr. Wyatt also state.! the grounds of bis belief that the windows of Sta. 
Sophia, which are formed of marble slabs pierced in small apertures, had 

1 d filled with coloured glass, probably with plates of the same brilliantly 

coloured material employed, when broken into cubes, in the execution of 
the mosaics. The assertion of the Benedictines, that coloured glass was 
not known previously to the time of Charlemagne, had been generally received 
as correct until recent times, hut allusion to its existence as early as 
IT 600 had been found, and the details now made known regarding 
Sta. Sophia suggest the conclusion that it had been in use in the earlier 
part of the YIth century. Theophilus and other writers allude to the rich 
effect of light coloured by transmission as shown in the Church of Sta. Sophia. 

Mr. WesTWOOD communicated an account which he had received from 
Dr. Shurlook, of Chertsey, describing the remains of a richly decorated 
pavement lately found on the site of Chertsey Abbey. He produced a 
collection of drawings of the tiles which display subjects from the Old 
Testament, I 'avid slaving the Lion, David in the presence of Saul, a spirited 
representation of the conflict between a knight and a lion, and other designs 
Bhowing greater freedom and skill in their outlines than any similar works 
of their date, which appears to he about the close of the X III th centurv. 
Mr. Westwood produced some portions of this pavement, and a fragment of 
I lit, as supposed, of well-baked clay, found at Chertsey Abbey. A 
perfect specimen, since found, weighs precisely I 'lb. 

nnttriuilirs anU »LUorh<J af 3rt eyljibttrtl. 

By lie Cambridge Ahtiquariami Society. — Several fragments of bronze, 
comprising pari of b palstave, a tube of metal, and a broken object of rare 
occurrence, probably intended to he affixed to the end of some long-bafted 
weapon. In form it resembles the mouth-piece of a trumpet, and a similar 

relique found with Roman remains in Scotland, and described 1>V Cordon 
as 111 the possession of Baron Clark, is termed a Roman trumpet.' The 

dilated extremity, however, is nut perforated so as to serve the purpose of a 

mouth-piece. These fragments, apparently part of a h -d of broken 

metal tor purposes of casting, were found, as it ib believed, in Cambridge- 
shire, and had h>en acquired with the collections of the late Mi-. Peek. 
I Saxon ornament-, beads, object- of bronze, &c, from the cemetery 
at Wilbraham, including an example of the pendants of bronze, hearing 
-ome resemblance in their form to latch-ke] -, and of which several remark* 
able t been given by the lion. I;. Neville, From tin' same locality 

Obsequi* . plat* 13, 1 I !• A richly ornamented brooch of gilt 

mi jewels. [( ented IV Irawings by Sir II. Dry den, 

Bart., in tie Memoir on Roman and other remains found in Bedfordshire 
(Publications of the Camb. Antiq, Soc, tto. L845). It was found with 
human remains at Topler's Hill, near Ed worth, Bedfordshire. 

I Mr. Pranks. Several In h antiquities of bronze, from the collection 

of tie- late Mr. T. Crofton Croker, including two curved trumpets, of the 

type peculiar, a n i believed, to Ireland ; they are specially deserving 

eh i found with bronze word and cell . indicating thai 

1 1 inenrium Sept nl rionali ,p 117, plfl ' 


they belong to the same period as those earlier antiquities of bronze. — A 
large celt with engraved ornament, chiefly in chovrony lines over nearly the 
whole surface ; an implement of uncommon form, probably a kind of chisel, 
with a cross bar (compare the last fig. in no 3, Wakeman's Handbook of 
Irish Antiquities, p. 153) - and a singular blunt socketed implement of 
unknown use ; it was presented by Lord Londesborough to Mr. Croker. 
These antiquities have subsequently been added to the collections in the 
British Museum. Mr. Franks brought also for examination the silver ingots 
and broken ornaments found with a large hoard of Roman silver coins near 
Coleraine, as related by Mr. Yates on a previous occasion (Archaeol. 
Journal, vol. xi. pp. 283, 409). The entire weight of the bullion with the 
coins, of which many are in bad condition, is more than 200 ounces. The 
metal is not of very pure quality. This discovery, of which a full account with 
a description of the coins has been given by Mr. Scott Porter in the Ulster 
Journal of Archaeology, vol. ii., p. 182, presents the most remarkable 
fact on record of the occurrence of Roman reliques in Ireland. 3 Mr. Franks 
pointed out three fragments amongst the hoard, the ornamentation of 
which presents no trace of Roman work. Their character is, however, not 
distinctly marked ; some persons have regarded the ornament as analogous 
to that of the Saxon age, but these portions are probably of Irish work, 
and one fragment appears undoubtedly Irish. It is partly inlaid with a 
kind of metallic paste like niello. 

By the Rev. P. C. Ellis. — A square enamelled plate of copper, of 
champleve work, representing a demi-figure of our Lord, with the right 
hand upraised in the gesture of benediction, and holding a clasped book in 
the left. Around the head is a cross-nimb, and the prevailing colours are 
blue, red and white. The plate, now in a very imperfect and decayed 
state by the effects of oxidation, measures nearly 2\ inches in each 
direction ; it had been affixed by four rivets, probably to a processional 
cross, the binding of a Textus, the side of a shrine, or some other object of 
sacred use. This relique of the art of enamel in the Xlllth century, of 
which scarcely any example has been described as found in the Principality, 
had been discovered during recent restorations of the church of Penmon 
Priory, Anglesea, near the old stone altar of rubble work plastered over, 
which was concealed under the floor upon which the communion-table had 
been placed. A detailed account of the church and of this discovery, with 
a representation of the enamelled plate, has been given by Mr. Longueville 
Jones, in his Series of Memoirs, entitled — '' Mona Mediaiva," in the 
Archteologia Cambrensis, Jan. 1855. Third Series. No. i. p. 41. 

By Mr. A. Nesbitt. — Electrotypes of heads of statuettes on the base of 
the " Albero della Madonna," in Milan Cathedral, a candelabrum with 
seven branches, of remarkable workmanship, considered by Mr. Didron to 
be a production of the XII Ith century. See his description and the plates 
given in the Annales Archeologiques. — Casts from the three diptychs of 
ivory preserved in the treasury of the Cathedral of Monza, in Lombardy. 

By Mr. Edward IIoare. — Representation of a bronze weight in the 

- Compare one similar in some respects, 3 See notices of discoveries of Roman 

in the collection of the Royal Irish Coins, &c, in Ireland, Proceedings of the 

Academy, figured in this Journal, vol. Royal Irish Academy, vol. ii., p. 184: 

viii., p. 91 ; and one figured in Mr. Bate- Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. ii., 

man's Vestiges of the Antiquities of p. 187. 
Derbyshire; Introd. p. ii. 

Vol.. XII. 


form of a bird like a duck on an hexagonal pedestal, grotesquely fashioned'. 
It was described as having been dug np, in August last, on the lands of 
Granabraher, a mile N.W. of the city of Cork, and it is now in Mr. fioare'a 
collection. Weight, 2 oz. 12 dwt. Bronze weights of similar fashion 

have 1 n brought to this country from the Burmese Empire. 

By Mr. C. Desbobough Bbdfobd. — A certificate of legitimacy granted 
Bruin by the Consuls and Senate of Cologne, dated March 
1 v . 1661. It Btates that he had made declaration of the legitimacy of his 
birth, and had called in evidence thereof two citizens of Cologne. The 
seal ad causcu had accordingly been appended to the certificate. The 
, of this Beal, which is of circular form, appears to be of the latter 
part of the JLVth century. St. Peter bearing the keys and a hook of the 
gospels, i- represented under a canopy of tabernacle-work ; beneath are 
embattled walls and a gate, typifying the city ; at each side is introduced 
an ( scutcheon of the arms of Cologne, on a chief three crowns. — S. 
i l\ II Mis. COLONIE NSIS . AH . C w 8AS. 

Impressions of Seals. — By Mr. T. Willson. — Seal of the Hundred of 
Flaxwell, Lincolnshire, for authenticating passes given to labourers and 

servants, in accordance with Stat. 1'2 Rich. II., A..D. 1388. The matrix 
has been lately found at Fishtoft near Boston. (Sec Archaeol. Journal, 
Vol. \i.. p. 379.) 

By Mr. J. GrREVILLE CHE8TER. — Impressions from the seal of the city of 
Well8. On the obverse appears an architectural composition, intended 

probably to represent the city, with a demi-figure of the Saviour above, 
en the sun and the oioon, and at the extreme hase are three arches, 
which - < :n tu typify the wells from which the city was named. The 
inscription i- as follows, — bigillvm : commvne : bvrgi : wkli.ii: : termina- 
ting with a star within a crescent. The reverse displays a tree with 
intertwining limbs and large foliage, supposed, as Mr. Chester observes, 
tu represent an ash. Prom beneath its roots issues a copious stream in 
which is Been a pike seized by an heron or a Stork, and other lords fly 
around or are perched on the tree. 4 The inscription is — i{i \\i>ki:a : 
famvli rvoB, with the crescent and star as before. The 

eeal is circular, diameter nearly 2\ inches. The design is boldly cut, 
and the date appears to he aboul 1250. The device on the reverse doubts 
the remarkable Bpring Known as St. Andrew's Well, or 
- Well, which rises near the I'alace, emitting a Btream sufficing 
to surround that structure with it- water-. The church of Wells from 
earliest time- appear- tu have been dedicated tu St. Andrew ; the city 
divided into two parts, the Liberty of St. Andrew, in which Btand 
the Cathedral, Bi hop's Palace, Deanery, Ac, and the town or borough. — 

Se.d of Donald . on of I aid Roe Mac Carthy, prince of Desmond, 

• .1 in L389. Ii i of a circular form ; within an eight-foiled compart* 
ment Qted a mounted figure, bearings jword : there is no indica- 

ol armour, and the bead appears t'> be bare * b 1 : dovenaldi : 
og : i ii. i : n : khui ua< \i;ini'. The matrix was in the possession of Dr. 
Petrie, a- described l»y him, Proceedinj "i the Royal Irish Academy, 
Vol. i., p. 

1 'ill'- arms uf the Citj "i vVelle are rated in the reign of Richard I.: the 

■I vert, a tree charter wu firmed by John, 1200, who 

■ from ill'- fa e lino, in be i nude the oity :> free borough, I rom 

i i • • i . ined. Thi I , w< I m< mi" i - to 

I ■ n i.i i [ncoi | ■'• I '.iili.nii'-iit. 

Notices of Srcfjacologt'cnl publications. 

SUSSEX ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS, relating to the History and Anti- 
quities of the County. Published by the Sussex Archaeological Society. Vol. VII. 
London : John Russell Smith. 1854. 8vo. 

Among the recent additions to archaeological literature, we have the 
gratification of noticing another volume of these Collections, in which 
the Society continue to maintain the reputation which they early achieved. 
It is pleasant to observe no signs of any diminution of zeal or interest 
in regard to their county history and antiquities. The list of sub- 
scribers, as well as the number and variety of the articles, must be encou- 
raging to those by whose exertions the Society was formed. 

Mr. W. D. Cooper has contributed a paper on the retention of British 
and Saxon names in Sussex. He contends that the Danes never esta- 
blished themselves in the county, and points out how very numerous are 
the names of places there, which are of Anglo-Saxon origin, and that a 
few would even seem to have been derived from the British. He also 
notices the large number of Sussex families whose names are referable to 
the Anglo-Saxon language. Such surnames, however, are no evidence of 
descent from Anglo-Saxon ancestors, since there were very few surnames 
transmitted from father to son till many years after the conquest, and 
when, subsequently to that event, surnames came to be assumed or attri- 
buted from places of abode or birth, or from offices or occupations, an 
Anglo-Saxon or Saxon-English word was almost as likely to become the 
patronymic of a Norman as of a Saxon family. 

Mr. Blaauw, the Hon. Secretary of the Society, with his accustomed 
industry, has furnished four papers. One is on the effigy of Sir David 
Owen, in Easebornc Church, near Midhurst, with a copy of his will and a 
codicil. In this we have a more correct description of the effigy than had 
before been published, and good grounds are shown for accepting it as 
that of Sir David Owen, the illegitimate son of Owen Tudor, who, by 
his marriage with Katherine, the widowed queen of Henry V., became the 
stepfather of Henry VI., and was the grandfather of Henry VII. It had 
seemed so improbable that a son of this Owen Tudor should have died 
in 1542, that Nicolas, Baker, and some other genealogists, had supposed 
a generation had been overlooked, and that Sir David was Owen Tudor 's 
grandson. He had even been mistaken for a son of Eenrj VIII. Mr. 
Blaauw has explained this most satisfactorily, by means of the deposition 
made by Sir David himself as a witness at the time the divorce of 
Henry VIII. from his Queen Katherine of Arragon was in agitation ; 
which shows that he was born in 1459, about two years before the execu- 
tion of Owen Tudor, and consequently was only eighty-three years of age 
at his own death in 1542. The will, a document of considerable length, 
was found at Cowdray, and was exhibited by Mr. Alexander Brown of 
the Priory, Easebornc, on the request of Sir D. S. Scott, at the meeting 
of the Institute at Chichester. Though not the last will of Sir David, it 
was evidently an original will, which, on his thinking fit to alter the 



disposition of his property, had been partially erased and interlined to serve 
draft of another will. It is interesting from the information which it 
gives respecting his family, and as illustrating the manners of the age. 
Mr. Blaauw has been at the pains to compare it with the copy of the 
r's last will in the Register Book at Doctor's Commons, and has 
noted the variations. In a paper on the Ornamental Brickwork of a 
Tower at Laughton Place, built in 1534, with some woodcuts, he invites 
attention to Bome remarkable examples of moulded brickB and terra-cotta 
ornaments remaining in that building. Of one of them, the Pelham 
buckle, bearing the date of the erection of the tower, the Institute is 
indebted to Mr. Blaauw for a cast, which is noticed in the eleventh volume 
of this Journal, and by his permission we are now able to give a woodcul 
of it. 

I U illi.iiu Poll 

The '1:1'. payers of the Borough of Arundel, with extracts from the 
Subsidy Boll of 1296 and other MSS., form the abject of another paper 
by him ; and there is also one relating to tome Su tes Monasteries at the 
time of their di solution. This, which is parti) derived from original 

furnishe ie curious particular respecting the condition of those 

that time, tin- oonduct of the inmates, and the manner in which 
tie. \ ted. 

p we have a contribution on the Remain of an 
ancient Mnnoi ' I whui t, illn trated bj a view ol the c 



ruins, a plan, and some mouldings ; and to this is subjoined some account 
of the early history of the manor hy Mr. W. S. Walford, which, in conjunc- 
tion with the style of the architecture, makes it appear probable that the 
house was built about 12.50, by Walter de Scotney, the owner of several 
manors in Sussex, Kent, and Hants, and also chief steward to Richard de 
Clare, Earl of Gloucester ; but having been induced to administer poison to 
the earl and his brother, William de Clare, of which the latter died, he 
was tried, condemned and executed for the crime at Winchester in 1259. 
Even the ruins of domestic buildings of this early date are so rare, that we 
are glad to avail ourselves of the permission of the Committee of the 
Sussex Society in regard to the woodcuts to give Mr. Nesbitt's description 
of the remains of this house with his illustrations. Being near Hastings, 
these ruins may be known to some of our readers. " They consist — as 
will be seen by the accompanying ground-plan (see next page) — of portions 
of a parallelogram measuring internally 
40 feet by 23, and of a porch at the south- 
east angle of the principal building. The 
parallelogram had a low vaulted ground- 
floor, lighted by small lancet windows : 
the whole of the vaulting has fallen, but 
corbels remain in the angles, and traces 
of the arches on the walls. No doorway 
is left, but it was probably in the south 
wall. The entrance to the room above 
this vaulted space was most likely also 
in the south wall ; no part, however, of the 
walls of the upper room remains, except the 
gable represented in the woodcut (see next 
page). The outer door-case of the porch 
has been destroyed, but the inner exists, 
and has good early English mouldings 
(see cut a) ; it had shafts, but these have 
been removed. The groined vault remains, 
though the ribs have fallen. Over the 
porch was a small room, the only access 
to which was by a door leading from the 
east end of the large upper room. It will be 
seen in the woodcut (next page) that a wall 
is corbelled out across the angle between 
the porch and the main building, in order 
to allow of the formation of this door 
way. This small room may very possibly 
have served as a chapel or oratory ; rooms 

similarly placed, and of about the same Mouldings of E. window. Manor House, 

d. * i i j i i at Crowhurst. 

intensions, were clearly used as chapels 

at Little Wenham Hall, Suffolk, and Old Soar in the parish of Plaxtole, 

Kent. 1 The large upper room had a handsome two-light window in its 

east end. The tracery of this window is partly destroyed, but it evidently 

had two pointed lights with a circle above, all unfoliated. The mouldings of 

the arch (cut b, p. 3) are rich; the filleted roll on the outside of the jamb (cut 

<•, p. 3) is rather peculiar; the shafts have disappeared, but the capitals 

Hudson Turner's Domestic Architecture in England, pp. 152, 174. 


...r - 



l_-l_UJL ._' I < > -t 
I I I I 


remain, and are sculptured with foliage of the usual early English cha- 
racter of much elegance. As has been said before, no traces remain of 
the entrance ; it probably was in the south wall near the west end, and 
reached by a flight of external stairs leading from near the porch." 

There is a short paper hy the Rev. P. Freemax, suggesting that the 
"Temple by Chichester," the subject of an etching t. Car. II. copied in 
vol. v. of these Collections for the purpose of having it identified, may have 
been the former church of Saint Bartholomew near Chichester, which was 
taken down many years ago. Another by Mr. Hills, on the stone bearing 
a Roman inscription found at Chichester in 1723, and now at Goodwood, 
gives what is considered an amended reading (in type) of the inscription ; 
but the primary object of this notice of the stone is, to correct the preva- 
lent impression that it is Sussex marble, and consequently a proof of the 
Romans having worked those beds. Mr. Hills states it to be Purbeck, and 
refers to the difference of the fossils (Paludina fluviorum and P. elongata) 
in the two stones in support of his statement. 

Mr. M. A. Lower, to whom these volumes of the Sussex Society have 
been much indebted, has presented us with " Memorials of the town, parish, 
and Cinque port of Seaford, historical and antiquarian," with some illus- 
trations. This ancient town and port form a very appropriate subject for 
a contribution to Sussex history. The spot has yielded evidence of Roman 
occupation ; was a port in Anglo-Saxon times ; and after the conquest it 
was a member of the Cinque ports, and the town became part of the posses- 
sions of the Earls of Warenne. But now the town is greatly decayed, and 
the coast so altered, chiefly from natural causes, that it is no easy matter to 
discover where the port could have been. Some curious particulars have 
been brought to light, and the communication throughout bears the impress 
of Mr. Lower's zeal and industry. It will no doubt be perused with 
interest, though, seeing the space it occupies, perhaps even Sussex readers 
may think that, in what relates to the later portion of the history, more 
selection and even some further retrenchment might have been advan- 
tageously employed. 

From Mr. Figg we have a paper on the Lantern in the Cluniac Priory 
of St. Pancras, Lewes, with plan and sections. It may be unknown to 
many of our readers, that on the site of this priory is a subterranean 
passage, leading to a small circular cell hardly five feet in diameter, also 
underground, which has been generally, if not always, known by the name 
of the Lantern. It should seem to have been under the area of the cloisters, 
the entrance to the passage having been in an undercroft of a building 
adjoining the south cloister. "It is built," Mr. Figg says, "of small 
pieces of faced chalk, while the passage leading to it is of flints laid in and 
grouted." The passage is not straight, and at the first angle is a square 
communication from above, probably, we would suggest, for light and air. 
By the permission of the Committee we are enabled to give the plan and sec- 
tions (see next page), which will render the subject more readily intelligible. 
Mr. Figg shows good reason for believing this small dark circular structure 
to have been a prison or penitential cell, and adduces instances of the use 
of the word Lanterna, for a place of confinement, from the Cluniac statutes, 
and of the word Lantern in a like sense from the examination of the Lollard 
preacher, Thorpe, before Archbishop Arundel in 1407. This may furnish 
a satisfactory explanation of many a subterranean passage in sites of 
religious houses ; to account for which various surmises have passed into 
traditions, that they led to some neighbouring church or castle. 



The Bishop of the Dioi bse haa communicated a letter from Bishop 
Carlton, describing the reception of the Duke of Monmouth at Chichester, 
in 1679, derived from a MS. in the Bodleian library. It shows the fearful 





W F1CC.C.S.A. del. 

state of excitement in which the puhlic mind then was, on the subject of 
elusion of the Duke of York, and the refusal of the King to assemble 

Sib David Sibbalij Scott, Bart., has contributed a copy of the Book of 

Orders and Rules established by Anthony Viscount Montague for the 

direction and government of his household and family, \.i>. L595, 

;i MS. hitherto unpublished, which is preserved at Baseborne Priory, and 

oticed by Sir D. S. Scott in vol. v. of these Collections, p. 187. The 

original MS. was exhibited by Mr. Alexander Brown of that place in the 

Museum of the [nstitute at the Chichester Meeting. It presents a most 

minute and graphic view of the Btate, routine, and domestic economy of a 

nobleman's household at that period, with the prescribed duties of the 

several officers. To tie-'- who Bre desirous of understanding the manners 

of the age in these respects, it will well repay an attentive perusal. Pew, 

nk, will read the introductory observations of Sir D. S. Scott without 

being induced to peruse the Orders and Rules, though al first they may 

appear little attractive to th neral reader. As l ks of the kind, 

relating to the household of a Bubject, are rare, this contribution is the 
more acceptable. 

I'm. ni Mr. Corner there is a communication entitled "Grant per 
cultellum of William the Second Barl of vVarenne." The deed referred 
to, and introduced in the cour e of his observation ni bj thai Barl, 

with the assent of his Counte I abel, to the church of St. Andrew, 

. of land in Southwark. On whicl en ion, as the grant was 

di tance from the land, there was a lymbolio delivery of the pos 
ol a knife. At thai time, and even down to our own i 

bh u ed, •>' a no! net • arj for the tran jfer 

>.f land when the grantor was in in li m tiveyed by of mouth and delivery of the po e ion to the grantee. The deed 

tnportanl only a evidence of the trail action. Bxcepl in vcrj early 


times, such delivery took place on the land, a turf or the like being 
delivered by the grantor to the grantee as a symbol of the land itself ; but 
in those early times, which would comprise a great part of the Xllth century, 
8 symbolic delivery, by means of some chattel, at a distance from the 
land, should seem to have sufficed, if the grantee afterwards actually 
obtained possession in the life-time of the grantor, although without any 
further authority from him as was in Bracton's time required ; or at least, 
whatever may have been the legal effect of it, a delivery of this kind at a 
distance from the land, in addition to the deed, was not uncommon. Hence 
various quaint things that chanced to be at hand came to be employed ; 
such as knives, staves, rings, horns, cups, &c. Some of these, which 
have been preserved as curiosities, are noticed by Mr. Corner. The practice 
to some extent continues in regard to copyhold land : which is still trans- 
ferred by the symbol, commonly, of a rod, though in a few manors some- 
thing else, as a glove or straw, is used. Needless obscurity has been thrown 
over such grants as those mentioned by Mr. Corner for want of sufficiently 
investigating the early usages ; but our limits will not allow us to enter 
further into the subject. 

There is appended to this volume some " Xotes and Queries" relating 
to Sussex matters, and the Report of the Proceedings of the Meeting of 
the Institute at Chichester. 

CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY ; Reports and Communications made to 
the Society, Nos. I., II., III. and IV. London : G. Bell, Fleet Street ; J. Russell 
Smith, Soho Square. 8vo. 

Fourteen years have elapsed since the foundation of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society ; from unavoidable circumstances it is not a numerous 
body, but we have gratifying evidence that it is vigorously fulfilling the 
objects for which it was established. Many of our readers will remember 
with pleasure the opportunity afforded at the late meeting of the Institute, 
for the examination of many local antiquities placed by this Society, with 
the kindest feeling, at the disposal of the Institute to further our object in 
the formation of the temporary Museum. Whilst no general collection of 
antiquities exists in the University, more especially as a depository for the 
numerous vestiges of earlier times which the Fenland country has constantly 
produced, an important service to archaeology has been rendered by the 
Cambridge Society, and by those energetic members who have neglected 
no occasion of securing such reliques, and of thus forming an assemblage of 
most instructive indicia illustrating the ancient condition of that remark- 
able district. 

The Publications of the Society, consisting of Memoirs separately pro- 
duced from time to time in quarto and octavo, comprise a valuable accession 
to archaeological literature, although not so generally appreciated, we 
apprehend, as they deserve. In now directing attention to the labours of 
this Society, it is not proposed to offer any remarks on the contributions 
forming their earlier and more important publications, but rather to bring 
uiiihr the notice of our readers the additions recently made to the minor 
series of their Transactions. The quarto Publications appear at intervals 
as heretofore, whilst by an arrangement attended with considerable 
advantage, the shorter Memoirs communicated at the Meetings are now 
produced in conjunction with the Annual Report. We have now four of 

VOL. XII. p 


yearly "Reports ami Communications" before us, and propose 
briefly to invite attention to some of their varied contents. 

A- a contribution from the evidence supplied by ancient Records, the 
Rev. B. Venables presents to the Society the results of Ins examination of 
the "Nona Rolls," so far as they relate to Cambridgeshire. Mr. C. C. 
Babingtou supplies a Catalogue of the Tradesmen's Tokens issued in 
Cambridgeshire in the XVIIth century, describing sixty-two, which belong to 
the town of Cambridge; ami he has received some additional types since this 
catalogue was published. There are Bixty-eight other tokens also described 
as having been issued in other parts of that county. Such local lists of 
the token- of the latter half of the XVIIth century are valuable, and we 
would direct the attention of all local Societies to the subject. These 

- are becoming rarer every day. and ought to be collected and 
preserved as useful auxiliaries to the history of the places at which they 
were issued, as also in connection with genealogical studies. The com- 
munications are of very varied character, chiefly, however, illustrative of 
subjects of local interest. Amongst them the following claim our notice : 
Some account of a very ran' life of St. Radegunde, given by the Kev. C. 
Bardwick. The life is metrical, and was written by Henry Bradshaw, a 
Benedictine moni of Chester. Remarks on Church and Parochial Libraries, 
by the Kev. .1. J. Smith. On some Roman Pottery found near Poxton, 
Cambridgeshire. Mr. C. C. Babington calls attention to this local discovery, 
which is of much interest, from a very fine Arretine vessel forming part of 
it. During the Institute's Meeting at Cambridge we had the pleasure of 
Beeing the fragments of this vessel, which have been carefully united 
together, bo as to convey a good idea of its original state. We were 
pleased to find that the foot had been recovered since the plate appended 
to this paper was issued. We may next mention a letter addressed by 
St. John's College to the Countess of Shrewsbury concerning the building 
of a library adjoining the fine court of that college, which had been erected 
at her expense. Mr. ('. ('. Babington gives a short memoir on Borne 
antiquities found in Corpus Christi College. A portion of a curious and 
perhaps unique tract, entitled "The General Pardon. '* by W. Eayward, 
imprinted at London, by W. How. for W. Pickeringe, was found at that 
time. It ie much to be desired thai a perfect copy of this tract, printed 
about 1571,, could be obtained. We may also mention as discovered at the 
same time and place Borne curious shoes and clogs belonging to the reign of 
Elizabeth, of which a plate ie given. The e curiouB and possibly unique 
examples of the ingenuity of the "gentle crafl " in medieval times were 
placed in our Museum at the Cambridge Meeting, Mr. C. II. Newmaroh 
rotes on some Roman buildings at Cirencester, thai the 

of many ol them had been raised after the internal decorations were 
completed, on account of the prevalent f il 1- al that place. There is 

ious paper on the Orientation of King's College Chapel, bj Mr. 

R ! i direction of the chapel was obtained IV some observe** 

1( fi.i a oientific purpose by the celebrated mathematician Mr. 

Lftei di cu iug the ubject, Mr. Rigg arrives al the 

conclu ion thai this edifice is a complete exception to the rules of orients* 

id down hv the wi\ I thai theory. Note in erted in a copy 

ill i I 'ias. r Book, i iiini ib some point s of int< n t. 

One "i them i an entry to the effect thai originally the tithe upon b 

in London wore paid bj "o halfpenny for each pound' the house 

which the red to the pai on upon even Sundai and Holy 


day, of which there were sometymes so many, that the tythes amounted to 
3s. 3d. upon the pound. This course was altered by ye decree, and brought 
down to 2s. 9d." Mr. C. TI. Cooper communicates some curious facts and 
documents concerning the Vow of Widowhood. The same antiquary 
furnishes a copy of a Letter from Oliver Cromwell to his sister, and has 
added some curious notes. The next contribution is one of interest, 
especially to the student of Academic history. It is a form of Petition 
addressed to Henry V., about the year 1415, in vindication of some ancient 
usages of the University of Cambridge. The Rev. C. Ilardwick, who 
supplies this document, has added many valuable notes. The last paper 
that we shall notice consists of a collection of Letters of Roger Ascham, 
communicated by and copiously illustrated with notes Mr. J. E. B. Mayor. 
. In conclusion we may express regret that the well directed efforts of this 
Society should not have received the more ample encouragement and 
support to which they are entitled. We heartily desire that the claims of 
National Antiquities may henceforth be appreciated with increasing interest 
in the University, which presents so important a field of investigation. 

Evcftacoloaicnl Jntclltaeiut. 

Mr. Philip Delamotte, one of our most skilful photographers, announces 
for immediate publication (by subscription) a " Photographic Tour among 
the Abbeys of Yorkshire," with notices by Mr. Walbran. The volume, 
comprising twenty-four large view r s, will be produced by Messrs Bell & 
Daldy, 1 80, Fleet-street. 

Several valuable publications have recently been produced by the 
Surtees Society ; amongst these may be mentioned the Pontifical of 
Egbert, Archbishop of York, 732 — 700, from a MS. in the Imperial 
Library, Paris ; the Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels, edited by the Rev. 
Joseph Stephenson, from MSS. in the British Museum and the Bodleian ; 
and the Wills with Inventories preserved in the Registry at Richmond, 
Yorkshire, produced under the care of the Rev. J. Raine, jun. The Society 
claims the liberality of antiquaries towards the achievement of a fresh 
undertaking to which their resources are unequal; it is calculated to throw 
an important light upon the history of the Palatinate of Durham, as well as 
upon national customs and manners. It is the publication of Bishop Hat- 
field's Survey, in the fourteenth century, which will form a valuable sequel 
to the Boldon Buke, compiled in 1183, and already published by the Surtees 
Society, whose labours well deserve to be more generally appreciated. 
Those who take interest in this object are requested to communicate with 
the Rev. James Raine, jun., Newcastle. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. — At the meeting on Jan. 15, 
Mr. Cosmo Innes produced the "Black Book of Breadalbane," preserved 
at Taymouth, and gave an account of the curious memorials, relating to 
the family and their possessions, recorded in it : it contains also several 
portraits, and notices of the paintings executed by direction of Sir Colin 
Campbell, in the earlier part of the XVIIth century, by a German painter 
and the celebrated George Jamesone, some of whose best works still exist at 
Taymouth. Mr. Chambers read notes on a box presented by Alexander 
Pope, the poet, to his namesake and supposed relation, a minister in Caith- 
nesshire. Mr. Robertson read some original notices from the Rotuli 


Scaccarii relating to Barbour, author of " the Bruce ; " and Mr. Scott gavfl 
an account of a silver reliquary found at Dundee. — February 12. The Lev. 
T. M'Lauchlan read a memoir on a collection of Gaelic Poems and 1 1 i-t<>- 
rical fragments preserved in a Ms. in the Advocate's Library, known as 
"The Dean of Lismore's Book," the oldest known specimen of written 
Scottish Graelic. Dr. Scott road a notice of the ancient die of a Scottish 
coin, latch d to the museum. Mr. Brodie gave some remarks on 

clay Dagobas, bearing Sanscrit Btamps from Ceylon : and Mr. Petrie read 
a Description of Antiquities in Orkney recently examined, comprising a 
large burg or round tower, with concealed cells and passages, various 
remains found in the tumuli near the Standing Stones of Stennis, and in 
another barrow at Papa-Westray, apparently a family Bepulchre : also 
further observations on the Pict's House at that place, excavated by Lieut. 
Thomas, R.N. Traces of incised figures have been perceived, resembling 
those mi the stones forming the sepulchral chamber at New Grange, in 
[reland. — March 12. Mr. Jarvise communicated an account of sites in 
Forfarshire where antiquities had been found, presented by him to the 
Society. Dr. Wise gave a notice on the Fort of Barry Hill, Forfarshire, 
now destroyed. Mr. Rhind sent a Memoir on Roman Swords, asserting 
his opinion that the bronze leaf-shaped swords are not of the Roman age. 
The Rev. Dr. Chalmers gave an account of a stone coffin found at Dun- 
fermline Abbey, containing a corpse wrapped in leather ; and Dr. Scott 
contributed notices of Impressions from Seals, chiefly of the Bglinton 

We have the gratification of stating that the Master and Fellows of 
Pembroke College have liberally permitted Mr. Ready to make copies of 
the seals preservnl amongst their muniments, and he is engaged in that 
rich depository. Amongst Mr. Ready's most recent acquisitions may be 
mentioned a fine impression from the seal of Anne of Bohemia, queen of 
Richard IL, and a remarkably perfect seal of that king ; a portion of the 
curious seal of Hubert do Burgh, chief justice in the time of Henry 111. ; 
and the beautiful Beal of John Lord Bardolf, 19 Edward 111. Mi-. Ready 
ha- al-o received a huge collection of German seals, including nearly a 
complete series of those of the emperors from a very earl} period, commencing 
with Charlemagne. Tie \ may be obtained on application to Mr. Ready, 
j. St Botolph's Lane, Cambridge. 

Tie- Asm \i. Mi. mi ig of the [nstitute will be held at Shrewsbury, under 
the patronage of the Viscount Hill, Lord Lieutenanl of Shropshire. 
Announcement of the arrangements will Bhortlj be isBued. 

A'':'' tO /'"</' 7-">. 

tin- preceding aheeta were printed, a further and more direct proof of Godfrey 

having been in the service •>! \\ illhun de Bohun Earl of Northampton, 

who, ire have seen, waa lord ■•! the manor "i vVykea, lia been i<.nn.l in Madox 

Pormulare Anglicanum, p. 349. I' ia a power <>i attorney l\ the Earl authorising Ins 

■ i well beloved Godfrey de la Rokele to deliver seisin of certain lai 

• ii by the I ..'ii I in exchange, and to aco pi Beiain ol othi r-, 
een taken in lien ol them. The inatrument i in French, and waa under 

i irl, and dated a( Ramaden Belhouae, he 6th ol June, in thi 

I . which waa within thirteen yeara after the probable date of the 

M. •!■ I ■ Rokele, Downham and Ramadcn Bclhou 

•'»'lj i i . and the buaineaa to i"- tranaacted under tlie power ol 

: i \' i. nob a wa • liki K i" i" >■ mm. .1 o. t li- Earl'i 

2Tf)e archaeological SJotunal* 

JUNE, 1855. 



Soon after the commencement of my excavations at 
Chesterford, in 1845, 1 became acquainted with a remarkable 
feature in the vestiges of Roman occupation, to which my 
attention was especially directed by the discovery of its 
existence in another part of the country about the same 
time. I allude to the deep pits or shafts from which 
Dr. Diamond obtained pottery of various kinds and other 
Roman remains, in the vicinity of Ewell, in Surrey. 1 Though 
frequent mention has been made by antiquaries of large holes 
filled with black mould and debris, on various ancient sites, 
they have usually been indiscriminately termed rubbish pits ; 
but I am not aware that, with the exception of the investiga- 
tion by the gentleman above named, any steps have been 
taken to elucidate the penetralia of these mysterious reposi- 
tories. From their close contiguity to each other, their 
shape, diameter, depth, and the nature of their contents, 
they are certainly not to be included in any such general 
designation, whatever their appropriation may have been. 
With the hope of establishing this, though scarcely of 
assigning to them their proper purpose, I shall enumerate 
the various peculiarities which have come under my observa- 
tion, leaving to others to form their opinion from the evidence 

1 See Dr. Diamond's account of this discovery, which occurred about November, 
1847. Archseologia, vol. xxxii. p. 451. 



1 may lay before them. In the course of my labours, I have 
examined more than forty of these holes, and I therefore 
approach the subject with Borne degree of confidence. 

In order to enable my readers to understand more clearly 
the meaning of the term circular shafts or holes, in my 
ptation of it. 1 shall, before entering further into the 
Bubject, briefly define their character according to my 
experience- Their existence is easily ascertained in trenching 
the ground, by the particular looseness of the soil in them, 
which too, on being struck at the surface with the wooden 
handle of the mattock, emits a hollow sound in proportion as 
the shaft below is more or less deep. In shape they are 
generally round, if not completely cylindrical, and from the 
moment they begin to descend their form becomes distinct, 
for at the mouth it is sometimes irregular. Their course is 
easily followed through the undisturbed natural soil which, 
when of chalk or gravel as at Chesterford, serves the same 
purpose as the Bteaning of a well, and affords security to the 
workman in clearing them out. Their diameter varies from 
4 to 7 feet, the major part average 4 feet, continuing the Bame 
size a> they descend, but some contract gradually towards 
the bottom ; they have terminated almost in a point in one 
or two instances; and in as many their diameter all the way 
down has not exceeded a yard. Their depth is more 
capricious in the higher parts of the Borough, as it is termed at 
Chesterford, for although some there, as well as in the lower 
ground, do not run down lower than 5, 7. L0, or 11 feet, 
many reach more than L2 feet, and they have been dug as 
deep .'i- 16, L8, 22, and 28 feet. In the lower parts II feet 
is the maximum they have attained, in fact they could not 
,-,1 it without reaching the water, and they range from 
6 to 8 feet, four feel is the minimum in any Bite. In only 
instances, once in the higher, and once in the lower 
ground, have they terminated in water. Their bottoms are 
n iiiiiv dry. These holes are confined to no particular 
portion of the Station, having occurred as often without as 
inside the walls, and very frequently within a few feet of one 

another. Groups of three or four together are not unc mon, 

and in the rectory ground , in December, 1853, and in the 
Bpringofthe presont year,so manj as fifteen were excavated 
in less than half an acre of ground. When thej are more 
than 12 feet a rope and basket, Bucb as well-diggera use, are 


required to empty them ; their examination is therefore 
attended with considerable labour, and is often a tedious 
operation. I mention this in order to account for the 
difficulty experienced in getting out vessels of glass or 
pottery without injury, lying as they do in such a confined 
space and immediately beneath the feet of the workman. 
At Ewell, if I recollect rightly, a railway cutting afforded 
the opportunity of obtaining a vertical section of the shafts, 
exposing their contents to view in situ, and their course was 
distinctly marked by the contrast of the dark soil in them 
with the chalk of the locality. At Chesterford a similar 
advantage was offered only in the gravel pit belonging to the 
parish, where the gravel, which is very near the surface, runs 
deep, and presents a sort of cliff as it recedes before the 
stone-diggers ; in this the black veins stand out in equally 
strong relief with those in Surrey. Two or three of them in 
this locality I shall have to notice especially, when I review 
the objects discovered in these holes. These relics are the 
next and most important part of the subject under consider- 
ation, and they are so numerous and vary so much as to 
baffle all rules in describing. Pottery entire, as well as 
broken, bones of animals, chiefly of bullocks, and oyster- 
shells, are the most general features of their contents, while 
some holes have been found destitute of any such remains. 
I shall therefore commence with the most remarkable shafts 
I first examined, including those in the parish work which 
have come under my notice, and proceed in order of time, 
specifying the dimensions, contents, and their position in the 
ground as my notes serve me, while of those last excavated 
I have kept a regular journal during the progress of the 

By this arrangement I revert to the autumn of 1845, 
when I first began to dig at Chesterford, in a field within the 
station walls, and next to the parish gravel-pit. The first of 
the circular holes I opened here did not run deep, but it 
contained the curious terra-cotta thuridtdum engraved in 
my " Antiqua Explorata," and in the fifth volume of this 
Journal, page 236. When found it was in pieces which all 
lay together ; from the same hole a second brass coin of 
Vespasian, an iron stylus, and a bone pin were taken. The 
two next were also shallow, the deepest being ten feet > in 
it was found a large stone-coloured <>Hu. which, together 


with a large fine red amphora trom the third hole, is figured 
in both the works referred to. These vessels were both in 
fragments, and had to be restored ; the bones of fowls were 
found in the <>Hn for the first time in these pits, and those of 
bullocks occurred in all three. The next deep hole contained, 
near tin' bottom, ;i bone knife-handle — a carved figure of 
Hercules with his club. Of this a representation is here 
given. A deeper Bhafi excavated soon after reached 22 feet, 
proving the must prolific of those hitherto examined. Many 
bones of oxen ami four fictile vessels were found in it ; a 
targe black saucer, a red basin of line ware, not Samian, with 
a pair of tall black cylices or drinking cups. 
with indented sides. All four vessels were 
entire when discovered, but the basin and one 
of the cups were slightly injured by the pick : 
the >aueer lav highest in the hole, the basin 
near the middle, the cups at the bottom. 
About this time a small basin of plain red 
Samian ware, with a potter's name, victoki m. 
was brought to me by a parish workman from 
one of these shafts in the gravel pit. Later 

in the same year, in a small enclosure behind 
some cottages, still within the Borough walls. 
I examined two more round pits : of these I 
have no particular record beyond the fact. 

that a pair of bronze t weezers with an ear-pick 

was taken from one. and a silver denarius 

of Saloninus from the other, but T remember 

many fragments of pottery and animals' 
hones iii both. After an interval of a year 
and a half. I again met with similar shafts, 

ami on the 9th of .July. 1847, a very deep 

one \\;is opened in a field rather more than a 

mile oiilside the w;ills; d0WB tO s feel, two 

small brass coins of Claudius Gothicus, some bullocks' bones, 
limpet and oyster shells, were all thai were found ; at that 
depth, however, appeared a line bronze comb with a double 

of teeth (an objecl of very rar scurrence, formed oi 

metal) ; from 8 to is feet, only potterv in fragments, parts 
of ,-i human -full, a bronze pin, and a plated denarius of 
I -11111110; Inn .-it 20 feei lav a bronze patera, or ladle, 
with trace "I gilding upon ii ; of the comb and ladle repre- 


quarter of ,-i 


sentations are given (sec woodcuts, next page). 2 Between 
20 and 28 feet, at the bottom of the hole, broken pottery and 
bones of animals were plentiful, and at last water appeared ; I 
must observe that it is probable the anxiety of my labourers 
to fathom the real depth, caused them to penetrate beyond 
it and strike a spring. Three vessels, a miniature tun, 3 
(see woodcut) a basin of black glazed ware, resembling that 
found near Upchurch, in Kent, and a common vase, were 
restored from the broken pieces in this shaft. In the 
September following, I explored several more pits just within 
the wall of the station and close to one another. The 
deepest did not exceed 18 feet, but the}- averaged from 12 
to 15 feet. Bones of bullocks were found in all, one 
contained the heads of two ravens and a cock, some the 
bones of dogs, some, oyster-shells ; from one, a roof coping 
tile, without any traces of mortar on it, was taken ; this 
again occurred subsequently in another place. In one were 
found three perfect drinking cups with indented sides ; in 
another, a bottle of pottery and a small basin of plain 
Samian ware ; these, with a second bone knife-handle 
curiously carved, are the principal objects of interest from 
the holes on this site. Later in the same autumn I was 
summoned to inspect a deep shaft in the parish gravel-pit, 
from which two vessels of fictile ware had been obtained, 
and along with them, near the bottom, the debris of a 
beautiful green glass vase. I took away the fragments, which 
have been skilfully restored, and may now be seen in my 
collection in the shape of a modern claret jug (See the 
accompanying representation from a drawing by Mr. 
Youngman). 4 The other two vessels were, I think, presented 
by the Rev. C. Sparkes, then curate of Chesterford, to the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society. In the spring of 1848, a 

- See " Sepulchra Exposita," by the as connected with ancient sepulchral re- 

Hod. H. C. Seville, pp. 7.'5. 74. mains, is given in the Jahrbiicher des 

3 A diminutive tun of fictile ware oc- Vereius von AlterthumsfreundenimRhein- 
curred amount the numerous relicpies of lande. No XVIII. p. 145. Bonn, 1852. 
Roman pottery found in the Ustrinum at * Vessels of glass, of this description, 
Litlington, and now at Clare Hall, Cam- have very rarely been found amongst 
bridge. Archseologia, vol sxvi. pi 45, Roman remains in this country. Compare 
Tlnre is another in the British Museum. <«ne discovered in one of the Bartlow 
The Abbe*Cochet has discovered numerous Burrow*, Archseologia, vol. xxv. pi. 2, 
barilleta of ^lass in Roman tombs in and another found at Sliefford, Bedford- 
France. See his Normandie Souterraine, Bhire ; Journal of Brit. Arch. Assoc. 
pp. 82, .''.'», &e.j 2nd Edit A curious vol. i. \>. 52. 
Memoir by Dr. Brattll <>u the cask or tun, 


Length of tin; original, I in., diam. 2] in. 


Length of the original, £| in, breadth, Sin, 


. ■ , II l: I I in liis 

I. ill. 


Ampulla, or Bottle, of Green Glass. 

Found in excavations made by the Hon. R. C. Neville, in September, 1847, now preserved 
in liis Museum at Audley End. 

Height of the original, 13 inches. 


hole was excavated at the north end of tin' interior of the 
wall; this was only LO feel deep, and is remarkable as 
having contained a Sal Samian ware dish, in fragments, of 
which the first pieces were found jusl beneath the surface, 
and more appeared at int< rvals, until the entire dish was put 
together at the edge of the pit, except one piece which lay 
quite at the bottom. The greater part of the small Samian 
basin found with the bottle in L847, lay near the top, while 
a moiety was taken from the lower end of the shaft, which 
was a deep one : a similar instance occurred in 1 S.~>;3. when 
there was again an interval of several feet between one 
fragment and the remainder of a vessel. These appear to be 
significant facts as regards the purpose and formation of the 
circular pits, to which may be added the remark that many 
of their contents, bones, and especially iron and coins, when 
they arc found, bear marks of having passed through the 
fire. In November, L848, ••lose to the Roman building at 
Chesterford, on the site of Stukeley's " Templi Umbra." as 
many as three Samian ware vessels were taken from one 
hole ; while, besides pottery from others, two bronze finger 
rings were discovered in the same pit. Both these have 
been sel with blue paste, and are figured in the sixth volume of 
this Journal, page 18, together with one of the Samian 
dishes, which has an ivy-leaf pattern, page L6 ; it bears there- 
fore, as usual in embossed ware of this kind, no potter's 

A period of five years, during which little was done at 
Chesterford, brings me down to November, L 8 53, when my 
excavations were renewed, by the kind permission of ill'' 
Rev. Lord Charles Hervey,in tie' rectory grounds. The site 
examined Lies between the wesl wall of the churchyard and 
the southern one of the Etonian station. The following 
catalogue will best show the number ol boles opened here, 
and the interesting nature of their contents, which, in more 
than one instance, would constitute a remarkable find in 
themseh e& 

December 21, L853. Shafl I. Depth, 9 feel 6 inches. 
Contents: Fragmentsof all kinds of fictilia in abundance, 
amongsl them the bottom of a Samian ware vessel, with a 
potter mark, dvocis. A.boul 8 feel deep, a perfect c ylix oi 
black ware, with indented sides; this was broken by the 
pick, bul has been re tored, excepl the rim. At 2 feel from 


the surface, a silver denarius of Septimius Severus was found, 
with the reverse — Indulgentia Augg in Cartii ; Cybele 
seated on a lion. This type is the subject of a fine intaglio 
on cornelian found by the late M. Honncgcr, Consul at Tunis, 
in his excavations, and now in my Dactylotheca, reset in a 
ring. December 23. Shaft 2. Depth, 7 feet. Contents : — 
Many bones of bullocks and broken vases. Two coping roof 
tiles, as in a former hole ; at 4 feet, a perfect black ejjl/,i\ 
with indented sides, lying horizontally in the side of the shaft; 
at the same depth, a short and very thick bone pin, with 
round head ; at 5 feet the soil changed from a black mould 
to a light grey, apparently ashes of wood ; at the bottom, a 
second bone pin, the fac-simile of the first, with a quantity 
of bones of fowls, and two of their legs apparently mummied 
and perfectly preserved. In its descent through the natural 
soil, the sides of this pit had been clearly defined and solid ; 
at its termination, the workmen broke through in one corner 
into another shaft of a similar nature, which, upon examina- 
tion, was found to have been sunk within a yard of the 
mouth, and run down parallel to, but deeper than its neigh- 
bour. December^. Shaft 3. Depth, 10 feet. Contents: — 
Bones of bullocks and oyster-shells in abundance at 8 feet ; 
about the same depth, a bone needle ; a perfect small vessel 
of light-coloured ware, resembling those found with the bones 
of infants, and figured in the tenth volume of this Journal, 
page 21, lay at the bottom. This hole was so close to the 
preceding one, that when emptied of their contents, they 
presented the singular appearance of two open wells, side by 
side, but distinct in their shafts excepting at their bottoms, 
which were both dry. December 29. Shaft 4, near to the 
two last. Depth, 10 feet. Contents: — Animals' bones and 
shards of pottery, amongst them half the bottom and several 
pieces of a fine embossed Samian ware bowl. 

January 9, 1854. Shaft 5. Depth, 5 feet H inches. 
Contents : — More than ninety implements, tires of wheels 
and objects of iron altogether. These are so numerous, in 
such good preservation, and they comprehend so many 
objects novel and of interest, that any attempt to describe 
them would far exceed the limits of a paper not exclusively 
devoted to the subject, while it interrupted the one before us. 
I hope, therefore, in a future number of the Journal, to do 
justice to this remarkable discovery, when the beautiful 



drawings made by Mr. Youngmari, of Saffron Walden, will 
facilitate the illustration of tin 1 most curious articles. 

January 1 -• Shaft <!. Depth, 14 feet. Contents: — 
Bones dl' bullocks and of one dog; at 11 feet a perfect 
pottery bottle, similar in shape to that from another of these 
shafts in L847. Soon after, all the pieces of a Samian dish, 
old fractures, since restored. It lias the potter's name. 
ALBVCI. m. Portions of embossed Samian howls, oyster- 
shells : ;m I- tort, a perfect black urn, of good ware ; at 13 
feet, two dishes of plain Samian ware, one entire, the other 
broken by the pick, since restored; both have makers' 
names ; at 14 feet, two black basins, one of them not quite 
whole making in all seven vessels of fictile ware from one 
-haft. January 16. Shaft 7. Depth, 12 feet. Contents: — 
Fragments of thick black ware, embossed, and plain Samian; 
at <: Int. a second brass coin of Trajan, in good condition, 
injure 1 slightly by fire ; at !» feet 6 inches, all the fragments 
of a black basin, since restored; and at 12 feet, nearly all 
those of a plain Samian ware dish, with potter's stamp. 
January 18. Shaft 8 (this was within s feet of the preced- 
ing one . Depth, 8 feet G inches. Contents : — At 3 feci, a 
bronze ligula, similar to those from the Roman houses at 
A.shdon .nil Bartlow (sec Volume X. of this Journal, page 16). 
Nothing: more was found in this hole. January 20. Shalt ;i. 
Depth 12 feet. Contents: — At 11 feet, two plain Samian 
ware saucers, one entire, the other in fragments, old fractures 
sine,, restored ; the firs! has a potter's stamp silvani. o., 
the second has the ivy-leaf pattern on the rim, and, as is 
usually the case, there is no name impressed on the ware ; 
;ii L2 feet, three vessels of dark ware, two of them black 
,-. perfed when found, the third in pieces, .-ill of which 
were obtained and reunited, making in all five vessels of 
pottery from this Bhaft. January 24. shall 10. Depth. 
L6 feet. Contents: Fragments of pottery ; al 15 feet, 
a perfed urn of the glossy black ware, like those found 
al [Jpchurch, aa in a former instance in one of these 

pit 3. 

January 27. Shafl 11. Depth, 6 feel M inches. Con« 

Broken vessels and hones of animals, among them 

three \, i\ large hone- of a horse, one being a deformed 

tibia. Ai 10 feet, the lower half of a dark urn of thin ware 

containing fl Quantity of bones o| -nine small hud. The 


upper lialfof this vessel head been broken of old, but none of 
the fragments were to be found in the shaft. 

February % Shaft 12. Depth, 8 feet 10 inches. This is the 
first pit on the site which has been entirely unproductive ; 
not even a bit of pottery appeared in the soil. February 
I ."3. Shaft 13. Depth, 7 feet. Contents : — Half a saucer of 
light-coloured ware with a flat bottom. This hole was in 
the shrubbery of the Rectory, on the north of the ground 
containing the others, bordering on the Cambridge high 
road. February 23. Shaft 14. Depth, 8 feet. Close 
outside the churchyard wall, and almost under a large elm : 
the roots had struck down in the loose soil of the shaft, and 
so impeded the pick of the workmen that three vessels, 
which were lying perfect at a depth of 5 feet, were much 
broken. They are all of Castor ware, and on being restored 
prove to be two cyliccs with indented sides ; one red, one of 
slate colour, while the third is a black and red poculum. 
This as also the red cylvv has a pattern on it, one in relief, the 
other in white paint. Great numbers of oyster-shells and 
bullocks' bones were found at 6 feet, as well as a miniature 
axe head of iron, 3 inches long, with a portion of the handle, 
which is slight and also of iron, broken in the socket. In 
the 2 feet below nothing more occurred. February 27. 
Shaft 15. Depth, IS feet. Very near the preceding one. 
The excavation of this occupied three days. Contents : — At 5 
feet a quantity of fragments of pottery began to appear ; at 
6 feet a small Samian basin of plain ware lay broken of old, 
but since restored ; it has a potter's stamp — sachr. f. ; a 
piece of a fine embossed bowl, and numerous bits of vessels 
with bronze pins, and two of bone with a round hole through 
each, occurred at 10 feet : a little lower, oyster-shells, bullocks' 
bones, and red mortar formed with pounded tile. Between 
14 and 15 feet no pottery was found, and the soil changed 
from a dark mould to fine sifted sand, but the black earth 
reappeared soon with a few shards of fictilia, and continued 
to 18 feet, when the water rose from the gravel bottom. 
This is the second instance in which these pits have reached 
the water. There were also taken from this pit a black urn, 
which had been deposited horizontally in the side of the shaft, 
entire, but was fractured by the pick, and another broken 
Samian vessel which was restored : the fractures old. 

Man// 3. Shaft 16. Depth, 4 feet. Contents: — A\rr\ 


few pieces of pottery. Possibly onlythe eommcncenient of a 
pit. March 4. Shaft 17. Depth,5feet. Contents: — The 
same as its neighbour. This was the last of the shafts 
discovered in the Rectory grounds. March 7. Shaft 18. 
In a field, the property of R. Fisher, Esq., about 100 
yards outside the northern face of the Borough walls, the 
foundations of which are still to be traced crossing the 
enclosure from east to west parallel to the Borough ditch. 
Depth, 5 feet 4 inches. Contents: — Fragments of black, 
and some embossed Samian ware. At 4 feet, all the 
is of a plain Samian basin, except one, which lay at the 
bottom: it has been restored, and has a potter's stamp — 
a.capa. f. At the same depth the bones of a dog. March 
24. Shaft 19. In the same field. Depth, 11 feet. Con- 
tents : At 1- fret, a perfect black urn : at 9 feet, all the boms 
of a dog, but no more pottery. 

August 26. Shalt 20. Excavations recommenced on the 
same Bite. Depth, 5 feet 4 inches. Contents: — All the 
fragments of a black dish, of old fracture, since restored ; 
and a piece of a fine embossed Samian bowl. 

October 3. Shaft 21. On the same site. Depth, 7fee1 9 
inches. Contents : — Broken pottery of no importance. 
October 5. Shaft 22. Depth, 8 feet.' Contents: — At I feet 

6 inches, an elegant black pitcher in fragments, since 
restored : many bone- of bullocks and bits of vases ; and at 

7 feet a bottle of dark ware, the handle lost ; this was in 
halves when found. October 9. Shalt 23. Depth, 7 feet 
Contents: Near the top, a silver denarius of Elagabalus, 
much burnt ; at -l feel 5 inches, plated coins of Allectus, one 
of Carausiue and one of Maximianus with an incuse reverse, 
all in good preservation ; a large square iron nail 8| inches 
long. At 5 feet, a square green glass bottle with a reeded 
handle, nearly entire when found, hut broken by the pick : 
almost all is restored. At the bottom a bone pin and a large 
brass coin of Trajan, a little burnt. Octobt r 9. Shaft 24. 
Depth, 8 feet. Contents : At I f< el I inches, all the frag- 
menl of a red Ca tor ware cylix with indented sides : an 
oldfracture. October 10 Shaft 25. Depth,8feet. Con- 
tent* A third brass coin of Constantius, near the top; 

ii'iits of embos ed and other pottery, and a silver 
denariuf of Pau bina Senior, near the bottom. October II. 
Shaft 26 Depth, 8 feet. Contents: Apieceofir ham 


12J inches long, with 2G links ; an iron knife <*it 6 feet 
inches, and a fragment of the upper part of a black 
basin, apparently of Upchurch ware, inscribed in capitals 
scratched below the rim — varriatvs. October 13. Shaft 
27. Depth, 6 feet. Contents : — Bones of a dog. The 
greater part of a cup of red Castor ware, and some other 
fragments, at 4 feet. This pit was larger than ordinary, being 
between G and 7 feet in diameter. Shaft 28. Depth, 5 feet 

7 inches. Contents: — Some bits of fictilia. October 14. 
Shaft 2.9. Depth, G feet 6 inches. Contents : — Bones of 
bullocks and broken vases. October 1 7. Shaft 30. Depth, 
5 feet 6 inches. Contents : — A bronze stylus only, with 
circular flat top for erasing. October 18. Shaft 31. Depth, 
4 feet. Contents : — Bones of bullocks. October 20. Shaft 
32. Depth, 6 feet 6 inches. Contents : — At 1 foot 6 inches, 
a long metal pin strongly plated : a few fragments of 

November 18. Shaft 33. Depth, 5 feet. Contents: — 
At 3 feet, many pieces of two pocula of Castor ware. This 
hole was on a different site, being under the lawn in front 
of the house formerly the Crown Inn at Chesterford, on 
the north side of the Cambridge road, but still within the 
Borough walls. Its diameter being only 3 feet it was 
with difficulty cleared. November 28. Shaft 34. Depth, 

8 feet 8 inches. Contents : — An iron falar, or small pruning 
knife, with socket for a handle. On the same site, as are 
all that follow. November 29. Shaft 35. Depth, 5 feet 
G inches. Contents : — 2 bone pins, a pair of bronze 
tweezers, and a swallow-tailed picker, fitting between 
them, attached to a bronze-hinged loop for fitting on a 

December 22. Shaft 3G. Depth, 5 feet 6 inches. Con- 
tents : — Many fragments of pottery ; a large black 
basin of thick smooth ware, entire when found, but 
broken by the pick: since restored. Shaft 37. Depth, 5 
feet 4 inches. Contents : — Broken pottery, and from near 
the bottom a slight bronze stylus with circular flat top for 
erasing. December 23. Shaft 38. Depth, 10 feet. Con- 
tents : — At G feet, two short thick bone pins, many pieces of a 
Castor ware c///i.i\ a tessera, as it appears, of some marble, 
If inch long by 1 inch across, and ^ of an inch thick, 
without any traces of mortar. At the bottom, the greatest 


part of a black cylue, with indented sides, in pieces. 
D nber 30. Shaft 38. Depth, L 7 feet 3 inches. Con- 
tents : — Many bones of dogs and some of bullocks ; parts of 
the same animal appeared at II. and a^ain. at 14 feet ; 
several bits of a plain Samian ware basin entirely blackened 
by fire, a few pieces of thick Mark pottery, and two of a dish 
with ivy-leaf pattern at between 11 and 14 feet; at L3 feet 
(I indies, four fragments of a fine embossed Samian bowl, 
which, united, made three parts of the vessel, and at I (! feet 
•J inches, the missing portion in one large piece, enabling me 
to restore a perfect anil beautiful specimen of these rare 

fictilia. When complete it measures !' inches diameter at top, 
and 5 indies in height. The subject upon the ware is aseries 
of lions large and small in two rows ; they are at full speed, 
and here and there a hare is represented squatting singly 
among them ; the smaller lions are on the lower row dos-a- 
dos in pairs, and run opposite ways. There is no trace of 
the potter's name in the pattern or any other part of the 
basin. Pull 2 feet 0" inches of soil intervened between the 
firsl 1 pieces and the last ; at the bottom of the hole were 
the fragments of a large black urn : two bone pins occurred 
at lo feet, some oyster-shells, and eight or ten large pebble 
paving BtoneS were found singly at intervals. The excavation 
Of ibis hole occupied three days. 

Januarys 1855. Shalt 39. Less than 10 feet from 
X". 38. Depth, 13 feet. Contents: Nothing entire or 
complete; lull three parts of a plain Samian dish near the 

bottom; hours of animals very numerous, with marks of 

burning; as in the other holes there were many of dogs, 
which were 3acred to Proserpine. January 5. Shalt 40. 
Pour feel from 39. Depth, 20 feet 2 inches. Contents: 
A good many pieces of pottery, chiefly black ware: bones 
of animals in profusion, among them two ?ery largejaw 
bones of an os ; all the bones much burnl and the soil lull 
of ash ; at L8 feel 6 Inches, a perfeel small black urn without 
any contents. January 8. Shaft l l. Depth, 12 feel s 
inches. Contents: A bone pin, bones of bullocks, broken 
pottery, a poller's name 0BREALI8.M. ; at l<> feci, a dark 
coloured urn fractured bj the pick. January !». Shafl 12. 
Depth, o feei i inches. Contents: Broken pottery and 

\ • niiii.i pi pi t umbrai 

\,i .. . 1 1. , 


bullocks' bones. Another hole was found 9 inches from the 
margin. January 11. .Shaft 43. Depth, 21 feet 3 inches 
Contents : — Pottery in fragments, dark and plain Samian 
ware, bones of bullocks and dogs, the skull of one of the 
latter, a large square lump of tula ; at 15 feet, a small white 
mortarium, and a black urn ; the last was broken by the 
pick ; at 16 and 19 feet, a black basin in pieces ; at 20 and 
21, three large and entire urns of smooth black ware ; and 
quite at the bottom, a small plain Samian ware basin with 
potter's name — maccivs. f. Some mussel shells occurred, 
and the bones of oxen were scattered in fragments all through 
this shaft ; scarcely six inches of soil without some bits of 
them. January 13. Shaft 44. Depth, 16 feet. Con- 
tents : — Bones of bullocks, and a very few pieces of pottery. 
At 6 feet 6 inches a large brass coin, so much burnt as to be 
illegible, apparently a Commodus ; among the bits of pottery 
two makers' names, one, — careti. m., the other — minait. 
January 16. Shaft 45. Depth, 10 feet 9 inches. Con- 
tents : — At 3 feet, a very perfect ironfall, semicircular, but 
without handle ; at 8 feet 9 inches, a large white saucer of 
thick ware ; at 1 feet 7 inches, a perfect black urn. 

The close of this catalogue affords an opportunity of 
introducing the following account, which seems to relate to 
these pits, and is taken from Cole's manuscripts in the 
British Museum. He says : — " Mr. Ashby, fellow of St. 
John's, calling on me this morning, December 18, 1769, gave 
me the following account of some antiquities lately discovered 
at Chesterford, digging away the old Roman fortifications in 
order to mend the highway with the materials. He told me 
he received the information from Mr. Shepherd, an intelligent 
farmer of the same town. A fine red dish of very bright 
red earth, exceedingly smooth ; and within a circle was wrote 
arilis. f., and was very fine ware. This was found with 
many other broken pieces, with sheep's bones, at the bottom 
of a well 10 feet deep. A skeleton lay across the top of the 

Since the subject is a novel one, I trust the above details 
may not be found too minute or tedious, but I cannot take 
leave of it without reviewing the principal features apparent 
in them. 

These pits were made designedly, with care, and are not 
the results of a gradual accumulation of the soil, as in Roman 
London, for they have been excavated at Chesterford through 


the gravel, and at Ewcll through the chalk, the natural strata 
of the localities, and their shape is nearly uniform. The 
presence of so many vessels of pottery in the shafts, 
deposited entire at intervals, is a strong evidence against 
their having been used merely as rubbish holes ; a still 
stronger argumenl is furnished by many of them having been 
sunk so near together, but clearly distinct from one another, 
as also by their regular cylindrical form and depth. As 
receptacles for debris an equally large surface of ground would 
have been more easily obtained, and the necessity of going 
bo deep obviated by throwing them all into one. As in only 
two instances, out of so many, the water has been reached in 
these shafts, if they were eyer intended for wells we must 
suppose the Romans to have been perpetually commencing, 
and abandoning fresh wells unfinished. ; but the river Cam, 
which runs within a hundred yards of the west face of the 
Borough walls, and less than a quarter of a mile from nearly 
all these pits, renders the supposition at least most 
improbable. The discovery of the numerous iron articles in 
shaft No. 5, seems to favour the idea in Hewitt's History of 
the Hundred of Compton in Berkshire, where speaking of 
many round black holes in that neighbourhood, he suggests 
they may have been intended lor granaries or storehouses." 
hut the position of their contents in the earth at Chesterford, 
with the exception of one above indicated, sufficiently 
demonstrates this purpose not to have been their general 
purpose. There is another use, (that of Cloaca') which has 
been considered probable for seme holes in another locality, 
and which, although impossible from the diameter and depth 
of those under consideration, I notice, in order to state that 
1 have i level- been able to detect anything, or any appearance 
in the Boil from them, which could justify such a suspicion. 

All the above explanations seem to be negatived by the 
internal evidence of these pits. The only suggestion as yet 
offered regarding their use, with any degree of probability, 
i that they wen- in some manner connected with funeral or 
sacrificial rites, and although the facts which have been 
noticed may point to none in particular, man 3 circumstances 
will be found on considering them, to denote that they were 
The universal prevalence of bones of annuals with 

; . 1 11 :«. II. in 1811, Manning and I 
und Hi 1 nl Surrej . trol iii App p nh iil, 
rtj , in the n«>ighl rh I 


marks of burning, especially bones of bullocks, is alone 
sufficient to give rise to such an idea, nor is the fact of those 
of dogs, horses, and sheep being intermingled, calculated to 
refute it, since all these creatures were sacrificed commonly. 
The bones of the fowl in many of these holes, a bird especially 
sacred, and frequently offered to iEsculapius, together with 
the raven's head found in one pit, point to the same purpose. 
Coins also, whenever they have been found, and iron frag- 
ments appear to have passed through the flames. Fire we 
know to have been an integral part of sacrifice, and sacrifice 
an inseparable accompaniment of Roman funeral obsequies, 
so that the same arguments apply equally to both. Perhaps 
no conclusive evidence can be derived from two solitary 
instances of portions of the human frame found in these 
holes, one mentioned by Mr. Cole in 1769, the other in my 
own experience, July, 1847. 7 The number of household 
vessels, utensils, and articles of personal use in them, are in 
accordance with the customs of Latin burials. Certainly 
many of the former are in fragments, but may it not be 
supposed that having once been hallowed by such a use, 
they were considered too sacred to be employed again, 
and even if they had only been formerly for service in 
the temples, without any reference to funerals. Whether 
these mysterious penetralia were devoted to celebrating the 
obsequies of persons dying on the site, or as it has been 
suggested, of those who dying at a distance could not be 
burnt ; or whether they were simply depositories of con- 
secrated articles which had become unfit for use, of the 
same nature as the favissce, cavities constructed under a 
temple, as we learn from Varro, there is no proof positive. 8 
In order as much as possible to facilitate coming to some 
conclusion on the subject, I have been desirous to place 
on record the results of my experience, and I trust not 
Avithout success. 


"> In the pits at Ewell Dr. Diamond Companion to the Latin Dictionary, r . 

noticed portions of burnt human bones, Favissce. 

the animal bones all being unburnt Ar- 9 Since the above was written, twelve 

chseologia, vol. xxxii. |>. 452. more holes have been excavated at Ches- 

s Three of these pits were found under terford ; the results of their examination, 

a temple at, Fiesole, filled with broken which are inserted in their order in the 

musical instruments, implements, utensils, catalogue, are strongly corroborative of 

lamps, damaged fictilia, &C. See Rich's some of the observations I have made above. 



To tlioso readers who may take an interest in prosecuting investigation 
of the Bubject brought before the Institute hy Mr. Neville in the foregoing 
memoir, the following references to ether discoveries of a similar nature 
may prove acceptable. It is remarkable that, so far as we are at present 
informed, no depositories of this description have been noticed at Roman 
station- or towns on the continent, with the exception only of the favissce, 
formed, as we learn from Festus and Varro, underneath or near temples, to 
rec< ive objects connected with sacred rites, which had become unfit for use. 
Such places existed, as it is supposed, in the Capitol, and have been dis- 
covered in recent times under a ruined temple al Fiesole. There appears, 
however, to be no conclusive evidence to connect any of the pits found near 
Roman station- in England with a place of heathen worship. Amongst 
discoveries of pits of the same description as those made known to us through 
the indefatigable zeal and intelligence of Mr. Neville, the following may be 
noticed. Such shafts have been found in London, and were described bj 
the late Mr. rlempe, in Gent. Mag., Dec, 1838 ; n pit of large size, opened 
in < 1 i lt -_i ' 1 1 1;- the foundations for the new Royal Exchange, is described bj 
Mr. C. Roach Smith as containing, amongst refuse of all kinds, modelling 
tools and implements of steel in most perfect preservation. Mr. Roach 
Smith Btates that similar pits have occurred at Springhead, near ( rravesend, 
and he has noticed those found at Richborough, in his Antiquities of that 
pine, j, 55 An account also of certain shaft.- found in the Isle of Thanet, 
is given in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. i. p. 328. 
They have occurred near Winchester, as described, Gent. Mag., Oct., 1838; 
at Swell, Surrey, as stated in Mr. Neville'.- Memoir ; and at Stone. 
Buckinghamshire, described in this Journal, vol. viii. p, 95, and bj 
Mr. Akerman, in the Archseologia, vol. xxxiv. p. 21. A considerable 
number of these remarkable cavities have been excavated by Mr. Trollope, 

in the -tone quarries near the North Gate al Lincoln, and liuinerou- 
mentS of Roman pottery, (fee, with animal remains and dehris of all kinds, 
were found. In Scotland several CUrioU8 shafls of the like nature were 

noticed near Perth bv Pennaut, who describes them as cylindrical pits sunk 

as places of Sepulture. Tour in Scotland, vol. iii. p. 109. More recently. 

railway operations have brought to light, near Newstead, Roxburghshire, 
I remark . two of which were built round with stones. They 

contained, amidst black -oil ami animal remains, pottery, shells, hones of 

deer and oxen, a human skeleton ereel with a -pear at its side, accompanied 
i . Roman fictilia, and other reliques of the Bame age. See Dr. Wilsons 
Prehistoric Annals, p. 382. Mr. Wright, in The Celt, the Roman, ami the 
m, p, 179, adverts to the discoveries of Buch "Rubbish Pits "near 
Roman town and con i ha th< m to be cloaca which had become common 
for n fu ■■ oi ev( i j description. Dr. Diamond and Mr. Akerman 
concur in the opinion adopted by Pennanl ami other writers, that thej are 
to be pulchral. Mr. Akerman, in his Memoir on the dis- 

iggests, with much probability, that 
•ucb i ■ ded the puticuii t depo itoriee lor the ashes ol the 

humbl in Roman timi . thu described by a writer of the f 'th 

centui I iicu "Sunt in uburbanii loca publica, inopura 

qua loca culinai appellant . " 


In pursuance of the plan I have hitherto adopted of 
inquiring into the history of those national Councils which 
have been held at the places where the Archaeological Insti- 
tute has annually met, as well as to continue a series of 
remarks upon the history of our representative system, it is 
my intention at present to illustrate the Parliaments held at 
Cambridge. When tracing the changes that have taken 
place in the English constitution, it cannot fail to be observed 
how gradually all these have been effected. The alterations, 
when viewed from first to last, have undoubtedly been very 
extensive, but we never seem to have made reforms with 
violence, or without mature deliberation ; at any time to 
have lost respect for ancient usages, or to have forgotten the 
spirit that pervaded our institutions. Thus the prerogative 
of the Crown and its hereditary descent have always been 
considered inviolate, limited by certain fixed principles, but 
still fully recognised and legally transmitted in every enact- 
ment. And in the same way the old feudal power of the 
barons is seen to perpetuate its recognition in the dignity of 
the peerage and in the part it acts in the councils of the 
realm, whilst the people with their improving condition have 
obtained a direct voice in all the acts of legislation. By 
these means the range of deliberation grew much wider, and 
all subjects connected with the constitution assumed a more 
consistent form. 

As a passing exemplification of these remarks, and to 
refer to some previously made, it must be observed thai the 
first national council, called a Parliament, held at Oxford, 
42 Henry III. (1258), adopted a representation by twelve 
barons; whilst, in the instances of York and Lincoln, which 
have previously been noticed, we observe the earliest sum- 
monses to the burgesses to send members to Parliament. It 
is needless to follow the intermediate steps of improvement, 
as they have already been sufficiently discussed in the 
memoirs alluded to. Yet as one of the transactions in the 
Parliament held at York in the fifteenth year of Edward 11. 
is the great authority lor the legislative power rested in the 


King and Parliament united, it may not be irrelevant to the 
present inquiry to stair, that in this Parliament of York, the 
constitutional law of the land was placed ona more extended 
foundation than the Greal Charter granted by King John 
had contemplated. In reality, it was a clear acknowledg- 
ment that the Commons had a right to share in the legisla- 
tion of the kingdom, and to unite their opinions with the 
crown and the upper house in all important affairs of the 
Btate. For whilst the provisions of Oxford introduced the 
nobility into the councils of the monarch, as being repre- 
Bentatives ;i i that time for the people, whilst the people 
themselves were gaining fresh privileges during the whole 
of th" reign of Edward I., and creating that regenerative 
influence which counteracts the tendency el' all governments 
to grow internally weak, and of Liberty itself to decay ; -whilst 
Parliament was formed of peers, spiritual and temporal, of 
knights, citizens, and burgesses, acting under the king; in the 
assembly held at Fork, it was laid down that all legislative 
power belonged to the king, with the assenl of the prelates, 
earls, and barons, and the commonalty of the realm. So 
that in this memorable convention we have the declaration 
that every act not done by that authority should be void and 
of none effect. 

After this explicit definition of legislative authority, it 
need nol excite our surprise that few changes took place in 
oin- constitutional system during the reign of Edward [II., or 
indeed for a long period afterwards. This monarch confirmed 
on several occasions the charters of his predecessors, to which 
he was obliged by the necessities of his foreign wars; ami it 
was mainly owing to his exigencies thai vre find him so fre- 
quently imposing taxes without the consent of Parliament. 
This disregard, however, for tin' opinion of his people, 
tended to establish the imposition of aids in the twenty-fifth 
year of his reign, on a more equitable basis. The principles 
of taxation were not, il is true, ai this time clearly defined, 
which U the only excuse thai can be offered for the monarch's 
arbitrary conduct. Ye\ the commonalty always viewed these 
taxations with bo much jealousy, that every fresh imposition 
led to the acknowledgment of those fiscal principles which 
are no* jo fully established. 

when diehard II. a cended the throne he was only ten 
year and a half old, Everything concurred t<> place the 


youthful monarch in the most favourable position, but all the 
advantages he derived from his father's popularity and from 
his own natural innocence and gracefulness of person, were 
defeated by his falling into the hands of John of Gaunt, Duke 
of Lancaster. The youthful ruler found the kingdom in- 
volved in war, yet neither the internal insurrection of his 
own subjects, or the expensive hostilities that were carried 
on with Scotland and France can reasonably be attributed 
to his own want of prudence. The seeds of discontentment 
Avere already sown, and it is unreasonable to charge all the 
early acts of this reign upon a prince who was little more 
than a boy, and who for some time to come could not reach 
years of maturity or discretion. It is enough to consider 
him responsible when he was a free agent, and the author of 
his own measures, which he certainly was not, even at the 
time he attained his majority. It, however, forms no part 
of our present object to inquire into the history, the pride, 
the weakness, or the misconduct of this unfortunate monarch. 
Whatever may have been his faults, whether of indolence or 
love of parade, he had much sagacity and penetration. And, 
if he has been described by some as vindictive and weak, it 
must be recollected that he was also generous and munificent. 
"When the political events of the entire reign are reviewed, it 
will be found that after the confusion and impoverishment 
that preceded it, after the discontentment and insurrections 
he already found distracting the kingdom, he did not indi- 
vidually attempt to govern it by unconstitutional means. The 
usurpers of power during this reign were the barons, rather 
than the crown, and he suffered from a reasonable resistance 
to this interference with the regulation of his private affairs, 
as well as from the efforts of his council to become inde- 
pendent of Parliament. Moreover, when we consider the 
great wars Richard was engaged in with France and Scot- 
land, he was the first of our English kings who did not draw- 
support for conducting them by the enforcement of arbitrary 
aids or oppressive subsidies. Considering Richard II. reigned 
for nearly twenty-two years, there is no period in our annals 
of the like duration so barren of historical interest. The 
agrarian outbreak under Wat Tyler, when he vindicated his 
character from the imputation of cowardice, and the rise of 
Lollardy unopposed by royal persecution, are in fact the only 
two leading points to which attention is commonly directed. 


Yet we must not forget to whatsoever cause it may be owing, 
whether to the supine and luxurious habits of Richard, to 
the ambitious views of his uncle, John of Gaunt, with whom 
it was an object to diminish the authority and influence of 
the king, or whether to the rising Bpirit of liberty amongst 
the people, and to a greater division of the Legislative power, 
the constituent parts of this became very clearly defined and 
established during the reign. 

In elucidation, it is necessary briefly to advert to the 
actual state of the three branches of the constitution at this 
particular time. The right of hereditary succession to the 
crown has been fully admitted as a fundamental principle, 
though from various circumstances four monarchs, Rufus, 
Henry I.. Stephen, and John had attained it. who were them- 

3 out of the direct line of succession. Though the 
genera] voice of the kingdom assented to a deviation in these 
particular instances, it was held then as it has been main- 
tained ever since, that the principle was inviolable. The 
Language, in short, of all the official documents proclaimed 
Richard II. as king by hereditary right, whilst the settle- 
ment of th'- crown upon Henry 1 Y., his successor, was 
Limited, and by this expression the act was made the more 
remarkable, Limited t<> this kin/ -t son. Just as the 

Parliament of the first of Richard III., and again the first of 
Henry VII., entailed the succession to their respective issue 
and to their heirs. 

And I-, extend tin' proof still farther, the deposition of 
Henry VI., of Richard himself, and of .lames II., show 

distinctly, more especially in the two former cases, how 
opposed the English nation was to convert its emergencies 
under these two monarchs into a standing law. Whenever 
it was deemed accessary, these deviations from the direct 
Line oi iion were permitted, but the ancient founda- 

svere never destroyed. Ii is, however, needless ti 
more on a vital principle of the English constitution thai has 

o abh discussed by Mr. Fox in his speeches on the 
I; acy Hill, as well as by Burke in his Reflections on the 
French Revolution. And. indeed, a v^ery casual examination 
of our history will prove that it acknowledges no a tiom mere 
fully, that it holds no attribute of the sovereign to be more 
important, nor that any should he mere jealously defended 
from penl. 


We next observe the crown during this reign freely exer- 
cising its right of creating peers by patent, of confirming the 
representation to counties, cities, and boroughs, and ratifying 
to the people the law of usage. It will be at once perceived 
that all these things show a very advanced state of the 
English constitution. 

The official functions of the barons underwent no change. 
They continued, as in the previous reign, to form an integral 
portion of the legislature. But their liberties became now 
considerably extended, from the concession made by Parlia- 
ment in the eleventh year of Richard II., that all matters 
moved in that assembly concerning them should be discussed 
in Parliament, and not settled by the common or civil law of 
the land. In this enactment we see the origin of that privi- 
lege which has been since assumed by both branches of the 
legislature, much abused on several occasions by the lower 
house, and presenting there, what is a dangerous anomaly, if 
it has not grown into an infringement, or a violation of the 
law that ought to regulate the equal administration of justice. 
Numerous instances could be readily adduced to show that 
when the privileges of Parliament itself are concerned, those 
who are guardians for the people to preserve their just 
rights, have not always, especially where individuals and 
parties are interested, manifested such impartial conduct as 
their constituencies might properly expect. Witness the 
events of Richard IP's reign when it is apparent that the 
faction that was uppermost invariably directed the proceed- 
ings. Nor are instances wanting, if this were a fit occasion 
to produce them, which would show how in very recent 
days the peers exercising their judicial functions without 
reproach or inconsistency, the commons have usurped power, 
which some of our ablest constitutional writers, men who 
have filled the very highest judicial offices in the state, 
have declared to be untenable and illegal, as precluding the 
royal prerogative of mercy, and according to a decision in 
the House of Lords in 1701, being subversive of the rights 
of Englishmen. 

The changes experienced in the representation of the 
people during Richard IP's reign were so trifling that they 
require no observation. It is, however, worthy of a passing 
note, that in his first Parliament the commons prayed 
him to grant them an annual meeting of Parliament, in a 


convenient place, a very different object to tlie one modern 
agitators have sought for under annual elections. But to 
this request the advisers of the king replied, let the statutes 
be kept as to the meeting of Parliament, and as to the place 
the long will do his will. Whatever differences may have 
existed betwixt the king and his council, the power of deter- 
mining the place of meeting seems invariably to have rested 
with the monarch. 

Having qow stated, as succinctly as the subject admitted, 
what were the changes and what was the actual state of our 
constitution during the government of Richard II., we come 
prepared to review the acts of that particular Parliament 
which the king, through virtue of the right just alluded to, 
summoned in the twelfth year of his reign to meet him at 

When what was termed the Merciless Parliament met in 
the previous year, the nation was in a great excitement, and 
it may he presumed that the chief reason for Richard fixing 
upon Cambridge as the seat of his councils, was that he was 
here in greater security than in London, for no business 
relating to the university was transacted on the occasion. 

The king was in his twenty-second year when he ordered 
the writs issued for this Parliament. Like the other trans- 
actions <■(' the reign, there is little light to be thrown upon 
its proceedings. There is hut one Liberate RoH'of the period, 
and that one docs not contain anything relating to this con- 
vention. The Clause Roll has preserved the writs of sum- 
monses, and from this we learn that the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, the keeper of the spiritualities of York, eighteen 
bishops, twenty-three abbots, including those of Ramsey, 
Croyland, Thorney, and Bury, which shows thai they were 
then important foundations, fifty three barons, other judicial 
functionaries, besides knights from the different counties, 
and burgi »m Bristol and London, were summoned to 

attend according to the usual form. The Parliament sat 
from the 9th of September to the 17th of October, during 
which time the king watched the proceedings on the spot. 
A earch among I the public records has failed to produce 
any now evidence of historical importance touching the 
Bubject before us, so that we must be satisfied with simply 
knowing that this great council of the realm enacted a 
Btatute thai till remains unrepealed, the original ot which is 


preserved amongst the rolls of Parliament in the Tosver ; 
and the copy printed amongst the statutes of the realm will 
supply us with the means of inquiry into its provisions. 

The Statute of Cambridge contains sixteen clauses. It 
will be necessary to notice three of them. 

The second provides for the impartial and incorrupt ap- 
pointment of the various officers or ministers of the king, 
and that none of them should receive their situation through 
gift, favour, or affection, but that all such should be made 
of the best and most lawful men. The third relates to 
enactments previously made concerning labourers and arti- 
ficers, confirming those regulations that were unrepealed, 
and ordaining that no servant or labourer should depart out 
of the district where he dwelt without bearing a letter 
patent, stating the reason, and if detected he should be put 

in the stocks. The fourth clause regulates the wages of 

© © 

servants in husbandry. This seems to have been an ampli- 
fication of the statute passed with this express object, 
called the Statute of Labourers, in the 23rd year of the 
preceding reign (1349). The same subject was considered 
in several succeeding Acts of Parliament down to the 1 1 th 
of Henry VII. (1496), when, as it is stated, for many reason- 
able considerations and causes, and for the common wealth 
of the poorer artificers as free masons, carpenters, and other 
persons necessary and convenient for the reparations and 
buildings, and other labourers and servants of husbandry, 
those regulations should be void and of none effect. This arti- 
ficial system of fixing by any legislative enactment the value 
of labour, even in days when our industrial sources of wealth 
were most imperfectly developed, was found to be utterly 
impracticable. It was just as inapplicable to the true 
interests of employers, as the converse has proved to be to 
the artisans and labourers who in their turn, by the destruc- 
tion of machinery, by agrarian insurrections such as those 
under Wat Tyler, and by lawless multitudes assembling 
under a fanatic like Sir Thomas Courtnay, or by strikes, by 
trades unions, or by menacing combinations, of which there 
are unhappily several recent and calamitous instances, have 
inflicted a far greater amount of misery on themselves, 
than of inconvenience and loss upon their employers. But 
the various evils arising from monopoly and dictation are 
better suited for the speculations of the political economist, or 
vol. xii. r 


of the active b( nevolence of philanthropy, or of education, than 
for a dry enquiry like the one now engaging the attention. 
We must, however, all feel impressed by reflecting upon the 
social mischiefs that have so often disturbed the relation 
subsisting betwixt two classes in the community, and lament 
that with the advancement of civilisation and moral know- 
Ledge, the fallacious doctrines of communism are not in our 
d.-i\ - quite exploded. 

There I- but another clause in this Statute of Cambridge 
that seems to call for remark. The thirteenth may truly he 
considered as the earliest notice taken by the legislature of 
the health of towns. It is a sewage, nuisance, or sanitary 
clause, prohibiting, under a penalty of 20/., any person 
from casting annoyances into the ditches, rivers, or waters, 
or laying them nigh divers cities, boroughs, and towns of 
the realm, by which the air is greatly corrupt and infect, 
and maladies and other intolerable diseases do daily happen. 
This at tots, contrary to what has often been asserted, that 
England was behind other countries in Europe in the pro- 
visions made for the public health. 

Before the Parliament was dissolved, it granted a fifteenth 
and a tenth, which was perhaps the chief reason for its 

being called together. It is singular that not any petitions 

should have heeti ] dvseiitei I to it — at least none have been 

preserved. And there is but one illustration that has, after 
a diligent search, presented itself for notice, namely, thai 
the Issue Roll of the Exchequer gives the expenses (1/. As. 
id.) of two individuals for conveying charters, rolls, and 
other memorials to the Parliament: another also received 
l'»v. \ii. which the king ordered to be paid him for red wax 
lor the office of his Privy Seal, bought from divers persons 

at London, Oxford, and Northampton, when the Parliament 

was held at Cambrid 

1 Bxitaa ill- tormina S. Michaelia Anno aaornin pro riagio prcedicto. Per con- 

I . ■ Dii Luna xix° # die Octobria, bmi um Phi mrarii ei camerariorum, 

Thorn i I •' twold Thnmoe Reatwold uni \> 
num. i:ii'. i um de Eteccuta Scaccarii mi i Thomaa Monk. Thomco Monk nuncio 

CiimIi lif : nun > i •! nn per iluini mini I'm s'liiraiimn de 

aliiamemorandia de Scaocario, et ad eadem Cantebngia aaque London rum literia 

i ! ■ . i in Parliamento dicti dotnini Tin nurariidirectiaJohanni 

! m lento, demonatranda, pro Innocent clerico pro certia necociisoffl 

itioni in eiadem rotulia e( ciiim dicti 'l ini. Tlieaaurani conoer 

menuira In deuariia sibi nentibu . 't redeunti rorau I miabr, 

prtediciani i" con i , icii Thomaj 

, ac pro location* uuuorum Reetwold In denariia ibi 


A second Parliament was summoned to meet in Cambridge 
in the 15th of Henry VI. (1437), but the place of meeting 
was afterwards changed to Westminster. 

And a third Parliament was summoned here in the 25th 
of the same reign (1447), but by a re-issue of the writs it 
was removed to Bury St. Edmunds, and held in the Refectory 
of the Monastery. The town first sent representatives 2Gth 
of Edward I. (1298). The university not until the reign of 
James I. 

After the great constitutional enquiry we have been con- 
sidering, it is readily admitted that the two preceding 
entries on the Issue Roll are in themselves very trifling illus- 
trations of the subject. But they possess a certain degree of 
value, as serving to convey a definite idea of the exact mode 
of conducting the common routine of official business — whilst 
such minute entries as these bring out the early passages of 
national history with a distinctness that is very encouraging 
to those who are actuated by a zeal for research, as well as 
being in themselves highly characteristic of the accuracy 
with which all the public acts of the Crown were recorded. 
It has often been thrown out, as an undeserved aspersion 
upon diligent and laborious writers of the history of ancient 
times, that they unduly estimate these little evidences, but 
they form in reality some of those strong links that serve to 
strengthen and hold together the entire chain of historical 
fact — and whoever presumes to pursue his researches, whether 
they lie in the wide field of history, or the more uncertain 
labyrinth of archaeology, without paying a conscientious 
respect to the various little details that bear upon them, 
will obtain but a very confused and superficial notion of the 
object of his enquiry. Those who have trained themselves 
in this precise method of investigation, who draw their 
information from pure, original and authentic sources, who 
consult unpublished records, and decipher the nearly illegible 
characters in which they are written, and who, therefore, 
produce some fresh reality, quickly find that such a system 
brings with it its own recompense. The vivid colours in 

manna proprias pro vadiis et cxpensis suis, rubra empta de diversis personis videlicet 

xii- iii' 1, tain apud London, OxOD. Nniht., quam 

Robertus Chaundler. — Eidein Roberto spud Cantebr., tempore ultimi Parliaiuenii 

in denariis silii liberatis per manua pro- Regis ibidem tenti, pro officio privati Si- 

prias in peraolutiouem, w s - iii 1 , quos do- gillS Regis proedicti, xv 8- iii d ' 
minus rex sibi liberari inaudavit pro cera 


which they behold displayed what was hitherto uncertain 
and dim is beyond doubt a pleasing vision, but it is not si 
false or unsubstantial creation, since it foreshadows the con- 
viction, thai they arc breaking up new ground, and sowing 
those Beeds of truth which will effectually dispel the doubts; 
as well as lighten the toil, of future labourers. 



A document relating to this subject, which has been 
recently discovered among the records preserved in the 
Tower, 1 has been brought under the notice of the Institute, 
through the kindness of Mr. William Twopeny. It had been 
communicated to him by Mr. William Basevi Sanders of the 
Record Office there, whose researches have at various times 
been productive of information connected with the details of 
medieval architecture. There is no date, but from the 
hand-writing the record has been supposed to belong to the 
early part of the reign of Edward II. It is a petition to 
the king and council in the following terms : — 

" Pleise a nostre seigneur le Roi, pur lamour de Dieu, et pur 
oevre de charite, comandier a son Tresorer paier a Wautier le 
Marberer de Londres et a Johanna sa femme viij livres, pur 
merin pur les Hales, faites au Noef Temple ou le dit nostre 
seigneur le Roi fust fait chivaler." 

Indorsed is the following answer to the application : — 

" Aconte la ou devera, et en soit le Roi certifie." 

Brief as it is, this document involves some particulars of 
historical interest. It may be thus rendered into English: — 
May it please our lord the king, for the love of God, and as 
an act of charity, to command his treasurer to pay to Walter 
the Marbler of London and Joan his wife 8/. for timber for 
the booths made at the New Temple where (or possibly 
when) our said lord the king was made a knight. The 
answer indorsed is, — Account for (i. e., pay) it where due, 
and certify the king thereof. 

Though undated, the contents show that the inference 
from the hand-writing is in all probability correct. 

The New Temple, it is, perhaps, needless to mention, was 
on the site of the present Temple ; the Old Temple having 
been near the site of Southampton Buildings, Chancery 

1 Petitions to the King in Council. M., 264. 

138 Tin: "hales" at the new temple 

Lane. The Templars took possession of their new house as 
early as the latter part of the twelfth century. 

The first inquiry suggested by the petition is, on what 
occasion was it that timber had been furnished for erecting 
booths in the New Temple % From Rymer 2 and M. West- 
minster 3 we may, I think, collect a satisfactory answer. It 
appears that in April, 1306, King Edward 1.. preparatory to 
his last expedition into Scotland, was minded to knight his 
eldest son and heir-apparent, Prince Edward, who had 
attained the age of twenty-two years without having had 
that distinction conferred upon him. The king, therefore, 
summoned all those young noblemen and gentlemen, who 
were hound by their Ires to take such service, and had not 
been knighted, to attend at Westminster on the feast of 
Pentecost next, and there receive knighthood, promising 
them rich military garments out of his own wardrobe. 
At the time appointed, there assembled 300 young men, 
-uih of earls, barons, and knights, and because the king's 
Palace at Westminster was not largo enough to lodge them 
and their attendants, recourse w r as had to tin' New Temple. 
where tin' apple-trees in the gardens having been cut down, 
and some walls removed, booths and tents (papiliones et 
tentoria) were erected I'm- their accommodation. The prince 
and the \ oung men of noblest birth kept their \ igils at West- 
minster, wheiv. as the ehroiiieler tells us, there was such a 
Qoise of trumpets and pipes, ami such a clamour of voices, 
that the monks could not hear themselves from one side o{' 
the choir to the other. The other candidates, most likely 
the more numerous party, kept their vigils in the Temple. 
The next day the king knighted the prince in the Palace at 
Westminster, having given him the duchy of A.quitaine to 
support his new dignity. The prince then went to the A.bbey 
Church, thai ho might confer the like honour on his com- 
panions, and so great was the c< acourse of people before the 
principal altar, that two knights were killed, and many fainted, 
though each candidate was attended by three knights to con- 
duct hi in through the ceremony and take care of him. It should 
i i he pressure was Buch that in the church the way had to 
I" kepi by war chargers, (dea trarios bellicosos), and the prince 
could nol gird his companions with the military bell except. 

• H\ > , i.. .^ . dil ii.p] Bub anno 1806, 


upon the great altar {super magnum altar e) . Another chronicler, 
quoted by Selden, 4 says, that the prince knighted sixty of the 
candidates, and kept a feast at the New Temple. The rest pro- 
bably received the honour from other distinguished knights. 
The last-mentioned chronicle states that 400 were knighted 
on the occasion ; but this may be the error of a transcriber, 
as such a mistake, the addition of a c, might be easily 
made. 5 

The next inquiry is, why the petitioners should have asked 
for the money as an act of charity. It does not appear 
difficult to conjecture the cause, when we call to mind the 
events of the time. The next year, while the timber was 
evidently unpaid for, the Templars, on whose responsibility it 
should seem to have been furnished, fell into disgrace ; and 
in France all who could be found were arrested in October, 
1307. Edward II., who had in the meantime succeeded his 
father, was unwilling to credit the charges made against 
them, or to join in the persecution of the order, until he 
received a letter from the Pope urging him to do so. He 
then issued writs for the general arrest of those in England, 
which was effected on the 11th of January, 1308. He seized 
their property, and gave portions of it to his friends ; but 
the Pope, having required it to be transferred to the Hospi- 
tallers, after some disputes, parts of it having been claimed 
by private individuals on various grounds, the king gave it 
up to the Hospitallers in November, 1313, and it was after- 
wards confirmed to them by an act of Parliament in 1324. 
That order took it subject to the Templars' debts ; and, 
therefore, under these circumstances, we may reasonably 
conclude the petition was presented between 1307 and 1313, 
while the property was in the king's hands, and Walter and 
his wife were without remedy for the debt. 

If it be thought remarkable that a marbler should have 
furnished timber (for there is no doubt of this being the 
meaning of the word merin, which, in the form of merrain, 

4 Titles of Honour, Tart II. ch. V. s. knighted, it appears that in November in 

xxxiv. [i. 77.V the same year others, who probably were 

■' W. Hemingford, with apparent pre- not able to attend on that occasion, were 
cision, states the number knighted to hove summoned to the king at Carlisle to re- 
been 297 ; but Ashmole (pp.37 — 8>, tul- ceive knighthood on the Feast of the Puri- 
verting to the discrepancy in the text, si ys, fication (Feb. 2) 1307. Rymer's Feeder* 
it was only '267, ami lie gives their (new edit.), i. p. 1004. 
names from the Wardrobe accounts. ° Rot. Purl. 11., p. 25 b. 
Notwithstanding the great Dumber then 


marrian, merrein, and man-in is found in Lacombe, and as 
merrein, and merrien in Glossairc de l'ancien droit Francais, 
by Dupin and Laboulaye), I would suggest that the timber 
was not furnished by him. This is to be inferred from the 
wife being joined in the petition, which would hardly have 
been the case had the money been owing to the husband. 
It is far more likely that the debt was due to the wife„as the 
widow or daughter and representative of the person who 
furnished the timber, and that she had in the meanwhile 
married Walter the marbler ; for then the junction of them 
both in the petition would have been quite regular. 

The word "halles" in modern French, for buildings in 
which markets are held, is well known. It was formerly 
spelt "hales ;" such places were probably so called from the 
kind of structures in which the business was transacted. It 
was not very uncommon in this country as meaning booths 
or the like. In the Promptorium Parvulorum we have " Hale or 
tente, — papilio, scena," and several examples, diversely spelt, 
of the word in that sense are given there in a note by Mr. 

The class of documents among which the petition was 
found has not yet been completely indexed. Mr. W. B. 
Sanders was engaged in making a calendar of them when he 
discovered it. Many of them, he says, are printed with the 
Parliament Rolls. He has since been so obliging as to 
inform us, that there is a second petition from Walter and 
Joan nearly word for wordlike the first, from which we may 
infer that they experienced some difficulty in getting their 
money. The answer to the second application was, " Soit 
baillee an Tresorer et en face ce qil verra qe seit a faire." 
Edward's prodigality and the surveillance of the bishops and 
barons, who had been appointed to see to the better ordering 
of bis realm and household, may have been alike unfavour- 
able to ih'' petitioners, notwithstanding the encouraging reply 

to their first application. 

w. s. w. 


" Here giveth Northman Earl unto Saint Cutlibert Edis- 
cum, and all that thereunto serveth (hyreth), and one- 
fourth of an acre at Foregenne. 

" And I Ulfcytel, Osulf's son, give North tun by metes, 
and with men, unto Saint Cutlibert, and all that thereunto 
serveth, with sac and with soken, and any one who this per- 
verts, may he be ashired from God's deed and from all 
sanctuary." 1 

An Osulf was Earl of Northumberland about 952. 
Escombe is in Durham, and in all probability the Norton 
here mentioned is Norton, near Stockton, rather than Norton, 
near Wath, in Yorkshire, which, with the neighbouring vills 
of Hutton, Holme, and Holgrave, were granted by Bishop 
Flambard to the family of Conyers. 

At all events, Nortonshire 2 (as the records of Bishop Bek 
call the parish) was a very early possession of the church of 
Durham, cutting through the wapentake of Sadberge to the 
Tees, and severing that district into two great portions. 
From the eastern or coast portion, termed Hartness, Norton 
was ashired by a strong natural boundary, a large morass, 
through which the numerous branches of Blakiston Beck per- 
colated. The adjoining parish was that of Billingham, which 
had been granted to the church before the annexation of 
Norton, but which was soon sundered by the violence of the 
times, and formed the southernmost limit of a Pagan usurpa- 
tion of the territory of Hartness. That the morass was of 
considerable importance cannot be doubted, and we can well 
understand how it came to pass that the fields of Norton, 
which slope towards it, are full of human remains. We can 
also readily believe that the peculiar circumstances of the 
place required the erection of a church at a very early 

1 Liber Vitte Dun., 43 b. assemblage of places ashired or cut off, or 

- A shire, in the north, was any boundeivd out from the adjacent country. 


Billinghamshire was not restored to the church till the 
reign of the Conqueror, and then it was given to the 
convent, and no< to the see. Consequently, it continued to 
1"' under a jurisdiction different to that of Norton. The 
latter place emerges from obscurity in 1082, when Blaiehe- 
Btun (Blakiston), one of its chief estates, was granted to the 
newly-placed monks of Durham, and Bishop de Karilepho, 
who made the grant, disposed of the ejected secular priests 
of the cathedra] by distributing; them to the churches of 
Auckland. Darlington, and Norton, at all which places, 
therefore, ecclesiastical edifices must have been existing. 

It dues not appear whether the expelled seculars were 
followed by a regular succession of prebendaries or not ; but 
in l-_7 we find that Norton Church was collegiate, and so 
it continued, consisting of eight portionists or prebendaries, 
of one of whom. Robert Brerely, there is an effigy of brass in 
the church of Billingham, where he was vicar. The preben- 
daries had the great tithes, and had to uphold the choir of 
the church, a duty which they scandalously neglected. In 
1410, on Vicar Bromley's complaint. Cardinal Langley 
ordered them to repair the chancel. In L496, Bishop Fox 
sequestered their incomes for the purpose of rebuilding it. 
assigning as a reason that "the canons, prebendaries of the 
same church, had permitted the chancel of the said collegiate 
church, which had been decently and richly constructed for 
the praise and worship of God, to fall into ruin and desola- 
t ion, as well in the roof, main walls, and windows, as in divers 
other respects." In L579 the chancel was again " in decay." 

Bishop Skirlaw, in L406, gave to the Church of Norton a 
set of vestments of white satin, embroidered with little golden 
leopards, edged with green stuff termed <-:nd (cardd) ; con- 
taining a chasuble with narrow golden orfreys, two tunics, 
ami a cope with orfreys of red velvet, embroidered with 
squared quarterings (cum garteriis quadratis), three albs and 
three amices, two stoles, and three maniples. 

Tic- College of Norton shared the fate of its peers. In 
1553, pensions of 5/. each were paid to Lancelot Thwaites, 
minister, and Bix other persons. Probably one oi the 
eighl portionists had died. Thwaites does nol occur in the 
lisl of vicars, Gilpin, the A postle <»!' the North, having suc- 
■ I. in 1554, mi i he deprivation of John Rudd, who had 
been vicar from L539. The vicar has a small copyhold 


manor. The remainder of the township of Norton is prin- 
cipally copyhold or leasehold under the bishop. The manor 
of Blakiston forms the chief exception. The remainder of 
the old parish of Norton has, since Queen Anne's days, com- 
posed the parliamentary parish of Stockton-upon-Tees. At 
this place a chapel had been founded in 1237. It was 
dedicated to St. Thomas the Martyr. The parishioners of 
Stockton, Preston, and Hartburne, were advantaged b}' it, 
but had to visit their mother-church on the Feast of the 
Assumption, and pay the vicar 50s. They offered one 
penny with the consecrated bread every Lord's day, except 
when they attended Norton Church. "The chapell of 
Stoketon standeth a myle [nearly two modern miles] from the 
parishe churche, not only for the easement of the inhabitants 
of the towne of Stoketon, but also for the easement of divers 
parishioners of sundrie other parishes in the winter tyme, 
when for rayny fludes they can come none wher els to here 
devyne service." The rainy floods were caused by a stream 
and morass between Norton and Stockton, very similar to 
that between Norton and Billingham, and they have not 
ceased. Yet, however necessary the chapel was, it did not 
escape the harpies of Edward VI. 's time, and before the esta- 
blishment of the new parish, the inhabitants of Stockton 
paid 3/. per annum, commonly called the Priest's own, to the 
vicar of Norton, who maintained a curate at his own cost to 
save the chapelry, the possessions of which were in lay hands. 
The old chapel stood a little south of the present large brick 
church, which was opened in 1712. 

The village of Norton occupies an elevated promontory, 
surrounded on three sides by the marshes already noticed. 
It has been likened to a frying-pan. The pan terminating 
the long town street (its handle), is composed of two squares 
of green common, divided by a slight eminence, on which, 
according to a not uncommon arrangement, stand the village 
forge and bakehouse. 3 The western square has been thrown 
out of shape by an enclosure before the church, which stands 
at its north-west corner ; and here, according to tradition, 
(which names a pond in the square " Cross Dyke,") was held 
the market of Norton, which was granted to Bishop Flam- 
bard by Henry I., to be held on Sunday, a day not dis- 
agreeable to the people in early times. A Friday market at 

3 The bakehouse belongs to the grammar-school. 


Sedgefield was, in the XlVth century, quite neglected, and 
the chapmen exposed their merchandise and transacted their 
business in the church porch on Sundays. 

The collegiate church consists of a central town-, and the 
usual four Limbs of across, of which the nave only is furnished 
with aisles, and these in modern times have Itch widened so 
as to be flush with the transepts. The names of the tran- 
septs or porches (porch being a common expression in the 
north for private chapels or chantries in churches, of various 
descriptions) arc gathered from an allotment of seats in 1635. 
The parishioners were to be placed in decent manner accord- 
in- to their ranks, degrees, and qualities. "Mr. Davison, of 
Blaixton, shall sitt in the Beate next unto the chancel] one 
the north side, where he usith to sitt. and for his servants 
and tenants to sitt in the north porch, which is called by the 
name of Blaixton Porch.' As for men servants which can- 
not read, we appoynt them for to sitt in the south porch, 
called by the name of ' Pettie Porch;' and as for women 
servants, for to be placed to kneele down in the midle ally. 
ncrc the font." The south porch is usually called " Pity 
Porch," ami Mr. Hutchinson (in his History of Durham) and 
the parishioners consider that an altar of image of our Lady 
of Pity stood there. The base of a wooden screen separates 
Blakiston Porch from the remainder of the church, and that 
porch is full of memorials of the later lords of Blakiston. 

The consequences of Bishop Fox's sequestration are very 
visible in the chancel ; the east window, two south windows. 
(the westernmosl one being, as usual, lower than the other.) 
and the priest's door, being all of bis period. The masonry 
near tin' latter object is much disturbed, and some suppose 
that :i fine early English recess in the interior, a little to the 
of it, was the original doorway. It seems to me to be 
far too rich lor the interior ofa doorway, and much loo per 
bo be the exterior of it turned round, and it has all the 
appearance of being a single sedile. The old font having 
been removed to the dear's gardens, a porcelain basin was 
inserted in this arch, and was used lor baptisms until it \\.-i^ 
lately supplanted by a handsome stone fonl in the appro- 
priate place in the nave. Brewster calls the recess ";i niche 
<.i ancient piscina," and a piscina might have been Inserted 
in it during Pox's alterations, bu< the wall sounds hollow 
and l-i' u ter lived before these matters were 
i rcatcd w it h much preci ion . 


i Window in the Tower, interior view. 

i arch,looL 


The cast end (save its window) and north side of the choir 
are essentially Early English. The nave is Transitional 
Norman, having pointed arches on plain cylindrical piers of 
Bishop Pudsey's time, and I strongly suspect that this prelate 
placed the college on the foundation we find it, in the same 
manner as he founded the College of Darlington. A doorway 
from the south aisle into Pity Porch, and the east window of 
the latter are also transitional. 

Attention must now be called to the tower and transepts, 
which have considerable interest. It will be observed, from 
the appearance of the tower arches, that the vestigia of an 
earlier chancel are visible. (See woodcut.) This chancel was of 
the same width as the transepts and nave, and if Transitional 
Norman, could not need replacing by an Early English suc- 
cessor. It will further be seen that while the transepts open 
by two very rude, narrow arches, without mouldings, unless 
their projecting edge can be so called, the nave and choir open 
by two arches of their utmost width, with transitional 
mouldings. 4 The obvious conclusion is that, on the building 
of the nave, the constructors wishing to obtain a complete 
transitional vista to the east, remodelled two arches of the 
tower, and this conclusion seems to be rendered certain by the 
appearance of the next story of the steeple, where the rude 
angular-headed windows, one of which is here represented, are 
found above both classes of arch. The width of the base of the 
triangle is not so great .-is thai <>f the lower portion of these 
windows, and hence they have a shouldered appearance. 
The nex1 story is lighted by mere slits, rather singularly 
disposed by two on each side, some of them being very near 
to the angles of the In hiding. 1 1 ere the ancient tower ended. 
The superstructure is Perpendicular, and of much thinner 
masonry than the walls beneath, the surplus thickness of the 
latter serving as a suppoii for the great beams of the bell- 
frames. 8 The change of masonry is also detected on the 
rior by a Blight hitch in i be outline. 

The north transept or Blakiston Porch is composed of very 

small square Stones, with angles of long and short work. 

A Th archM are out " \ ». Domini. 1613. J C." 3 "Veni'e. 

ii pewi i wing the capital* bi Exvltemva Domino. S. S. 1664 R. D. 

.) i '." I lei wi • d i &ch word » shield id 
• i arms, a chevron between three belli 

n ii Id l" lis li"in my impaling thn t ... 

robbings I u \ l> 1607 R. v." ! 



which also appeared in the south transept before it was 
refaced. The tower is roughcast. 

A Norman church would scarcely want rebuilding in Pud- 
sey's time, and I have no doubt that in the tower and tran- 
septs of Norton we see 

the remains of the Saxon G lzrrrr 

church which received the 
expelled seculars of Dur- 
ham in 1085. The choir, 
it may be noticed, is more 
than two-thirds the length 
of the nave, wdiich only 
comprises three arches. 
Perhaps all the arms of 
the Saxon church w r ere 
rather short and equal. 
In consequence of the 
arches on the north and 
south being narrower 

than the transepts them- 
selves, the cllUrcll, W T lien in Original outline of the interior of Norton Church. 

. . , . , .A. Tower. B. Original Nave. C. Original Choir. 

ltS Original Simple CrilCl- D. Blakiston Porch. E. Pettie Porch. 

form shape, would assume 

the common form, which appears in St. Cuthbert's Cross, the 

Hartlepool tomb- 
stones inscribed 
with Runes, on 
a fragment from 
Jarrow, on the 
edge of a Roman 
slab, now in the 
Castle of New- 
castle, and other 
instances. A base of a cross noticed in Brand's account of 
Jarrow probably belonged to the design engraved, wdiich, as 
the slab has been laid flat in a wall, must have run up the wall. 
After very careful examination, suggested by the position 
of the triangular-headed windows, I cannot detect any change 
of masonry in the gable of Blakiston Porch, and I am led 
from this fact, and reference to Saxon MSS., to believe that, 
like the Romans, the Saxons used roofs of very moderate 
pitch. I am not unmindful that, in the later towers of Jarrow 

Cross on the edge of a Roman slab from Jarrow. 

1 1- 


and Darlington, there are a second set of tower arches 
opening to the roofs, and forming a sort of rood-loft, and I 
am not suit that the room above the -round story of Monk 
Wearmouth Town- did not always open to the nave. But 
the windows at Norton are not adapted to this purpose. 

There is no newel stair to this tower. It is reached by a 
stair in Pity Porch, from which a doorway opens under the 
triangular-headed Lights. 

in the Bouth-east corner of Blakiston Porch there lay for- 
merly a fine monumental effigy, now removed to the south of 
the altar. This effigy is engraved in Surtees' Durham. The 
costume is almost precisely that of the effigy of Brian 
Pitz Alan (who died 1301) in Bedale Church, and the very 
design and workmanship of the two effigies are so similar 
that one would incline to ascribe them to one hand. 
The feet of the Blakiston effigy rest on a spirited group, con- 
sisting of two animals (One of them certainly a lion, perhaps 

the other so also) tearing one an- 
other. A single figure sits with a 
book at the knight's side. There 
are two very remarkable circum- 
stances about this effigy. First, the 
shield borne on the arm is clearly a 
"palimpsest," for its hearings could 
only 1)0 borne by the descendants 
of John Blakiston, who died in 1586. 
There are. however, behind the 
Canopy Over the knight's head, two 

shields: — 1. An inescutcheon within a bordure, over all a 
bend. 2. A cross moline. These heraldic bearings are 
fashioned in a manner contemporaneous with the eiliev. 

Of these coats, the cross moline Beems certainly to belong 
to Fulthorpe, a family seated at Fulthorpe, in the ueighbour- 
Lng parish of Grindon. The other suggests the feudal influence 
of Baliol, and it is perhaps worth noticing that the diction- 
of arm- give another coal to Fulthorpe, Argent, an 
inescutcheon sable. It is remarkable thai these tinctures are 
nlv those of the more usual coat of the cross, 6 but also 

f.f iIm- create of the Tanstal] in tin- text in oonaequen >f having 

di played argent, repeatedly remarked a tendency in families 

I "ii lip- ii '.r- 1 with H crosa moline i arry « iili others <>r similar bi annua 

i .,ii t'< the coinci Ii o or tim 



of all the six quarterings given in the visitation, for Ful- 
thorpe of Fulthorpe and Tnnstall, (Bland, Burgh of Burgh, 
near Catterick, and Booth, are amongst them,) and even 
of another class of coats ascribed to the name of Fulthorpe, 
in which a lion and annulets seme or in orle are variously 
disposed. 7 And here, rather in coincidence 
than in connection, comes in the second ob- 
servable feature of the Norton effigy, which 
was hidden from Mr. Surtees' draughtsman. 
It is a mark on the bevel of the monument 
near the base of the shield, an I and three links or annulets 
interlaced. Is this an early example of a 
badge, or of a sculptor's mark ? I am at 
present disposed to think that it is the 
artist's device, because, on the base of a 
small image 8 found at St. Helen's Chapel, 
Hartlepool, we have the remains, as it would 
seem, of the same mark, the links not quite 
of the annulet form. One might suppose 
the sculptor to have been called John 
Cheyne, or by some synonymous appena- Fl ^rpel n \wie 1 t" elei 
tion; 9 perhaps Locke, since the same device, 
with three oak trees, formed the punning coat of the Lock- 
woods of Newcastle, quartered by Anderson of Haswell 
Grange. Can it be the local name, found (in the genitive 1) 
in Lucasland mentioned in Hatfield's Survey % (see the note 
infra.) All the modern families of Lucas bear six annulets, 
and that name may be merely Luke, Latinised, or in the 
genitive case, as Jones, for John or Johannes. 

Did the Norton effigy really represent a member of the 
family called Blakiston 1 I apprehend that it did not. 

The manor of Blakiston was granted by Bishop Karilepho 
to the monks. Bishop Flambard reft it away and granted it 

" "Norton. Rogerus Fulthorp miles 
tenet duo messuagia et una carueata 
terrse vocata Lucasland." Hatfield? s Sur- 
vey. ''Lucas (Durham); or, a tes-i be- 
tween 6 annidtts sable." Gen. Armory. 

8 The upper tunic of the larger figure, 
and the dress of the smaller one, are 
painted with vermilion ; the larger figure 
mav have represented a patron saint ; the 
workmanship is similar to that of the 
Norton and Bedale effigies. 

9 Tremayle has also been suggested, a 
name occurring in the western counties. 


Any indication of the name or device of 
the artist is rarely found in sepulchral 
memorials. Mr. Waller has noticed a 
remarkable example at Westley Water- 
less, Cambridgeshire, in his " Sepulchral 
Bi asses." In Hefner's '• Costume du 
moyen age Chretien," a representation is 
given of the effigy of George von Secken- 
dorf, who died in 1444. On one of the 
lappets of the skirt which falls under his 
taces, the s-eulptor has introduced an 
escutcheon and monogram, doubtless his 
personal device or mark. 


to his nephew ; but in his dying hour the sting of conscience 
Bmote him, and, borne to the altar of his cathedral, he offered 
his golden ring upon it in testimony of restitution. The 
nephew's rights passed away with his uncle's repentance, and 
the strong powers the king gave"tha1 he might no more 
be afflicted with the clamour of the monks/ 3 His descendants 
had Blakiston a little longer by acknowledging the supe- 
riority of the convent ; but, in the Xlllth century we find 
in the manor a line of knightly owners, who sprung from Old 
Park, on the Wear, and bore the name of their birth-place. 
Geoffrey de Park, of Blakiston, was at the battleof Lewes 
in 1264, and Richard Park was lord in 1323. A new family 
was, however, nursing in the manor, whose members con- 
trive. 1 to tear field after field, and finally the manor itself, 
from their lords. In 1320, John de Blaykeston was chaplain 
of the chantry, which the Parks founded in their chapel at 
Blakiston. Before 1341, Roger, the cook of Blakiston, had 
obtained a lease of property, which in that year Richard- 
Fitz-Richard Park sold him in fee. Hugh de Blakeston 
occurs at the same time, and in 1349 his son acquired the 

We have already seen thai the effigy corresponds with 
that of Brian Fitz Alan, who died in 1301. Suppose, for 

the sake of argument, that it was erected in readiness some 
years before the death of the person represented, or thai 
when he died an old man he still wore old-fashioned armour, 
we may stretch twenty years forward, and still be a quarter 
of a century from the earliesl Blakistons of any repute or. 
ownership. In all probability a Park intervened between 
Geoffrey of 1264 and Richard of 1323, and might well own 
the monument, [f this was do! the case, it may be assigned 
to Richard; but, as the features are do! aged, it must, in 
thai event, have been prepared in bis lifetime. The two 
shields behind the head are both, perhaps, arms of alliance, 
and if there was originally a coal on the large shield (and 
Burely there must have been), the substitution of the arms <»l 
I llaki iton was an acl of g real meanne 

The Blakistons were uol ungrateful to the memory oi 
I rue Coctu. They wore red cock- in their shields, and 
mounted a cock for their crest. The heralds call these 
birds dunghill-cocks. One would have though! thai black- 
cocks wmiM have been ;i better allusion Roberl Blakiston, 



a priest, of Stainton in Cleveland, in 1522, had a brother 
Robert. The latter made heraldry and ancestral remem- 
brances tell for convenience, and called himself Robert Cok. 
I do not know the boundaries of Blakiston Manor, but I 
have sometimes thought that an early 
stone cross (with the usual imitations 
of gems (?) in the form of small round 
protuberances), discovered, and still 
standing near a farm-house 1 in the 
neighbourhood, had some reference to 
them. What remains of the church- 
yard cross of Norton, a plain square 
shaft, chamfered at the angles, lies on 
the wall next to a stile at the south- 
west corner of the churchyard. 

The vicarage house is modern. Its 
predecessor, said to have been built by 

VlCar SisSOll (1746-1773), is figured Cross at Colpitt's Farm, near Norton. 

in Hutchinson's Durham. In 1415, 

Vicar Robert Bromley leaves the residue of his estate to his 
executors to spend, according to the bishop's directions, in 
payment of his debts, at the amount of which he greatly 
grieves, and the repair of his mansion at Norton, " ad quam 
teneo ultra quam sufficere potero." The executors renounced 
probate, but the bishop imposed administration on one of 
them, a brother of the testator. 

There was at Norton a " free chapel of Norton Hermi- 
tage," part of the possessions of which seem to have been 
appropriated to Stockton Chapel. These fell into lay hands ; 
the remainder, 2 with probably a portion of other chantry 
lands, appear to have endowed the Grammar School of Nor- 
ton, which stands in " the Hermitage Garth," and by leases 
of the bishop (going back to 1600) owns two common ovens 
or bakehouses, (one of them now waste, and situate at the 
foot of the village, the other between the two greens as 
before mentioned,) a toft or kilnstead where the Lady Kiln 
formerly stood, the close called Kiln Close, or Lady Close, 
and an acre with the same kiln formerly occupied. Besides 

1 Thorney Close, if I view th»» maps 
aright, 1 know the place better as the Out 
Farm, or Colpitt's or Swalwell's Farm, 

from the names of its recent occupiers. 
'-' The subject is obscure, and perhaps 

the evidences in Brewster's Stockton are 
not very accurately given. It may how- 
ever !"• gathered that the est iblishment 
had been broken np before the general 
il ssolution of such foundations. 


these old leaseholds, the school holds 20 poles of allotted 
land behind the building (set out in 1(>'73), and sonic 
escheats granted by the bishop in 1720. The school is due 
east of the church, and probably occupies the site of the 
chapel or hermitage, but its only ancient feature is part of 
the west gable, containing a square mullioned window, and 
even this, perhaps, is cotemporaneous with a piece of 
Jacobean carved woodwork discovered in the house not 
lone ago, 

lii L501, there was in Norton parish a vicar, non-resident. 
a " capellanus parochial" (the chaplain of Stockton ?) and 
Sir Thomas Aplbie, chantry priest. The Ecclesiastical 
Survey of 2 Edward VI. returns "the parishe church of 
Norton havinge howseling people, 700." Besides Stockton 
chapel it names the existence of a priest in the church 
for term of years. lie had " stocke of money for iij. yeres 
to come, at iij./. by the yere, geven by William Blaxston, 
xij./.." and was evidently to officiate in Blakiston Porch for a 
fewyears for the bouI of the last departed lord, William (who 
died before I 533). The nature of the college seems to have 
been remarkable. Under " the porcion of tythe within the 
geyd parishe of Norton," we find eight incumbents, " having 
the seyd tythes (yearly value, 48/.) porcioned emonge them 
to study.' at the uiiiversitic;" Lancelot Thwayte, and the six 
who received pensions (as before stated) being among them. 

This statemenl agrees with a demise to Will. Crofton the 
ime year of the tithe grain of Norton parish into eight 

portions, divided by ancient custom for the exhibition of lay 
iholare and otherwise, at the pleasure of the Bishop of 

Durham. So Bishop Barne's " Clavia Ecclesiastica " mentions 

the •"eiglite lave porcionarii sen pivheiida\ e\ I irione « S A and 

wereol the Busshopeof Durham's giefte but are now dissolved 
and in i be Quene a bandes. 

In L580, the Bible in Norton Church was " not sufficient, 
beinge old and torne, lackinge fower or five leaves together 
in sundrye places of St. Paule's epistl 



" Lucem tuara da nobis, o Deus." 
Uutlo of lite Company of Glaziers and Painters on Olast, Incorporated 1637.' 

In hot climates the window proper — that is, the window 
for admitting light — is, and ever was, a mere germ. 

So manifestly is this the case, that it has led some of 
our writers to reflect too hastily upon the ancients. Thus, 
Mr. Hope blames them for " not admitting the light ; " and 
Hallam wonders that " with all their w T isdom they over- 
looked the window/' 

But the truth is, the inhabitants of those countries 
w r here architecture was born, did not want windows in the 
sunny climate of the south, and therefore instinctively kept 
them small and subordinate. The window r w r as never a 
feature of ancient architecture : Vitruvius does not name it, 
thouarh he describes both the door and the ventilator." 


Much the same may be said of the countries in question at 
this day ; their window, if enlarged at all, is enlarged for 
the purpose of admitting air rather than light, heavily tre- 
lissed, and seldom occupied by glass. 

Here, on the other hand, owing to the necessities of a 
northern latitude, the window is at once large, serial, and 
ornamental ; perhaps the most striking feature of our archi- 

It would be an instructive study to trace the history of 
the window step by step, from the classical through the 
Byzantine, to the Gothic styles, observing how it has con- 
tinually increased in size and importance as a medium of 
light, according to the isothermal line, or in other words, 
according to the necessities of climate ; but our present 
business lies rather with another element entering into the 

1 Mai tland's London. Fol. ]>. 1"24<>. as " that part of the door which was hv- 

- " Lumen bypsetri " which Wilkins psethral, or exposed to the air." Vitruv. 

renders, "the space intended to !>•• left Wilkins, p. 81. 

open to the air ; " and explains ill a note 

L54 king's college chapel windows. 

calculation here. Our Gothic windows would never have 
grown to Buch dimensions but for the discovery, or at least 
the increased use of glass. 

While a northern latitude demanded light, it demanded 
also a protection from the storm. 

Our ancestors, therefore, so long as glass was unattain- 
able, very wisely contented themselves with lofty and widely 
splayed, but narrow windows. 

It was only with the freer use of glass, first as a pro- 
tection, and then as an ornament — a surface for the dis- 
play of taste — that the window expanded, embracing mullion 
after mullion, until, at length, in the Perpendicular period, 
we have almost a wall of glass, as in the noble specimen 
under consideration. 3 

But, besides this general ground of interest, as a piece of 
fenestra] work, the windows of King's have some intrinsic 
and peculiar claims to attention. 

The pictures they contain are the original glazing of the 
chapel; they are well preserved and intelligible; they are 
extensive, varied, and complete, a thing very rare in this or 
any other land. They belong to the last style of glass : 
and since ;ill tin' preceding styles were executed upon the 

same essential principles, these windows serve as a speci- 
men of all. 

They were painted ;it a period when the " Ars Vitraria "' 
had attained its perfection, thai is to say, when it exhibited 
grand and instructive designs without tampering with the 
nature of anj of itfi materials. 

And lastly, as this is the latest example of a style of 
glass, ere the degeneracy or rather eclipse commenced, we 
may take it to be the best in the eyes of the latesl professed 
masters, who, in forming it. deliberately laid aside the older 
and more conventional styles, for this free and pictorial one. 
Such are some of the interesting points of the windows 
before u 

Li t tie enter a little more into detail on a lew of them. 

Wnli regard to the history of these windows, we poe 

1 Tlii I iv. ..f | i 'ill in force. ever the tendencj to an increase of win* 

\ i. ed b\ the dow light, Whenever an old caaemenl 

i. in i in-, was i.niv tempo hi our altered, il la onh to be 

i developments of ar- enlarged, and to exchange >^ doll 

y of civil and domestic and leads and saddli bam, for tin I 

j than and cl< art ' »heel possible 


some valuable documentary evidence, and something more 
may be added from inspection. 


Their immediate prototypes were the windows of Henry 
VII. 's chapel, at the east end of Westminster Abbey. We 
gather this from a contract, dated 1526, for completing the 
general work of King's College Chapel, which, among other 
things, provides that " the windows are to be set up with 
good, clean, sure and perfect glass, and orient colours, and 
imagery of the story of the old and new 7 law, after the 
form, manner, curiosity, and cleanness in every point of the 
King's new r chapel in Westminster." Here is doubtless a 
reference to the then existing windows of Henry VII. 's 
chapel, Westminster Abbey. 

These have long since perished, but there are sufficient 
traces left to show that the clerestory lights (the lower win- 
dows being too irregular in plane to admit of pictorial glass) 
were once filled as here intimated. I allude, of course, to 
the remains in the tracery ; but more particularly to a 
figure still to be seen in the east window- of Henry VII. 's 
chapel, vulgarly called Henry himself ; but which, by the 
aid of a glass, resolves itself into the prophet Jeremiah, 
under a canopy, holding a scroll, and altogether a match for 
the " Messengers " in the chapel at Cambridge. 

I mention this, not only because it is in direct genealo- 
gical connection with our subject, but because it is a curious 
instance of reflex light being thrown upon a collection of 
glass, once important as a standard in the kingdom, but now 
so far lost, that its very existence might otherwise be ques- 

But, to proceed : the foundation stone of this chapel was 
laid under the Clare Hall tower, on St. James's day, 144G ; 
but owing to the wars of the roses and other interruptions, 
the shell was not completed until the 29th of July, 1515, 
or the seventh year of Henry VIII. 

The following year witnessed the commencement of the 

This is noted in an indenture dated Feb. 15, 1516, made 
between the executors of Henry VII. and the provost of 
the college : — 

15G king's college chapel windows. 

The order is simply "to glaze all the windows of the said 
chapel, with Buch images, stories, arms, badges, and other 
devices, as it shall be devised by the said executors." 

These words are sufficiently identical with those of the 
will of Henry VII. relating to his chapel at Westminster.; 4 
and since only seven or eight years had elapsed, and the 
executors were nearly the same, it is probable that they 
hastened to employ the same hands on the glass of the 
building just committed to their charm 1 . 

This matter might be cleared up had we the first contract 
for the college chapel glass, but this has unfortunately been 

From the second contract, however, already named, (dating 
April L526,) we learn that Barnard Flower was the original 
contractor for the Cambridge windows ; and since he alone 
is at first employed on so large an undertaking, it seems 
altogether likely that he was the popular man of his day. 
and possibly had been the painter of the Westminster win- 

But be that as it may, we know that he was selected and 
engaged to do sundry work here, in terms carefully rc- 
counted in the second contract; that he had been for several 
years at this work; and had just died, leaving a certain 
amount of glass finished and ready to be put up. We shall 
presently consider what this legacy was. 

The cext contractors were Galyon Hone, Richard Bounde, 
Thomas love, and dames Nicholson. 

These men hind themselves to three things : first, to put 
up what Barnard Mower. " lately deceased," had left ready 
i" !"• put up ; secondly, to execute eighteen windows more 
themselves, Including the easl and west windows ; and 
thirdly, to furnish cartoons or vidimuses, .'is they were called, 
for the four remaining windows of the chapel. 

With the exception of the west window, never executed, 1 
and therefore reducing the number to seventeen, we may 

1 "And the window! of our widen* • There is nothing to lead us to suppose 

i «iili stoi , tint this window baa ev« been liilc-.l 

, and cogni byus with stained visas. The tracery of :i 

I, Mid in picture (pattern) de troyed window generally retains soma 

delivered to the Prior oi St, Bartholo- patches of colour, bul there is not a par 

le Smithfield, matter ol the tide to be observed here. Moreover, the 

r said chapeL" This «iii in College records I understand, while noting 

Richmond, March 81, loOfl llenrj thi injury dom to the We window 

*" died on (In !] t ol tin nexl month m intion ol the west window at all. 

king's college chapel WINDOWS. 157 

suppose this engagement to have been faithfully carried 

The last contracting parties were Fraunces Williamson 
and Symond Symonds, who in the succeeding month of the 
same year, covenant to execute the four remaining windows 
just named, according to the patterns supplied to them by 
the superior artists. 

The proper sequence of these latter contracts should be 
observed ; for Walpole, by placing the last first, has fallen 
into the mistake of giving a share of the credit of designing, 
to those who manifestly were not to be entrusted with that 
important branch of the business. 

The honour of designing these windows undoubtedly 
belongs in the first place to Barnard Flower, and in the 
second place to Hone, Bounde, Reve and Nicholson. 
And here we observe as an interesting fact, that all those 
names are English ; 8 and further, that these establishments 
— there are six distinct establishments — are all specified as 
being in London. 

We may, therefore, I think, fairly claim these windows, 
both in respect of design and workmanship, as genuine 
productions of British art. 

This is a valuable addition to similar testimony, gleaned 
from the accounts of St. Stephen's chapel," in the reign of 
Edward III. ; and of the York and Warwick windows ; to 
name no more, altogether dissipating the common doubt as 
to whether painted glass was ever a regular manufacture of 
this country. 

Other important particulars to be gathered from these 
contracts are : — first, that the glass must date from 1516 to 
1530-2 ; omitting, of course, the relics in the north chapel- 
ries, which cannot be less than half-a-century older ; but of 
which no account is preserved. 

Again, we find that we are indebted to Henry VII. and 
his executors, and not to Henry VI., as Dyer states, nor 
yet to Henry VIIL, as is more commonly supposed, for the 
gift and completion of these magnificent windows. 

6 Hone's name, it has been objected, first intention was to have had good 

should stand " Hoon " which is Dutch. " Normandy " glass ; but that in every 

This is true as far as the body of the con- instance the Normandy has been 

tract goes, but the man always si:,'"* erased. We may infer from this, that not 

himself " Hone." I observed also, when only the men, but their materials, were 

kindly permitted to inspect the original British. 

documents, a short time since, that the " Smith's Antiquities of Westminster. 


L58 KINGS i'm|.i.];.,i: CHAPEL WINDOWS. 

Henry VIII. supplied the rood-screen and interior fittings 
of the chapel, but his wealthy and superstitious lather hail 
already provided for the glass. 

This circumstance, by the way, accounts for the profusion 
of memorials relating to Benry VII. which these windows 
contain, though executed, as we Bee, some time alter that 
prince's death. 

We further learn that the royal executors left the devising 
and ordering of the glass, that is, I suppose, the choice of 
subjects and the supervision of the vidimuses, to a select 
committee, consisting of the Trovost Ilacomblcn assisted by 
William Holgylle, clerk and master of the Savoy, London, 
and Thomas Larke, Archdeacon of Norwich. Of these three, 
since to the last two was referred the judgment of compensa- 
tion in cases requiring a knowledge of art, of whom Larke 
was the general superintendent of the building in Cam- 
bridge ; it remains that Holgylle, residing in London, where 
all the glass-work was executed, was the special manager of 
this department. 

Finally, as to the distribution of the work ; it is plain. 
thai as there are twenty-five painted windows in the chapel, 
twenty-one of which may be sufficiently accounted for, it 
would appear that Barnard Flower had completed Four 
windows ere he died, together (probably) with the glass in 
the heads or tracery of all the windows: but of this more 

Before dismissing the documentary part of our subject, 
it may be wel] to state, thai these windows were condemned 
by tin' Long Parliament. 

There is an entry of tin- commissioners in the Journals 
of the House bo this effect: "Dec 26th, L643 ; steps 
(altar-steps?) to be taken down ; and a L,000 superstitious 
pictures, the ladder of Christ, ami thieves >Vc." 

This was during the Provostship of Dr. Collins, ejected 
L645. How it happened thai our windows escaped during 
the intervening year, 4 1, wo are not informed. 

Possibly they were taken down, (ii is certain they have 
.-ill been down and reloaded ;it some time or other ;) bul it is 
more likely that they remained iii their places .'it tin' period 
peak of. and thai the superstitious pictures a1 the weal 
end then mstained the Berious damage they exhibit to 
this day, while the general Bcriptural character of the 

king's college chapel windows. 159 

rest, 8 together with the opportune election of Dr. Which- 
cote (a moderate man), preserved them to us much as they 
are at present. 


And now for a word or two as to what further historical 
information may be obtained from inspection. Omitting — 
as I said before — the glass in the north-east chapelries, and 
confining ourselves to the chapel itself, the oldest glass 
appears to be that over the north-west door. This window 
is unique as to age and style, partaking more of the Per- 
pendicular aspect than anything in the chapel. If, there- 
fore, it is one of Flower's four, he afterwards altered his 
style. Is it not more probable, that it was a purchase or 
present to the chapel, and executed by other hands 1 9 
Next, we may safely conclude, that Flower fitted all the 
tracery lights of the windows ; for first, it is highly proba- 
ble that they would be inserted ere the scaffolding of the 
roof was removed. Again, they all appear to be the work 
of one hand, strongly contrasting, in this respect, with the 
variety of manipulation in the pictures below ; and once 
more, among all the cognisances and initials with which they 
are crowded, there is no reference to Anne Boleyn, but only 
to Henry VII., and Elizabeth of York, or to Henry VIII. 
and Catherine. This, I imagine, would not have been 
the case had they been executed after 1526 (the date of 
the second contract) when the subject of the divorce was 

It is more difficult to decide upon the other contribu- 
tions of Barnard Flower. But not to trouble ourselves with 
speculations, I will merely mention a key which I think can 
be used here with advantage ; it is the east window. Tliis 
window, we know, is not Flower's work, because it is spe- 
cially contracted for after his death by Hone and his partners. 
Now in this window, the figures are on a large scale, and 
executed with much freedom and vigour. 

Taking this, therefore, as a guide, we ought to be able to 
detect, not only its sixteen companions, but also the last four 
for which designs were furnished by one and the same party. 

s 1 have met with many cases of this ready-made windows in the rei<;n of Ed- 
kind of discrimination. ward III. ; and this looks rather like an 
9 We find instances of the purchase of adapted window. 


With regard to these last-named four, it is also worthy of 
notice, that they were to be placed " two on oon side, and two 
.m the other Bide of the chapel." If this means vis-a-vis, 
here is a further key. 

In tlii- way. Blower's work might possibly be eliminated ; 
when it would, I conceive, be found to lie among the north- 
eastern windows, where the figures are on a smaller scale, 
and also in a somewhat earlier manner. 


Having finished the history, we now pass on to consider 
the general arrangement of these windows. This is very 
Bimple when the clue is once perceived. 

Generally speaking, each window contains four pictures, 
two above and two below the transom. 

The lower tier is the one in scries, being a regular chain 
of Gospel history, passing all round the chapel. It com- 
mences at the north-west corner, with the birth of the Virgin 
Mary, continues eastward through the various scenes of our 
Lord's active life, then takes up the Acts of the Apostles 
and concludes with the legends of St. Mary's death in the 
south-west corner. It has often occurred to me, whether 
these cycles (for they occur elsewhere) might not be in 
illustration of the ecclesiastical year, according to some 
••use" of the time; but 1 could uever identify them. 

The upper tier consists of stories also, but not in any 
chronological order, being chosen out of the Old Testament, 
or the Apocrypha, simply on account of their correspondence 
respectively with those beneath, on the well-known principle 
of type and am itype. 

There arc a few exceptions to this a rrangeinent, as in the 

first, or oorth westernmost window, in the east window, and 
in those illustrating the A-m^ ; hut the rule is as above- 

Th.iv Beems nothing wrong in this plan of parallelism, 
],i where it is superstitiously applied ; but, al any rate, 

il wa a \ery favourite scheme of the mediaeval artists: 

we in. . t with it in the catacombs of Rome; in the Biblia 
Pauperum ; and there are lew remains of glass without some 

I lac, ()f ||. 

It her be recognised in Canterbury, in Bourges, in the 

king's college chapel windows. 161 

accounts of St. Stephen's chapel, and of Horschau monastery ; 
at Fairford, at Liege, at Gouda. Moreover, in this way are 
to be explained such references to lost collections, as the 
following : " the windows contained the whole story, from 
the Creation to the Judgment." 9 For it so happens that 
the Temptation of Eve, easily mistaken for the Creation 
(especially if, as in King's Chapel, the animals are 
scrambling out of the ground at the feet of our first mother) 
was the received type or correspondence of the Annuncia- 
tion, one of the first subjects in the Gospel history. 

But to return to our subject : — Care was always taken in 
this arrangement that the Crucifixion should fall into place 
at the east end of the church, and the Last Judgment at 
the west. 

This was clearly the idea here, and had the west window 
been painted, it would probably have presented us with 
some such a combination of gorgeous colouring and gross 
superstitions as may be seen at Fairford to this day. 

Perhaps it will be well to give a complete list of the 
subjects as they stand in the chapel. 

Commencing then at the north-west corner and counting 
eastward, we have — 

No. I. 

Joachim's Offering refused by the High- Joachim with the Shepherds, 

priest. Text. — " .... peperit Anna . . . ." 

Text. — "Angelusin . . . ." (Spurious Gospel, c. ii.) 

(See Spurious Gospel of St. Matthew, 
or Birth of Mary, c. i.) 

Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate. Birth of the Virgin Mary. 

Text. — " Angelus in .... ens tie . . . Text. — ". . . . peperit Anna Mariam 

ut . . . . decern." benedictam." 

(Spurious Gospel, c. iii.) (Spurious Gospel, c. iv.) 

No. II. 

Type. Type. 

Tobifs Offering to the Temple. 1 Tobias' Marriage. 

Text. — " Mensa aurea oblata est in Text. — " Hie Sara desponsat Tobie." 

templo." (No reference.) 

(No reference.) 

Antitype. Antitype. 

Mary presented at the Temple. Marriage of Joseph and Mary. 

Text. — " Maria Domino oblata est in Text. — " Hie virgo Maria desponsat 

templo." Josep." 

(See Spurious Gospel.) (Spurious Gospel : Joseph holds the 

Budding Rod.) ■ 

9 So the windows of Lambeth chapel, has a fishing-net on his shoulder. This 

in Laud's time are described, and a win- identifies the subject, but the connection 

dow of twenty-one lights, at Hengrave, between the golden table and the Virgin 

Suffolk. Mary is beyond my comprehension. 

1 Besides Tobit's dog, the young man 



No. III. 

Temptation of Eve, 
Text — "pneeepil nobia Dens ne ootn- 

mederemusetne tan^-remus illuJ ne forte 
moriamur." — Gen. iii. (3). 

Am ni'K. 
.1 nnwnciaiion. 
I Kl •' Mil : Betbleem, terra Juda, 
ii"ii erifl minima in(ter) princip(es) . . ." 

ferenoe gone; probably to Matt. 
ii. 6.) 

/ • 'tution of Oir 

Text. — ** Vocavitque Abraham nomen 
tilii sui '|ii<-in genuit ei Sara, Isaac, et cir- 
ctuncidet earn octavo die." — Gen. xxi. 

Text- -" Et pustquam consummati sunt 
dies octo, ut circumcideretor paer, voca- 
tum est nomeu ejus Jesus." — Luke ii. 



/''•-' I! tin Law. 

-" Sanciitica mihi omne progeni- 
turn quod aperit vulvam in tiliis Isra l. M 
I i xiii. (2). 

! I PB. 

/■ Virgin Maty. 

T< Kt " Adduxerunt ilium Hierosoly- 

ma ut aiaterenl emu domino : sicut acrip- 
t in ii e-t in 1' _'• Domini."— Luke ii. ('JJ, 

The Burning Buth. 
T.xt. — " Apparuicque ei Dominua in 

tlamma ignis de medio rubi : et videbat 
qd. rubua arderet et iioti eombureretur." 
Ex. iii. (2). 

Birth of Jesus Christ. 
Text. — " Cum aatem natus esset Jesus 
in Betbleem trivitate Jndesa." — Matt. ii. 


Queen of Sheba. 

Text. — " Dedit ergoregi centum viginta 
talenta auri. et aromata multa nimis, et 
gemmas pretiosas." — (2 (liron. ix. 9.) 

Tin Wise Men's Offerings. 

Text - ■" Apcrtis thesauri* suis olitu- 

lerunt illi monera annuo, thus, et myrr. 
h.-iin." - Matt. ii. (,U). 

Jacob flying from Esau. 
Text. — " Kcee Esau Crater tuns minatur 
ut occidat te." — Gen. xxvii (42). 

Ami n i'K. 
Flight into Egypt. 
Text. — " Surge, el accipite puerom et 

matrem illius, et rage in /Egyptum, el eato 
illic donee dixero tibi." — Matt. ii. (1.1). 

tfo. \ I. 


i/ Law. 

Text " [rataeque valde projecil de 
mana tabula* el eoofi Ex. 

xxxiL ( 1 B). 

i vim:. 

Tin i ■ i rypt fatting 

Text " (Onua jEgypti ecce Dominna 

I • f null hi i lei 'in 'I in i ■ 

.le tin- 1 .1 .:■> I'liitn el amovebontur ai- 

mulacra - 1 - _' v | • t i a facie ejoa)." Is. nix. 


./ Atkaliah, 

'I'. \i illegible. (This correspondence 
ocean in the Biblia Pauperum.) 

Am i n PK. 

//. od'i Ma v ■ oj fin /nun,; ntt. 

Text. " El missis Batellitibua interfeetl 
omnea pueroa <|ui eranl in Betbleem.* 1 
.Mm. ii. (16). 

N... \ II 


\' Jordan, 

n i. | i o H i |'ii' ■ la i il 

.le- , . , et liilllldalu ■ I 

i I). 


'- mptcd t" Bell kit BirthriglU. 
Text " Aii Jacob, Jura i rgo mlhi. 

.1 in n ii .i l . in, al vin'li'lit primogi uita. ' 
• ;■ n. i w. ( 88). 




T/ie Baptism of Christ. 

'JLYxt. — " Baptizatus autem Jesus, con- 
fcstim ascendit do aqua, et ecce aperti sunt 
ei coeli, et vidit spiritual Dei." — Matt. iii. 



The Triumph of David. 

Text. — "(Assumens autem) David ca- 
put Philistinum attulit illud in Jerusalem." 
— 1 Sam. xvii. (54). 

Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. 
Text. — " Ecce Rex tuus venit sedens 
super pulluni asinse." — John xii. (15). 


The Temptation of Christ. 

Text. — " Et accedens tentator dixit ei, 
Si filius Dei es die ut lapidus isti panes 
riant."— Matt. iv. (13). 



Elisha Raising the Shun'amite's Son. 

Text. — " Tolle filium tuum. Venit ilia 
et corruit ad pedes, et adoravit super ter- 
rain." — 4 Kings iv. (36). 


Lazarus Raised from the Dead. 

Text. — " Lazare, veui foras ! Et pro- 
didit qui fuerat mortuus." — John xi. 

No. IX. 

The Manna. 

Text. — " Panem de coclo prsestitis eis." 
Wisdom xvi. (20). 


The Last St/j>/>t r. 

Text. — " Desiderio desideravi hoc pas- 
cha comedere vobiscum antequam patiar." 
— Luke xxii. (15). 

Cain killing Abel. 

Text. — " Consurrexit Cain adversus 
fratrem suum Abel." — Gen. iv. (8). 

Judas Betraying Christ. 

Text " Dixit ave Rabbi, et occula- 

tus est eum." — Matt. xxvi. (49). 


Jeremiah Imprisoned. 

Text. — " I rati principes contra Jere- 
miam (csesum) eummiseruntincarcerem." 
— Jerem. xxxvii. (15). 


Christ before Cuiaphas. 

Text. — " Si malo locutus sum (testimo- 
nium) perhibe de malo." — John xviii. 


The Fall of the Rebel Angels. 
Text. — " Si ceciderint in terram a semi- 
tipsis uon consurgent." — Baruch vi. (26). 


The Garden of Gellusemane and the 
Ministering Angel. 

Text. — " Pater, si vis transfer poculum 
hoc a me." — Luke xxii. (42). 

No. X. 


Shimei Cursing David. 
Text. — " Egredere, egredere, vir san- 
guinum, et vir Belial." — 2 Sam. xvi. (7). 

Christ Mocked by the Soldkrs. 
Text. — "Velaverunt eum et percutie- 
bant faciam ejus." — Luke xxii. (64). 

No. XI. 


Noah Drunken and Naked. 

Text. — " Bibensque vinum inebriatus 
est et nudatus (in tabernaculo suo)." — 
Gen. ix. (21). 

Christ Stripped before Herod. 
Text. — " Vse qui dicitis malum bonum, 
et bonum malum." — Is. v. (20). 

No. XII. 


Job Vexed by Satan. 

Text. — " Dominus dedit, Dominus abs- 
tulit ; sit noruen Domini benedictum." — 
Job i. (21). 

Christ Scourged, 

Text. — " Tunc ergo reprehendit Pilatus 
Jesam et flagellavit." — John xix. (1). 

Solomon Crowned. 

Text. — " Egredimini et videte, filije 
Zion regem Salomonem." — Cant. iii. (11). 


Christ Crowned with Thorn*. 

Text. — " Et niilites plectentes coronam 
de spinis imposuerunt capiti ejus." — John 
xix. (2). 


kino's college chapel windows. 

No. XI11. 

The Great East Window contains six pictures relating to the Crucifixion, without 
correspondencee. Recommencing at the south-east corner and counting westward, we 
have : — 

No. XIV. 
Type. (Some modern glass.) 

Naomi and her Daughters. 
Text.—" Ne vocetia me Naomi." 

Christ 7)< wailed. 

Ti xt — " Qnin el tuum ipsius animani 
peuetrabit yladius." — Luke ii. (35). 

Josiph in the Pit. 

Text — "Et mittamus eum in cisternam 
m quae est in solitudiue." — Gen. 
xxxvii. (22). 

i | laid in 'In Tomb. 
Text— "Posuit Qlod in monumento 
suo novo." — Matt, xxvii. (GO). 

Jonalt and the Whale. 
Text — '' Evumuit Jonain in aridam." — 

Jon ii. (11). 

Tin I- of t ' 

Text — " Hevolvit lapidem et Bedebal 
super eum." — Matt, xxviii. ("2). 


/ ,1 tin I'll. 

Text. — " Reversuaque Reuben ad cia- 
ternam oon invanil puerum." — Gen. 
xxxvii. (29). 

Avim i i 

The Women at tht Sepulchre. 
Text '• l-t rald< mane a primo die 
(Sabbatorum) reniunl ad monumentnm, 

oli ." M.,1-1. wi. < 2). 


T; ii. 

Tin .1 ngtl appears to Habh < 
'I . ..t " Argi ii i mil it anram oon i I 
iiiiln, qd, autern baboo boo tibi do.*' — Aetn 

(Tbia text ia a repetition <>i No. xxi) 

i ii . 

CI,, j I In tin tlWO I ' 


• \ ii i Judei 'i '|ih habitati 
.is mm mm ■ i i, hoc i obi i notum 
bit " An n (14), 

|.. tltion "i So xxi.) 


The Exodus. 

Text — " Eduxit Israel per turmas 
suas." — Ex. xii. (51). 

Tin Harrowing of Hell. 
Text. — " Advenit te liberai'e Salvator 
muml(i angnst . . . ." 

(See Spurious Gospel of Nicodemus.) 


Tobias returning to his Mother. 
Text. — •' El illii-o agnovit renientem 

lilium suum." — Tobit xi. {0). 

A Nil TYPK. 

C7iri.-<i appearing to his Mother. 
Text. — "Salve, parens, enixa es puer- 
pera regem <|ui coslum terramque regit" 

(No reference : see Golden Legend.) 



Daniel in th Lions' /'<« addressed by 

l>n IUS. 

Text — '• \ ' nil au|. in rex 

Ii.iin.ii-, Daniele! 1 ' — Dan. vi (80). 


< ' app aring to Mary MagdaiU »- . 

Text- "lla'c cum dixiaset, convene, 
eetretrorsum >i ridit Jeaum atantem." — 
John x\. (l-l). 



Habbacuc feeds Daniel. 

i . xi.— " Kt illi quidam ibanl gaudentea 

■ conapectn i ailii." Acta \. (4 l). 

(Tins tr.xt it< a repetition <>t No. xxi.) 

Am i n ii . 

Christ breaking bread at Emmavi. 
T< Kt " Quid utique convenM robl 
tentare apiritum Domini." Acta r, (.'')• 
(Text belonga t" No. nxi.) 



No. XIX. 


Joseph meeting Jacob. 

Text. — " Dixit Jacob ad Joseph : jam 
laetus moriar quia vidi i'aciem tuam." — 
Gen. xlvi. (.'30). 


Christ appearing to the Desciples. 

Text. — " Pax vobis, et cum hsec dix- 
isset, osteudit eis mauus et latus." — John 
xx. (29). 

The Prodigal Son. 

Text. — "Pater, peccavi in coelum et 
coram te." — Luke xv. (21.) 


The Unbelieving Thomas. 

Text. — " Pax vobis ; deinde dixit 
Thomas, infer digitum tuum hue et vide 
manus nieas." — John xx. (27). 

No. XX. 

Elijah's Ascent to Heaven. 
Text — " Cumque transissent, Helias 
dixit ad Eliseum." — 4 Kings ii. (9). 

Christ's Ascension. 

Text. — " Qui est iste qui venit de Edom 
tinctis vestibus." — Is. lxiii. (1). 


The Law given to Moses. 

Text. — " Videns autem populus quod 
moram faceret descendi de monte Moses." 
— Ex. xxxii. (1). 

Tlie Holy Spirit given to the Apostles. 
Text. — "Spiritus Domini replevit or- 
bem terrarum." — Wisdom i. (7). 

No. XXI. 

Peter and John heal the Lame Man. 

Text. — " Advenientes autem principes 
sacerdotum et omnes qui cum eo erant 
convocaverunt consilium." — Acts v. (21). 

(This text is misplaced.) 

The Crowd following Peter into the 

Text. — " Viri Judei et qui habitatis 
Hierosalvmis universi hoc vobis notum 
sit." — Acts ii. (14). 

Imprisonment and Scourging of Peter 
and John. 

Text. — " Et dimiserunt eos, et illi qui- 
dem ibant gaudentes a conspectu con- 
silii."— Acts v. (41). 

Death of Ananias. 

Text. — " Petrus autem dixit, argentum 
et aurum non est mihi, quod autem habeo, 
tibi do." — Acts iii. (C). 

(This text misplaced). 

No. XXII. 

Conversion of St. Paul. 

Text. — " Et subito circumfulsiteumlux 
de coelo et cadens in terram." — Acts ix. 
(3, 4). 

St. Paid and Barnabas at Lystra. 

Text. — "(Sacerdos quoque Jovis qui 
erat ante civitatem) illorum tauros et co- 
ronas ad vestibula afferens cum turbis 
volebat (sacrificare)." — Acts xiv. (12). 

St. Paul disputing with the Jews at 

Text. — " (Fuit autem) Saulus cum dis- 
cipulis qui erant Damasci per dies ali- 
quot." — Acts ix. (19). 

The Apostles assaidted at Iconium. 

Text. — " Supervenerunt autem quidam 

ab Antiochia et Iconio Judei " — 

Acts xiv. (19). 


St. Paul casting out the Spirit of Divi- 

Text. — " Prsecipio tibi in nomen Jesu 
Christi exire (ab) ea." — Acts xvi. (18). 

St. Paul parting from his Friends. 

Text — " Cum soluissimus igitur a 
Troade recto cursu venimus Samothra- 
cen." — Acts. xvi. (11). , 

(This is obviously a mistake for Acts 
xxi. 1). 

St. Paul arraigned. 

Text. — " Et apprehendentes Paulum 
trahebant eum extra templum." — Acts 
xxi. (30). 

St. Paul before Felix or Nero. 

Text. — " Permissum est Paulo manere 
sibimet cum custodiente se milite." — 
Acts xxviii. (16). 

I have now only to mention the arrangement of the last two 
windows, that is, the westernmost on the south side. These, 



containing the conclusion of the Virgin Mary's history, have 
sustained irreparable injury, and arc only intelligible after 
much patient study. They represent "the death of Mary," 
typified above by " the death of Tobit." The correspondence 
lies in this: thai when Tobit and Mary were dying each of 
them sent for their sons. Hence both legends begin with 
words taken from the last chapter of the book of Tobit : " In 
bora mortis vocavit filium s^uln).' , In the upper picture is 
Been the young Tobias with the Angel by his side ; and in 
the lower, our Lord (with the labarum, or resnrrection- 
Btandard in his hand) at the foot of his mother's bed. 

Then follows in order, Mary's burial : this is typified 
above by "the burial of Jacob," with the legend: u Josep 
tribus sepeliunt Jacob." The point of correspondence lure 
must be, that (according to the spurious gospel) Mary, 
like Jacob, gave commandment concerning her burial. 
On tliis occasion a disturbance with the Pagan soldiery is 
said to have taken place, all of which is faithfully depicted 
on the glass. 

The last window contains, on the left hand, "the 
Assumption of the Virgin." typified by ki the apotheosis of 
an unknown saint" with a conspicuous pouch by his side. 8 
On the right is "the Coronation of Mary," typified by the 
subject of Solomon placing Bathsheba on a throne at his 
Bide." The proximity of the small stone image of the Virgin 
in tin' rose to this window will now be understood. 

1 have dwelt a little upon these two windows, because the 
guide-book does not name them ; indeed 1 believe this is 
the firei time that either they or the first window, or any 
iif the texts given above, have been described. 


Another pari of the general arrangemenl worthy of note 
is the system of " messengers " as they are called in the 
central lights of all the side windows, ranged one ever the 
other. Of these there are four to each win. lew (ninety-four 
altogether in the chapel) holding Bcrolls with the texts of 
scripture to explain the Bubjecl of the pictures. 

A similar arrangemenl occurs in the Meek I ks and 

to ri.nj.-i- with Saint Wary. U an Old Testament 
ton that it ' Nicholas, to whom ubject, might it toot be thi Translation ol 

tl,.- . ted in eon junction Enoch ' 

king's college chapel windows. 107 

illuminations of the period, and in many collections of 

We have already seen that this was the case with the 
windows of Henry VII.'s chapel, Westminster. In Fairford 
church the prophets face the apostles, and whilst the latter 
recite the Apostles' Creed amongst them, the former exhibit 
prophecies relating to the last judgment. Even Norman and 
Early English glass have traces of this explanatory method. 

The messengers of Kino's consist of two classes, the one 
venerable figures like prophets, the other angels, with or 
without the nimbus. 

This distinction I imagine was only made for the sake of 
variety ; for they follow no order, but illustrate indiscrimi- 
nately an Old or New Testament subject, always observing, 
however, that two of each sort are attached to a window. 
To this seeming disorder there is but one exception, viz., in 
the windows illustrating the Acts of the Apostles, where six 
figures of St. Luke (with the bull at his feet) carry his own 
texts ; but even they share this honour with as many 

The demi-figures with wings are usually called St. Michael ; 
and the prophet Ezekiel may perhaps be distinguished by 
his dress. But it is plain that all symbolism, whether of 
colour or form, w T as by this time held with a very loose 

the texts. 

The texts or legends are written in large Gothic cha- 
racters, with the usual abbreviations, and sometimes having 
Lombardic capitals. The book and chapter are invariably 
marked according to the custom of the day. 

The Old Testament quotations generally agree with the 
Vulgate, or with some of the scarcely dissimilar varieties of 
Jerome. But not so the quotations from the New Testa- 
ment, which vary very much from any version (I have 
compared seven or eight) except that of Erasmus, especially 
his second edition, 1519. This coincidence taken in con- 
nection with the fact that Erasmus had not left Cambridge 
when our windows were begun, would favour the idea that 
the great reviver of learning as well as of morals has had a 
hand in these inscriptions. Such a thing would not be 
beneath him, professor though he was ; for we find him in 
the year I.")!.') receiving twenty shillings for drawing up an 

L68 king's college chapel windows. 

epitaph for Margaret of Richmond's tomb in Westminster 



But, besides being curiously and historically interesting, 
these windows are truly invaluable as works of art. They 
other altogether the best and almost only examples of an 
English historical school of painting. As marble was the 
material of Greece, and fresco of Italy, so glass is certainly 
the material and Burface upou which our native genius has 
expended itself. Define a school of high art as yon may, 
what is there in this kingdom, we ask, in point of scale, of 
quantity, or of merit (and that under considerable disad- 
vantages), to compare with the collections of glass in our 
cathedrals and churches, to say nothing of scattered remnants 
and of demolished glass. Surely nothing formerly done in 
the way of illuminations or woodcuts, or latterly in the way 
of oils, can claim such a title \ lint here (to confine our- 
selves to this single specimen) are at least one hundred 
gigantic pictures, retaining much of their original vigour, 
and executed ai (lie iwi\al of art in Europe, and in rivalry 
of the greai [talian school itself. 

That 1 am not speaking without warrant, hear Vandyke's 
opinion of tin 1 Fairford glass, tar inferior to this in respect 
of historic merit : " He often affirmed to the king (Charles I.) 

that many of I lie figures in the Fairford windows were so 

exquisitely done thai they could he exceeded by no pencil." ' 
Walpole also remarks of these very windows of King's 
chapel, thai "the artists who executed them would figure 
as considerable painters in .'my reign," adding, in true anti- 
quarian spirit, ••and what, a rarity, in a collection ol 
draw ingSj would be one of their vidimuses ! " 

Bui an example is worth a thousand recommendations. 
For this purpose I would beg to poin! oul the two figures on 
horseback, one in profile, the other a three quarter face, < -( >u- 
irersing together in the lower righl band subject of the greai 
easl window. Nothing can he more lull of expression and 

individual character than the countenances, or i <• easy than 

i he composition of 1 bese figures. And here let me explain one 
ol the difficulties which our glass painters had to contend with 
in making their designs. Each bay or light i divided both 

Popo [raplij ol ' Houei U rahu - 


vertically and horizontally by iron bars ; that is to say, the 
cartoon, ere the design was commenced, had to be marked off 
like a gridiron ; and then every head and hand was brought 
into one or other of the divisions ! Sometimes, in older glass, 
this may be mentioned as an apology for stiff necks and other 
contortions ; but here it is only another matter of astonish- 
ment and praise, when we find how well the difficulty has been 
overcome. And does not this peculiarity of conformation 
(together with the necessarily high pitch of the horizon line in 
all old glass designs) prove their originality, — another point of 
merit in any work of art I 4 " The Christ " likewise, " bearing 
his cross," in this window, has a fine face, quite of the 
Spanish school. 

Another example of the historic merit of King's chapel 
windows is the well-known figure of Ananias, in the window 
on the south side of the chapel nearest the organ-loft. The 
ghastliness of the face is exceedingly well done, and will 
repay an examination through a glass. 

Lastly, as a piece of difficult, but most graceful design, 
observe the apotheosis of the unknown saint in the last 
window in the south-west corner in the upper left-hand 

Upon the whole, though there are doubtless many inferior 
parts and a considerable amount of mutilation and displace- 
ment, and some still later damage, yet these windows must 
ever be acknowledged to offer a truly wonderful collection of 
designs and details, worthy of a high place (yea, I submit, 
in the absence of anything more worthy, of the highest 
place) in our kingdom of historical art. 

The men who painted them were not mere vitrifiers or 
glaziers, but artists in a high sense of the term. 

Refreshed from the fountains which Michael Angelo and 
Raffaelle had just opened to the world, they approached 
their material with no mean ideas or trembling hands ; 
their arms seem to have forgotten the trammels of lead and 
of arming, and to have swept over the glass with grand and 
flowing lines, that can scarcely be outdone, and every bold con- 
trast of colour and composition. To brilliant lights and colours, 
such as no other kind of painting can approach to, they have 
added a manly vigour of conception that never seems to flag. 

1 I should add hen-, that this " a No plagiarism but that of subject and 
priori" supposition is rally sustained by conventional treatment can be brought 
an examination of the windows before us. against them. 

i:n king's collbge chapel windows. 

Observe, too, how well they tell a story ! In choosing a 
subject, instead of invading the province of poetry or of the 
histrionic art (the vice of modern painters) they seize upon 
some stirring incident, like that of the Hampton Court 
cartoons ; and then narrate it to the eye both simply and 
earnestly, and (conventionalisms apart ) \\ Lib astonishing truth 
to nature. This shows power of mind as well as of hand. 

But I hasten to offer a few remarks upon the manufacture 
of these windows. 

The ironwork — or arming — is very heavy, a •'defence,'' 
as the contracts need scarcely tell us, "against great winds 
and outrageous weatherings." Besides the vertical bars on 
the outside, there are saddle-bars within, seven inches apart, 
one being missed or bent occasionally, to avoid cutting a face 
or any material part of a figure. It is a question, whether 
we attend enough to the arming of our windows now-a-days. 
Tunc only can prove ; but certain it is, that this cobweb of 
iron bars — some of them an inch square — have only just 
sufficed to preserve their charge for three centuries. 5 

The glass itself is all perfectly transparent, except where 
it is shaded, and even the shadows are stipple-shaded, that 
is, made as diaphanous as possible. In this respect the 
windows under review agree with all old glass. It remained 
for later times to think of obscuring glass with enamels or 
dirt. Our modern obscurists would do well, I think, to bear. 
in mind that the contractors for these windows were espe- 
cially bound to supply "clean " glass. 

The specific tint is slightly warm or golden, being indeed 

only the white glass of the day, as may still be seen in old 
cottages. I'-ut it is observable thai this tint or basis under- 
and affects all the colours, as well as the white glass, 
Bubduing the blue, for instance, and enriching the ruby, 
Here is an Important hint, I imagine, on the general 
harmony of any window which may hope to vie with old 
glass. The cathedral tinl a& the manufacturers term i< 
oughl to pervade all I he colours. 

Some very successful attempts have been made lately to 
prepare r;iw glass in this way. But for myself (if I m;i\ be 
allowed to offer an opinion) I believe we shall eventually come 
to tli of commerce the glass of the day. We ought, 

i racomn Ird answer very wbII on ••' m«JI scalo, but 

on ili<- nut could Imi.lU l.. tpplii 'l to i ucli i building 
tide, in 1 1 • u "i •• ;iriiiin • l in.i umy m that befori 

king's college chapel windows. 171 

indeed, only to be too thankful that it is so pure and good as 
it is ; and I feel persuaded that we shall be doing better by 
giving attention to the essential principles of the art, than to 
the recovery of this or that tint, which our ancestors were 
constantly changing, and always — it appears to me — with the 
hope and determination of getting rid of it altogether. 

The flesh in King's chapel windows is stained with iron, 6 
which allows of its being transparent also, another point not 
to be overlooked in pictorial glass-work ; for it is plain that 
the flesh, constituting, as it does, the prominent parts of the 
picture, is a sort of key-note to the whole : if this is dulled 
with enamels of any kind, the entire window has to be dulled 
too. Thus the glass is shorn of its glory, its brightness, its 
first essential property, without which it is turned into a 
mere transparency or blind, quite out of place in a window 
made on purpose for the admission of light. 

The colours used in this chapel are very varied ; several 
shades, particularly of purple and green, producing delightful 
associations with the more positive colours. 

The colour, moreover, varies in depth on the same piece 
of glass. Many effects of sky, foliage, and drapery, are thus 
skilfully imitated. This difference of shade, in the present 
instance, depends, I observe, upon the thickness of the glass. 
But I believe the great charm of these windows lies in their 
restricted and careful use of colour ; quite three-fourths, in 
some cases seven-eighths of the whole surface, being white 
glass, or white glass shaded. This reservation gives intense 
value, by contrast, to the colours employed, greatly reducing 
their gaudiness, and enhancing their depth. 

And then the colour that is used is collected into nose- 
gays, as it were, and not spotted or diluted by being spread 
over the picture. This is bold treatment, no doubt, but it is 
very successful here, particularly in the three windows on the 
north side of the chapel, illustrating the Acts of the Apostles ; 
and, I doubt not, would be with us also, if we could induce 
our artists, or rather their patrons, once to reflect that there 
may be too much of a good thing. 

r ' I was fortunate enough, three or four with a flux of any sort I may, perhaps, 

years ago, after a number <>f experiments, be allowed to say, that Mr. Winston fully 

to succeed in recovering the cin<[ue-cento approves of it. 
flesh stain. Its value lies in dispensing 


It is a curious fact, in the history of painted glass in tin's 
country, that, from first to last, there lias been a growing 
tendency to reduce the quantity of colour. It may, perhaps, 
I"' explained thus: — the art was imported (say during the 
sixth in- Beventh centuries) from southern countries, whence 
it came glowing with colour suited to the richness of those 
skies, and necessary to obscure some of their light. 

Hut this exuberance was soon found inappropriate ami 
inconvenient here ; hence arose, in the first place, the white 
pattern windows of our various styles, and then the gradual 
but genera] preponderance of white glass over colour, which 
we speak of. 

I had -nine more remarks to make on the manipulation of 
these windows ; but, as they are purely technical, they may 
be spared in a paper of this sort. 

Such are a few of the ideas naturally suggested to the 
student of King's chapel windows ; and nothing shows, I 
think, more clearly the intimate and interesting connection 
there is between archaeological reviews and our future pro- 
gress in art. 

Here is an art, the art of glass painting, which must, in 
the nature of things, ever he popular in this country. It is. 
in fact, just the ornamented state of a material, the use of 
which i- increasing every day among us. 

How necessary, then, that it should be securely grounded 
and rightly directed! And what so useful for this purpose 
as the experience of the past ; those first principles obtained 
from a survey of long periods together, and the comparison 

of various Btylee ! 

At the same time, we see the lolly of going back to 

ancient times, when circumstances were so different, and 

taking thence, in too Blavisb a manner, our model, either of 
architecture, or of any of its parts. 

Eternal principle- of taste of course there are, and prin- 
ciples based upon climate, materials, ami habits, equally 
binding; hut their application should e\er he left to the 
independent impulses of genius, under the direction of pre- 
:-• in exigences, ami of the ever-shifting, but. no doubt, 
.it v ,-oid happy effects of time ami providence. For 

light of i hi- hind, and on an ;ir! BO easily abused, il seemfl 

to ii ie we cannot he too thankful 

w .1 BOLTON 

Original Botttmcnts. 




Ceste endenture tesmoigne, qe convenuz est parentre le Dean et le 
Cliapitre de leglise de Seint Pool de Londres, dune part, et Wauter Lorgoner 
de Suthwerke, dautre part, cestassaver, qe le dit Wauter ferra une dyal en 
lorloge de mesme leglise, od rooss ' et totes maneres de ustimentz appar- 
tenantz al dit Dyal, et au tourner del Angel par amunt a lorloge, issint qe 
le dit Orloge soit bon et covenable et profitable a monstrer les houres de jour 
et de nuyt a durer sauntz defaute, et en cas qe defaute soit trove apres ces 
houres en le dit Orloge, le dit Wauter se oblige par ceste endenture de faire 
les adresces 3 totefoiz, quant il serra garni par les ministres de leglise. Et 
pur ceste overaigne bien et leument parfaire et acomplir, les avantditz Dean 
et Chapitre luy ferront payer sis livres desterlinges, cest assaver, au 
commencement cessaunt soutz, et quant le Dyal serra prest de mettre sus, 
trent souz, et a la parfesaunce de tote lovereyne, cest assaver a la quinzeme 
de Paske preschcin a venir (interlined), trent soutz. Et le dit Wauter 
trovera a ses coustages ferre, arresme, 4 et totes manere dautre choses a la 
dit overeyne parfayre, et avera de vere luy les veuz ustimentz qe ne volunt 5 
plus servir. Et pur cele overeyne faire bien et leument le dit Wauter sei 
oblige et ses heirs et ses executours et touz ces biens. Et pur seurte de 
cele overeyne parfayre bien et leument, Nichole Peautrer de Lodegate, 
Stephene Peautrer del Cunditte, Johanne Barbir, Sergeaunt de mesme 
leglise, Thomas Barneby, archer sur le Pount de Londres, sount devenuz ses 
plegges, et soi obligent et lour heirs et lour executours et touz lour biens, 
ou qilz soient trovetz. En testmoignaunce de quele chose al une partie de 
ceste endenture de vers le dit Wauter, le dit Dean et le Cliapitre unt mis lour 
seals, a lautre partie de vers caus lesse, les ditz Wauter, Nichole et Stepbene, 
Johan et Thomas ount mis lour seals. Done a Loundres, le Samadi le jour 
de Seint Edmund le Roi et Martire, Ian du regne le Roi Edward tierz del 
conqueste dyssuittime. [22nd Nov., 1344.] 

The present deed was the counterpart remaining with the Dean and 
Chapter, and of the five seals originally attached to it only two remain, and 
these in a damaged condition. They are the fourth and fifth in order, and 
may have been borrowed by the parties executing the indenture. On the 

1 i. e . Itoues, wheels. struire, reparer. Roquefort. 

I'ar-amont, en haut. Roquefort. ' Airain, brass. 

3 Adrcscc, repairs. Adrenier, recon- ' For vcdent, 



first is a shield bearing the letter S, through which is a cross fitchee, which 
risi b above the shield, and has three wavy lines proceeding from it, like a 
pennon. Tart of the seal is broken off, but the portion of the legend that 

remains, read — s>u:l HAN STRAVN6E. On the second seal is a rude 

representation of the Crucifixion, with the legend rjBSVS n.\ z]akknv[s]. 

The deed is indorsed in a contemporary hand, Indentura de factum 
Orilogii. In transcribing it, the contractions have been written at length. 

In connexion with the early history of clocks. I may take the present 
OCCi '• few other particulars, which have fallen under my notice 

in documents preserved at the British Museum. F.M. 

Add. Charter, 4265. 

Jehan de Rfenelix, master of the works to the Duke of Orleans, certifies, 
that Thinomas Rogeret, "coustcllier et ouvrier de forge," had made " le 
Reloige 6 de Chasteauneuf, cestassavoir, les mouvemens, roes et roez, et 
apparten' au dit Reloige, excepte la Cloiche," for the sum of 3G gold crowns. 
Hat. 13 May, 1 

Add. Charter, 4264. 

Pierre le Queux, " Orlaugeur," acknowledges the receipt of 30 gold 
crowns, at 18 solz each, from Godeffroy le Fevre, valet of the chamber of 
the I 'like of Orleans, "pour la vente de trois Auloiges." Dat. 22 Dec, 1396. 

Add. Charter, 1397. 

Robert Dorigny, "fevre," acknowledges the receipt of 9 livres tournois 

" pour avoir descendu et mis par membres le mouvement de l'Orloge qui 

• atoit en l'ostel de Mens, le Due a Asniere, et ycellui conduit et fait admener 

raiz a Villers Costerct,"by order of the Duchess. Dat. 7 Oct., 1397. 

Add. Charter, 4291, 

Jehan Dalemaige, "serrurier," of Paris, acknowledges the receipt of GG 
Bole Paris, from the receiver of the finances of the Duchess of Orleans, " pour 
un mouvement OU petite Orloge achate de lui pourmettre en la chamhre dc 
ma dite D m ••." l».it. 9 Aug., 1 101. 

J./,/. Charter, 1 154. 

Jehan Lie!, mire, " faiseur d'Orloges," at Paris, acknowledges the receipt 
of 55 solz tournois from the receiver-general of the Conte d'Angoulesme, 
•• pour deux roes et antics choses par lui mises pour l'Orloge de mon dit 
i in-." Dat. L9 Dec., 1 107. 

The Agreement, for which we are indebted to Sir Frederic Madden, is 
the only evidence, as far as we can ascertain, regarding the ancient clock 
at St. i'aul's. his History of that cathedral church, briefly 
mentions the dial belonging to the clock, " concerning which there was '-are 
;i in 18 Bdw. III., thai it should be made with all splendor that might 
1,, ; which wa accordingly performed, having the image of an Angell, point- 
ing al the hour both of the day and night. Ea autog. penes Bliam Ashmole. 
dale, p. 22, orig. edit. 1658. It appears probable that the document 
referred to may have been the counterpart of that now in the Cottoman 
collection, namely, thai winch remained in the hand of Walter the Orgoner. 
- i i Madden i not aware thai any of A bmole'a MSS. came into the 
( ottoman collection, and ob ervei thai the charter given above formed part, 
probably, of Sir Robert Cotton's library in the time of Jamea [..previous!] 
to the pei iod w ben I tugdale wrote. 

It may be concluded that there bad ezi ted a elocl in St. Paul'i 

I;, |og< i - Reli Mini additions i" Din 


time previous to the date of this document, since Walter was permitted to 
take for himself the old works (ustiments) no longer serviceable. We are 
moreover indebted to the kindness of the Ven. Archdeacon of London for 
an extract from the Compotus Bracerii of St. Paul's, a.d. 1286, in which 
the allowances to " Bartholomeo Orologiario " are entered, namely, of 
bread, at the rate of a loaf daily, for three-quarters of a year and eight days, 
281 panes. "Item, Bartholomeo orolog', post adventum Willclmi Pikewell, 
23 bott." (Botta, butta, Lagena, Due. a liquid measure, probably of beer.) 

The earliest horologhim of which we have any account in this country is 
that stated to have been constructed in 1288, 16 Edw. I., in the clock- 
house near Westminster Hall ; it was memorable, according to Seidell, as 
having been the result of a fine imposed on the Chief Justice, Ralph de 
Ilenghaui. One of the most ancient clocks now existing in England is that 
to be seen in Wells Cathedral : it was made by Peter Lightfoot, a monk of 
Glastonbury, at the expense of Adam de Sodbury, Abbot of that house, 
1322-35. It was removed to Wells from the abbey church of Glastonbury, 
at the suppression. A representation of this remarkable horloge is given 
in Phelps' Hist, of Somerset, vol. ii. p. 66. See also Warner's Hist, of 
Glastonbury, pi. ix. Above the dial, it may be observed, there is a turret, 
round which four mounted knights revolve, when set in motion by a com- 
munication with the clock. This may possibly serve to explain the expression 
in the agreement communicated by Sir F. Madden, — " au tourner del 
Angel par aniunt lorloge." 

Another memorable production of early skill in clockmaking was the 
horloge called Albion, in St. Alban's Abbey Church, one of the gifts of 
Richard de Wallingford, abbot, 1326-34. Representations of the abbot and 
his clock may be seen in Cott. MSS. Claud. E. IV. and Nero, D. VII. It 
seems to have continued to go as late as the time of Leland, who gives an 
account of it in his treatise de Scriptoribus Britannicis, vol. i. p. 28. 7 

Mr. Octavius Morgan suggests, with much probability, that the clock at St. 
Paul's, for which Walter the Orgoner constructed " une dyal," may have 
previously been one which struck the hours, but was not furnished with a 
face ; and he observes, that such a clock, of the early part of the XVIth 
century, is now at Leeds Castle, Kent. This has the movement and striking 
part complete, but no dial-works or face. We may here express the hope, 
that Mr. Morgan may speedily complete for publication the History of 
Clock and Watchmaking, from the earliest times, a desideratum in 
archaeological literature which no one is so highly qualified to supply. 

As a contribution towards the materials for so desirable an object, the 
following extracts from the Sacrist's Rolls, preserved amongst the archives 
of the Dean and Chapter at Norwich, may here be appended to the valuable 
information which we owe to the kindness of Sir F. Madden. The earliest 
entry which has been noticed in the Rolls at Norwich is in 1322. 

" Horolog'. — In uno plate de mctallo enipto iv. d. ob., in sound' empto 
xvi. d. 1 in faetura v. ymaginum xx. s. Item, garcioni facienti capit' iij. s. 

" See also Newcome'a Hist, of St. Al- Herts, vol. i. p. 28, states that it was com- 

hans. |>. 250. It is said that the abbot, pleted by Laurence Stokes, in the time of 

who was the son of a blacksmith, and at- Abbot de la Mare, 1350-96. 
tained to great proficiency in science at ' Doubtless the sounds or Bwimming 

Oxford, had began early in life to construct bladders <>f fish, used as size either to 

this clock, and resumed his work through temper colours, to form priming for the 

the encouragement of Edward 111. Mr. ground, &c. In the accounts relating to 

Clutterbuck, in his account of it, Hist, of the Painted Chamber frequent mention 


In stipcndiis Ifagistri Roberti xxx. s." Andrew ami Roger, carpenters, are 
also mentioned as employed at this period ; the total of the expenditure, 
between Michaelmas and Christmas, amounted to ■!/. L9s, S 1 r/. 

In the Compotus of L323, several entries occur under the head Orologium, 
— Payments id' wages to Andrew the carpenter, to Robert, to Roger de 
Stoke ; with the following payment for the latter, — ■*• pro cariagio pan- 
norum et instrumentorum ejus, viij. s.- — In uno hose de Latoun, iiij. s. vij. d. 
q** Item, magistro Ade sculptori ]>ro factura xxiiij. parvarum ymaginum, 
xj. s. Item, in cc. lapidibus de Cadamo, xxij. s. Item, Johanni fabro pro 
opere ferri ad orologium, iij. s. ix. d. Item, lib' Roberto de Turri pro 
factura magni laminis, x. s. et tantum in perdicione quia pro paupertate non 
potuit opus perficere nee aliquid ah eo exigi, Summa, vi. li. xiij. s. ix. d. q**' 1 

The Roll of the following year is not to be found. 

The ( ' mpotus of the year 1325 comprises the following entries : — 

" Expense Orologii. — Item, in cc. et diinid' Bord' emptis, xlvij. s. Item, 
in cariagio ejusdem, xvj. d. Item, in x. lapidibus nomine Clobctz- cum 
cariagio, vij. s. ij. d. Item, in stipendio unius cementarii circa fundum 
orologii, iij. s. viij. d. Item, in meremioad curbas, xviij. d. Item, inferro 
empto, xvj. s. ix. d. oh. Item, in opere ferri, xvij. s. v. d. Item, in ere 
empto, xvj. s. iij. d. Item, in uno lamine cupreo, vj. d. Item, in factura lune 
cum pictura et deauratura, x. B. Item, in uno lamine cupreo cum dcauratura 
ad solem, xj. d. Item, in ij. tenuibus laminibus eris, xv. d. Item, in instru- 
mentis et emendacione instrumentorum, \. d. Item, in cordis ad orologium, 
ij. s. vij. d. oh. Item, in factura xxx. ymaginum, xlvij. s. iiij. d. Item, 
in meremio ad quaBdam ymagines, ij. s. j. d. Item, in pictura choree 
monachorum in grosso, xiij. s. iiij. d. Item, in albo et rubeo plumbo, foliis 

. ol t coloribus ad ceteras ymagines, x. s. viij. d. ob. Item, in 

pictura dialis interioris et tabulc sub diali exteriori, ix. d. Item, in v' • auri 
cum cariagio de London', xxj. s. vj. d. Item, in xxv. foliis ami, xiij. d. 
Item, in pictura barellorum, xvj. d. quia bis. Item, in stipendio pictoris el 
garcionic Bui per \iiij. Beptimanas et ij. dies, capieutis per diem viij. d. per 
Beptimanam iz. b. vj. d. et non plus quia steterunt in mensa domini.' Item, 
in magno lamine ad diale, iiij. li. vij. s. videlicet iiij"" vij. li. metalli pro 

totidem Bolidis, [tern, in cariagio ejusdem laminis de London' apud 
Norwycum, vii. .s. Item, in expeu.-is divi-r-orum garcionum diversis vicibua 
London 1 missorum pro predicto lamine, v. b. viij. d. Item, in ferro empto, 

iij. -. Item, datum cuidam operator] noinine Roberto de Tuny ad 

predictum lamen faciendum, in partem Bolucionis, sviij. s., in cujusmanibus 
totum opus periit, et Ita depauperatus \. Bolidos restituil et octo amittuntur 
quia nichil babuit in bonis, [tern, pacatum cuidam operatori apud London' 
in partem solucionii ad predictum lamen faciendum, vij. s. Item, cuidam 
alio sub Bimili paoto, \. b. qui ambo totum quod fecerunt perdiderunl et 
nichil propter eorum egestatem potuit ab eis exigi. Item, in expensis 
tri Etc mi garcionu e( equi ui, propter predictum lamen London 
. iij. b. j. d. [tern, in cariagio rerum de London 1 xij. d. Item, in 

I v. ,,//., ..'I'" ,ai alio i.uttr. Gobet of a brok vn th vnge, 

In tboM concerning St Stephen's Cliapol, frogmen." 

■!,,,, i ..-. in tin' i The express mention of oil for the 

l.iv account is the Item "i boat' de preparation of pigment* is not undeserving 

l • 1 1. 1 *, i .';>i " These of notioe, 

probabl) cuttings of parchment ox ' The painter and his assistant liad their 

\ ,i i j board ai the table "i the Lord Prior, snd 

lli.- ['romptorium :• ■• "Gobet, on that ace i i reduction was made in 

I po, [, Gobel thoir h 


factura cimbalarum, xvj. s. ix. d. Item, in viij. cimbalis parvis emptis a 
quadam venicntc de Cantuar', 5 ij. s. viij. d. Item, pro una lapide pro cimbalis 
emendandis, vj. d. Item, in Batellulis ad cimbalas, vij. d. Item, in ferro et 
factura ferri, xx. s. Item, in clavis, ij. s. v. d. Item, inopere ferri, ix. s. 
Stipendia cum Robis. — In stipendio Roberti Orologiarii pro iiij. terminis, 
xl. B. Item, in roba ejusdem cum furure, xvj. s. Item, in garneamento 
dato filio suo, iiij. s. Item, in stipendio Andree carpentarii per xxiiij. 
septimanas, capientis per septimanam vij. d., xiiij. s. Item, in stipendio ejus- 
dem pervj. septimanas, capientis per septimanam ut supra, iij. s. vj. d. Item, 
in stipendio J. de Belawe per xij. septimanas, viij. s., qui comp' viij. d. per 
septimanam. Item, in stipendio magistri Rogeri Orologiarii per ij. annos et 
xj. septimanas, vj. li. qui cepit per septimanam x. d. Item, in stipendio 
Laurencii Orologiarii per ij. annos, lxix. s. iiij. d. qui cepit per septimanam 
viij. d. Item, in roba magistri Rogeri primi anni, cum furur', xix. s. vj. d. 
Item, in robis Rogeri et Laurencii secundi anni, cum furur', xxxiiij. s. vj. d. 
Item, in robis eorundem tercii anni cum furur', xxxiij. s. viij. d. Item, in 
oblacionibus eorundem per totum tempus, v. s. vj. d. Summa,xl. li. xvj. s.ob." 

By the foregoing extracts it appears that the Orologium at Norwich was 
an elaborate piece of mechanism, furnished with many painted images, which 
doubtless performed surprising evolutions, like the twelve knights issuing 
from small windows in the horologium described as sent by Aaron, king of the 
Persians, to Charlemagne ; ( Annales Francorum, a.d. 807.) There were such 
automata connected with the Glastonbury clock, above mentioned, as also 
in the celebrated piece of mechanism at Strasburgh. At Norwich there 
was a set of 24 small images, the work of Master Adam the sculptor, pro- 
bably personifying the hours of the day and night. There were also 30 
images, doubtless representing the days of the month ; painted and gilded 
plates pourtraying the sun and moon, <fcc. A painted chorea monachorum, 
or procession of monks, formed part of this curious mechanical pageantry. 
A large metal plate for the dial was procured from London, apparently with 
6ome difficulty, numerous messages having been despatched thither regarding 
it by various garciones. This lamen, which weighed 87 lbs., was evidently 
a complicated and very elaborate work, engraved possibly with a multiplicity 
of lines indicating the movements of the heavenly bodies. The construction 
was obviously attended with no ordinary difficulties ; Master Robert de 
Turri failed in the attempt, and two artificers from London who succeeded 
in his place were equally unsuccessful. The works appear to have been in 
progress during three years, and besides iron-work, brass, copper, and 
" latoun," a considerable amount was expended in carpenters' work, deco- 
rations in colours, enriched with gold and silver foil, «tc. Two hundred 
pieces of Caen stone, and ten of stone termed " Gobetz," were employed, 
possibly in the construction of the base upon which the clock was fixed; 
[fundum orologii.) The position which it occupied in the church is not, as 
far as we are aware, now to be ascertained. 

A. W. 

5 The pilgrims to the shrine of St. would have bagpipes — "so that in everie 

Thomas appear to have furnished them- towne that they come through, what with 

selves with small bells, in the manufacture the noise of their singing, and with the 

of which, probably, Canterbury had some sound of their piping, and with the jangling 

celebrity. In the examination of William of their Canterburie bels " — more noise 

Thorpe by Archbishop Arundel, in 1 in;, was made than if the king came that way, 

as related by himself, it is said that some Wordsworth, Eccl. Biogr. vol. i. p. 1G8. 
pilgrims indulged in wanton songs, otto rs 

}3roccctJtngs at tf)c /Hcctinns of tftc .^rcftncologtcal institute. 

February 3, 1S55. 
William Henry BtAAUW, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair. 

The Rev. 11. M- Scabth communicated further notices of the Roman 
inscription found at Bath, and represented in this Journal, see p. 90, ante. 
A discussion ensued, in which Mr. Franks, irho had recently examined the 
original, now in the Museum of the Bath Institution, stated the grounds of 
his conviction that the tahlet should he assigned to the reign of Blagabalus, 
The inscription, he observed, can only apply to Caracalla or Elagabalus ; 
but it does not appear that the epithet Iwoictw was given to the former, 
There are, however, coins of Elagabalus on which he is thus styled. Mr. 
Franks thought that the inscription might have suffered mutilation in a 
slight degree, and the popular indignation which defaced or destroyed the 
memorials of that emperor, may possibly account for the occurrence of this 
tablet used as part of the cover of a sepulchral cist. 

Mr. WebtwooD observed that, as he had been informed, the French 
Government, with their accustomed liberality in the encouragement of all 
purposes for public instruction, had, even in the present eventful crisis, 
formed a Commission for collecting and preserving all the vestiges of 
i occupation in France. It must be a cause of great regret to every 
English archaeologist, that in our country the monuments of past times, 
Roman, Saxon, or Medieval, so valuable as auxiliaries to historical enquiry, 
were disregarded as neither worthy of the care of the Government, nor of 
preservation in our National Depositories. 

Dr. Bell, Phil. Dr., gave the following account of the establishment of 
the Museum at Mayence, one of the most instructive collections in that part 
of the continent, and remarkably rich in Romano-Germanic antiquities, lie 
exhibited specimens of the admirable reproductions of objects of bronae, 
jewelled ornaments, ace, produced with singular Bkillby Mr. Lindeschmidt, 
in order to facilitate the comparison of the rarest types of the earlier 
antiquities preserved in various remote continental museums, in cases where 
originals might be unattainable, Thai distinguished antiquary has suc- 
ceeded in supplying facsimiles not only perfect in form and in the most 
minute details, but presenting the precise appearance of the metallic and 
patinated surface, 

"The beneficial re ultt (Dr. Bell observed) that must arise from a 

synoptical and comprehensive riew of German objects of antiquity were so 

nt ) ii i: ,i , I fjongre oi the Aroheaological and Historical 

Teutonic Societies, held at Main/., in L852, ii olved that two 

., thai purpose should be founded ; a Mediaeval Mu eum at 

Nurem which the verj large collection of Baron von ^.ufreea which 

I thoro formed a valuable nucleu ; and a Romano Germanic Mir emu 


at Mainz. An extensive assemblage of the numerous Roman remains from 
that neighbourhood already existed at Mainz, and for the furtherance of 
the object the services of C. L. Lindeschmidt, an eminent historical 
painter and an ardent archaeologist, were fortunately attainable. As it 
was at once seen that the valuable objects in other museums or in private 
collections could not be obtainable, the talents of that gentleman enabled 
him to perfect facsimiles so exact that the eye can perceive no distinction, 
and the touch alone has convinced many an observer that they were not the 
original metal objects, as possibly the Members of the Institute will admit 
upon the inspection of the following four specimens." 

No. 198. A large bronze Celt found near Frankenthal, Rhenish Bavaria, 

and now in the museum at Wiesbaden. 
No. 204. A round Fibula, found in the Francic Graves of Oberolm, near 
Mainz. Copper inlaid with gold, ivory, and pastas of red 
glass, and bordered with studs of silver. The original is in 
Mainz Museum. 
No. 272. A large double Spiral Breast-clasp (Brust Spange) of bronze, 
found at Little Hesebeck, near Uelzen, in Hanover, and like 
the next in the collection of the Baron von Estortf, Chamber- 
lain of H. M. the King of Hanover. 
No. 310. A hanging vessel or ampulla found with the preceding, and 

in the same valuable collection. 
Mr. Hawkes communicated the following particulars regarding the 
Manilla African ring-money, obtained from one of the principal manufac- 
turers, Mr. Frederick Smith, of the Waterloo Works and Brass Foundry at 
Birmingham, and accompanied by a specimen which closely resembles in 
form certain examples of the so-called " Fenannular ring money," discovered 
in Ireland. Upwards of 3U0 tons of manilla-money is now made in 
Birmingham on an average in a year, for the African market. A vessel 
freighted with these rings was wrecked upon the Irish coast near Cork, in 
1830, and some of the manillas came into the hands of Mr. Sainthill, who 
was struck with their close analogy to the rings found in Ireland. The late 
Sir W. Betham made known this curious fact to the Royal Irish Academy, 
and his observations may be seen in their Transactions, vol. xvii., p. 91, in 
which he has given all the forms of" ring-money," which had fallen under 
his observation in Ireland, from the small plain penannular ring weighing 
only 12 grains, to the remarkable types with terminal cups, one specimen 
weighing not less than 50 oz. of gold. He gives also a bronze manilla 
described as found in Co. Monaghan, and one of iron, almost identical in 
fashion, obtained from the wreck before mentioned. 1 (These examples 
closely resemble the sample of recent fabrication presented to the Institute 
by Mr. Smith.j Sir William Betham states that in Western Africa such 
rings with dilated ends, simdar to those manufactured for the purposes of 
trade, at Birmingham, are made of solid gold. 

" Manilla money (Mr. Smith observed) is manufactured in large 
quantities in Birmingham and the district. Some years ago it was made 
of cast-iron, but did not answer, I believe, in consequence of its having no 
sound when struck. The specimen sent herewith is a sample of some ot 

'See also Sir William BethamVEtruria Journal, Vol. vi. p. 56, and the curious 

Celtica," .Mr. Lindsay's View ol the papers by Mr. Dickinson on African ring- 

Coinage of Ireland, Air. Way's Memoir money in the Numismatic Cluouicle. 
on Ancient Armilla; of Go.u, in tins 



which I have made large quantities. The metal is a mixture of copper, tin. 
ami spelter, although this varies very much with different makers, and main- 
tons have been returned in consequence. The object is to produce a metal 
at the least C08( that will, when manufactured, ring or sound when struck. 
The regular bell-metal would be far too expensive a mixture. The patterns 
vary both in Bize and shape, although the general outline of form is 

ryed : it is merely the thickness of the centre, the size, and the ends, 
that constitute the difference. I should imagine that the various sizes are for 
different districts, as they are very particular in having them precisely 
to pattern. The natives reject them for the least deviation, and will not 
buy them from the merchants who export them. A peculiar feature in the 
manilla which I send as an example, is the rough edge both inside and out, 
which to a manufacturer would he considered a Haw in the casting, and 
would at least be filed away, but if so filed, the manillas would be rendered 

is ; it may be that the natives prefer the rough edge being left, so 
that they may the hotter see the quality of the metal." 

The Eon. Richard Neville sent a short notice of the latest results of 
the explorations in progress at Chesterford under his direction. Not many 
days previously, his workmen had brought to light at a depth of only 
1 5 inches, a vase of white pottery, in the form of a jug, an ampulla of 
glass of square form, and two dishes of Samian ware, both of which had 
been broken in Roman times, and repaired by means of leaden rivets. The 
patters' names are distinctly legible. — OF. SECVNDI. and CASSIVSCA. This 
last supplies a correction of the mark previously given in this Journal 
(vol. x., p. 233), in which amongBt the examples preserved in Mr. Neville's 

Mo-' lim, this name had been read I A.88V3CA. 

Mr. ('. II. Pubday sent a notice of the recent discovery of a sculptured 

■ 1 ' '' 
Oil. km •». ill D 

,1, (e Cathedral, in the course of the works now 


in progress, this ancient fragment had been brought to light. It lay 
imbedded in the masonry, in the south-wall of the transept, which is 
Norman ; but several alterations were made in it about the year 1300, 
when the Chapter House was built against its south front. At that time, 
n< Mr. Purday supposes, the cross may have been built into the wall. A 
representation of this relique is here given from a drawing which Mr. 
Purday has kindly supplied. lie stated that the cross seems to have been 
quite a low one, probably placed over a grave ; the upper arrises are com- 
pletely rounded off, as if by friction ; the workmanship is extremely rude 
and irregular. The back of the cross is plain, with the exception of a 
small round knob or boss in the centre. Some persons had been disposed 
to regard this cross as of Saxon times, subsequent to the rebuilding of the 
church and city of Carlisle by Egfrid, King of Northumberland, in 680. 
The most ancient portion of the existing fabric formed part of the Priory 
Church, commenced about 1092 by Walter, a Norman priest, to whom, as 
it is supposed, the government of Carlisle had been entrusted by the 
Conqueror. The church was completed about 1100 by Henry I., who 
established the bishop's see there, and made the church a cathedral 
in 1133. 2 

Mr. Westwood remarked that he was unable to recall any cross of 
pre-Norman date bearing resemblance to the fragment found at Carlisle. 
He thought that had it been of that early period, it would have presented 
more of the character which he might designate as Northumbrian, analogous 
to the Early Irish style of ornamentation. Mr. Westwood considered that 
the cross might possibly be assigned to the twelfth century. 

This fragment, it may be observed, appears to be part of a cross of the 
Latin form, the transverse portion forming the top being possibly intended 
to represent the Titidus. This, however, is very rarely, if ever, indicated 
on early sculptured or sepulchral crosses, which are for the most part of 
the Greek type, with the four limbs of equal length, and forming the head 
of a long shaft. Amongst the few existing examples of early head-stones, 
may be cited those found at Bakewell, figured in this Journal, vol. iv., p. 57; 
at Rauceby, Lincolnshire, vol. x., p. 03 ; and at Cambridge Castle, Archaeo- 
logia, vol. xvii., p. 228. 

Mr. Ashdrst Majendie gave an account of some remarkable memorials 
of the noble family of De Vere. He produced a carefully detailed drawing 
which he had lately caused to be executed by Mr. Parish, of Colchester, 
representing the upper slab of the tomb of John, fifteenth Earl of Oxford, 
who died in 1539. The monument, of black marble, sometimes termed 
" touch-stone," is in the middle of the chancel of Castle Hedingham Church, 
Essex. On the top of this altar-tomb are sculptured in bold relief the 
effigies of the earl in armour, with an heraldic tabard and the mantle and 
collar of the garter, and of his countess, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward 
Trussell, in a rich costume, her mantle displaying the bearings of De Vere 
with quarterings. The figures appear kneeling under a canopy, and this 
sculpture occupies nearly half the upper surface of the tomb, the remainder, 
above the figures, displaying a bold atchievement of the arms of De Vere 
with six quarterings, impaling Trussell and Burley, quarterly. The 

-An Ilis'orical Sketch of Carlisle would refer for more detailed particulars. 

Cathedral has l>een recently published by London : Groombridge, Paternoster Row. 

(be Very Kev. the Dean, to which we 12 mo. 

VOL. III. > ! >'■ 



escutcheon is surrounded by the garter. The crest is the hoar on a 
ehapeau, placed on a helmet ; the supporters are the harpy and the hart. 
On the north and south Bides of this fine tomb are sculptured the kneeling 
figures of their children ; of the former, on which appear the daughters, 
Elizabeth, Anne, Frauncis, and (Jrsela, Mr. Majendie had the kindness to 
bring a drawing by Mr. Parish, at the subsequent meeting. He expressed 
the hope that an engraving of this tine memorial, a remarkable example of 
the style of the Renaissance, without any mixture of Gothic character, 
might be produced under the auspices of the Essex Archaeological Society. 
Mr. Almack, of Melford, has engaged to prepare descriptive notices. 

Mr. Majendie produced also coloured drawings by the talented antiquarian 
draughtsman, John Carter, representing the sculptured chimney-piece 
formerly at Gosficld Hall, Essex, and removed thither in 1687 from Bois 
Hall, one of the seats of the De Veres. It had hecn stated that it was 
taken from Gosfield by the Marquess of Buckingham to Stowe, hut all 
inquiries had been made there without avail to discover whether it, still 
exists. No representation of this sculpture appears to have been published, 
and the drawings by Carter are well deserving of being engraved. Over 
the chimney-piece were statues of Henry VII. and his queen, and in the 
central compartment was introduced a spirited representation of the battle 
of Bosworth Field, between liichard 111. and the Earl of Richmond, with 
whom the De Veres took part. The two armies appear in the moment 
when the conflict drew towards its close, the king lying prostrate before tlie 
rictor in the fore-round, holding his crown. Amongst the combatants, as 
nised by their emblazoned shields, there appear on the king's side, 
the I 'like of Norfolk, who lies slain in the field, the Earl of Northumberland, 
Sir William Berbert, Sir John Tyrcll, Sir Richard Etatcliffe, and Sir 
William CateBby. With the victor ESarl are seen John, Earl of Oxford, 
Lord Stanley and Sir William his brother, Sir William Brandon, Henry's 
standard-bearer, Sir Gilbert Talbot, and Sir John Savage. The date of 
the Bculpture is prohably of the early part of the sixteenth century. Mr. 
Majendie exhibited al the same time a drawing of another relique of the 
De Veres, a richly carved oak bedstead purchased by his father at Sible 
Hedingham. At the head appears an escutcheon under a crown with the 
lion and dra upporters, and initials which may he those of Edward 

VI. — Iv — JO. Below is an heraldic achievement; De Vere and Trussell, 
quarterly, with six quarterings as en the tomb above described. This bed 
!- possibly of the time "f John, sixteenth Marl of Oxford, whose mother 
■ i and i ■ • s of John Trussell. The Marl was Lord Great Chamber- 
lain in the reig n of Edward V I . 

^iniquities' anti RKoriutf of Sri iLTbiuitett. 
By the Rev. W. li. Gi etneb. A photographic repre entation of a small 

M \ i i;lii 
[TALIS on; 

.. \l. . BR] I 


...I ultar, di d .. Vntoniu Crctianu i" ih« Dchj Matrc . found 


at Winchester during the last summer.' 1 It has been subsequently published 
by Mr. Roach Smith in vol. iv., part i. of his Collectanea Antiqua, the 
original altar liaving come into bis possession. He haft given some valuable 
remarks on the worship of tbc Deaa Matres, and various inscriptions found 
in England in which they are named. Mr. Roach Smith proposes tbe 
following reading in extenso, of that which has been found at Winchester. 
" Matribus Italis, Germanis, Callicis, Britannicis, Antonius Cretianus Bene- 
ficiarius Consulis restituit." Mr. Gunner states that this altar was found in 
Jewry Street, in digging foundations for houses built on the site of the 
south wing of the old county jail. Height, 19 inches; width, 8 inches. 

By the Rev. Walter Sneyd. — Two remarkable specimens of the 
enamelled work of the twelfth century, possibly by the artists of Limoges. 
They represent two of the evangelistic symbols, those of St. Mark and 
St. Luke, the lion and the ox. They are formed of gilt copper, and are in 
high relief, having been formed possibly to be affixed to the binding of a 
Textus, or Book of the Gospels, which they might serve in some degree to 
protect in lieu of the bosses usually placed upon mediaeval bindings. The 
design is singularly quaint and spirited. The animals have wings, and 
each holds a clasped book. 

In reference to a little inscribed plate of metal, in the collection of 
Mr. Sneyd, exhibited at a previous meeting (see vol. x., p. 259) and of 
which the use had not been ascertained, tbe following explanation has been 
offered. Two objects similar in dimension and in the inscriptions which they 
bore, existed in the Cabinet of Antiquities in the Library of St. Genevieve, 
at Paris, and they are represented in the account of those collections 
published by Du Molinet, in 1692 (Plate 18, p. 66). They are described 
as Roman weights, sextulce, the sixth part of tbe uncia, and are noticed as 
remarkable on account of the mode in which the inscriptions were produced 
— "des inscriptions ecrites d'une maniere singuliere, qui n'est ni en creux 
ni en relief, avec de l'cncre de pourpre sur de petites bandes d'argent." On 
one were the words, salvis d.d. albinvs fecit, basilivs rep. and on the 
other, Obv. salvis d.d. n.n. albinvs fecit. — Rev. salvis d.d. n.n. bas. fec. 
Albinus and Basilius, tbe learned writer observes, were Masters of the Mint, 
and the formula Dominis nostris indicates that these pieces were made in 
the time when two emperors were ruling simultaneously, for instance, 
Valentinian and Valens. The same propositi monetae, it will be observed, 
are named on tbe sextula obtained by Mr. Sneyd, at Strasburg. Occa- 
sionally, the heads of the two emperors occur on these Roman weights 
(Cab. de Sainte Genev. pi. 18. Montf. Ant. Bxpl. tome iii., pi. 95). 

By Mr. Brackstone. — Several antiquities of bronze, chiefly from Ireland, 
comprising three bronze daggers, a serpent-shaped finger ring, three fibula?, 
one of them of a bow-shaped Roman type, a small bronze spoon with round 
bowl and pointed handle. (Compare plate xiii., fig, 12, in Akcnnan's 
Archaeological Index). Also specimens of penannular bronze " ring-money " 
from Ireland, one of them with trumpet, or cupped, ends ; it was found in 
the County Cavan, in 1839, and was in the collection of the late Mr. C. 
Loscombe ; the other, with oval or leaf-shaped solid ends, locality unknown. 
These rings, in their dimensions, resemble small armlets, and the latter 

3 Collectanea Antiqua, vol. iii. p. '27- ; ii. p. 193 ; and Mr. Wright's Memoir in 
vol. iv. p. 41, pi. xiv. See also notices of tlie Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc, vol. ii. 
the DtiL- Matres, vol. i. p. 136, and vol. p. 239. 


specimen is almost identical in form with the "manilla" ahove described 
(see page 180), presented to the Institute by Mr. P. Smith. 

By Mr. GrKORGE ROOTS. — Two objects of baked clay, of which the age 
and intention has been ascertained. <me is a massive ring, presented to 
the Surrey Archaeological Society by Mr. Jesse, accompanied by the 
following particulars. " This ring was dug up in Richmond Park, by some 
labourers trying to open a new gravel-pit, to the right of the road leading 
from the Robin Mom,! gate to the Kingston Hill ladder-style gate. There 
were twelve of them In all, carefully secured in a sort of cairn built up of 
Btones, which are not to be found in the neighbourhood. Each of the 
terra-cotta rings had a circumference of about 12 inches, with a hole in the 
centre of from 1 \ or2 inches in diameter." A similar object found in the 
churchyard of St. Nicholas', Wilton, was exhibited at a previous meeting by 
Mr. Nightingale, and is described in this Journal, vol. .\i., p. 190, where 
notices of other examples may be found. Rings of this description have 
been found with Roman remains. 4 

Mr. Roots brought also for examination a cylindrical perforated brick, 
belonging to Dr. Roots, of Kingston, who states that it was found some 
years since at the spot called Caesar's Camp, on Wimbledon Common, and 
near the site where spear-heads and weapons, funereal urns and pottery, 
indicating Roman occupation, have been discovered. This object in form 
resembles a small cheese, the diameter is 5\ inches, thickness o; ( ! inches, 
diamet«r of the perforation , : inch. Several " cylindres en terre cuite " are 
d as found in Normandy, supposed to be of the Roman age, but their 
dimensions are not stated. Mem. des Antiqu. de Norm. 1820. p. liii. 

By Mr. ROHDE Hawkins. — An elaborately carved ivory box. with an 
Arabic inscription; probably of Saracenic workmanship. A similar boz is 
rved in the Treasury of Sens Cathedral. The inscription round the 
top has the following signification:- Bail to him whose equal I never met, 
upon whom I rely more than on any other, that generous man for whom, 
whenever I came with a request, 1 never returned but with what contented 

me, and with a joyful lace. — Also, a Venetian salver of damascened metal, 
from the collection of the late Mr. Crofton Croker. It bears an enamelled 
escutcheon of the arms of the Priuli family, and the initials, 1). — P. Hate, 
X Vth century. 

By Mr. Nightingale, of Wilton. — Two carvings in ivory, of which one 
represents a kind of radiated ornament, or flower, supported by two winged 
and eaglt -headed animal-: il resembles in design Borne of the curious sculp- 
tures in marble at St. Mark Bj Venice, tl was found, as far as •■an be 

:. lined, at Old Sarum. The other represents our Lord seated mi a 
throne and riving the benediction; in his left hand is an open hook. The 

character of the design resembles thai of the Byzantine school. — An ala- 
tablet, found mar Salisbury! as it has been staled, at old Sarum. 

(See * dcut.) It represent- a head with long hair and heard, the eyi 

clo ed iii death, and apparently placed upon a circular object or ili.-k. 

Above i a small naked figure, with the bands clasped, surrounded by an 

aureola of pointed-oval form, and supported by two angels, now much 

broken and defaced, who appear to hen towards Heaven this representation 

i pint. Bi neath is the upper pari ofa figure, with upraised 

i\.'l in the I ]<>ii. K. vol. k, p. 232 See alao Mr Artie' Duro 
Arcl Bol Join nal, brivn, pi, 29. 


Representing the lluad of St. JoLn the Baptist in a charger, St. Peter, and St. Thoiuaa 
of Canterbury. 

Dimena mi* of t'ue original, 10J by 7 inche*. 


hands, apparently rising from a Bepulchre, Like an altar-tomb. On the 
dexter Bide of the tablel appears St. Peter, with a key and book; on the 
other side is a mitred figure vested in a cope, holding an archiepiscopal 
cross-staff and a book. This probably represents St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury. The date of this curious tablel is the XYth century. 

Alabaster tablets, similar in dimensions, and in the general features of 
design, have been noticed in several antiquarian works, and various expla- 
nations of their import have been offered. The example produced by Mr. 
Nightingale appears to correspond precisely with the object bequeathed in 
L522 by ^gas Berte, of Bury St. Edmunds, amongst her household effects, 
and described as a " Seynt Joh'is hede of alabaster with Seynt Peter and 
Seyni Thomas and thefygur of Cryst." (Bury Wills and Inventories, edited 
by Mr. Tymms for the Camden Society, pp. I 15, 255.) 

In the Notes on this Will Mr. John Gough Nichols has fully detailed the 
evidence which may be collected from various sculptures of this description. 
Representations of such tablets may be found in Stukeley's Palseographia, 
in Schnebbelie's Antiquaries' Museum (also given in Nichols' Hist, of 
Leicestershire, vol. iv., p. 70, and Fosbroke's Encyclopedia of Antiquities, 
p. G88). Two are given Gent. Mag., xciv., ii., p. 209, of which one be- 
longed to the Rev. E. Duke, and the other is now in the possession of Mr. 
.1. Bowyer Nichols, who has also a third not engraved, received by him 
from the late Sir S. Meyrick, (Gent. Mag. xciv., i., p. 397.) Another, 
formerly at Borrington, Somerset, ib described by Mr. Adderley, Gent. Mag. 
xciv., ii., p. 292. In all of these the head of St. John the Baptist, of 
large proportionate Bize, occupies the centre; it has been taken for the 
Vernide ; the image of our Lord's face given to Abgarus alter the siege of 
Edessa; and the first person of the Holy Trinity. The figure beneath has 
been regarded as Chrisl rising from the tomb, and in the example given by 
By it is B seated figure, naked, and the hands hound with cords. On 
the tablel in Mr. Nichols' possession, the Agnus /)<> occupies this position. 
In every instance the accompanying saints are St. Peter and St. Thomas 
of Canterbury, one only excepted (Stukeley), on which the second is repre- 
sented as St. Paul. On Beveral are seen in the back ground St. Catherine 
and St. Helen. The four saints occur on the tablet above-mentioned, 
which was exhibited by the late Rev. B. I »uke iii the museum formed during 
the meeting of the Institute at Salisbury. Engraved Gent. Mag. tciv., ii., 
p. 209. Tic little figure above, Bupported by angels, is nearly similar in 
all, in two instances (one of them represented ibid.) a youthful head only 
appears, upheld in a napkin by the angels. On a tablet in the Aahmolean, 
from Tradescant's museum, the head of St. John appears, our Lord rising 
from the Bepulchre, and oo other figures whatever. It is described as 
••the Vernacle." The import of this hagiotypio combination has not Keen 

By Mr. Edward Chbnby.- An oblong tablel of bronze, probably of 

Oriental workmanship; <»n one side appear, in low relief, the Savi ■ 

enthroned, the Virgin and St. John, and angels; the reverse is covered 
with characters, partly in relief and partlj engraved, hitherto unexplained. 
Their formi bear re emblance to those occurring on Gnostic objects, and 
lo not appear to belong to any known language in the East. Dimen- 
in. by '.' , in. The date has been conjectured to be about the 
XNtli century, It was purchased bj Mr. Cheney in Italy. 

i auoo A RusBO-Greek triptych found in L853 in 


the churchyard of Christ Church, Spitalfields, having probahly hcen interred 
with the corpse of some foreigner, a member of the Greek church. A 
remarkable silver reliquary, supposed to be of Greek workmanship, was 
found in 1831, suspended by a silver chain to the neck of a skeleton, in the 
churchyard of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street. On one side appeared St. 
Helena; on the other, St. George. Representations of this curious encomium 
were given in this Journal, vol. v., p. 166. 

By Mr. Westwood.- — -Specimens of anastatic drawings, representing the 
subjects of the legend of St. Guthlac, from the vellum roll in the British 
Museum, of the latter part of the Xllth century, containing a series of 
admirable drawings with the pen, illustrative of the life of that saint. 
Representations have been published in Nichols' History of Leicestershire, 
and in Gough's Croyland Abbey; a reduced facsimile of one of the most 
interesting subjects is given in Mr. Shaw's Dresses and Decorations, vol. i., 
No. 16. Mr. Westwood observed that this Roll is of remarkable value as an 
undoubted example of English design at that early period, lie took occa- 
sion to state that, as he had recently been informed, the ivory crosier-head, 
formerly in the Allan Museum at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and supposed to have 
been brought from Easby Abbey, is no longer to be found. An account of 
it may be found, with a woodcut representation, in Mr. Fox's Synopsis of the 
Newcastle Museum, p. 181, and in Clarkson's History of Richmond, p. 362. 
It has also been figured recently in Mr. Scott's Antiquarian Gleanings in 
the North of England, pi. xiii. The diameter of the volute, in the centre 
of which is the Agnus Dei, is stated to be 3-| in. It had been preserved at 
the Museum of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle. 

Mr. Franks remarked that this curious crosier had been sought for in 
vain on the occasion of the meeting of the Institute at Newcastle in 1852. 
Dr. Charlton stated that it had been missing since 1848, when the anti- 
quities in the Museum of the Philosophical Society had been removed for 
temporary exhibition at the Castle. 

By Mr. Ashurst Majendie. — A casting in iron, representing Christ and 
the woman of Samaria ; also, a large engraving of the west front of Cou- 
tances Cathedral ; Mr. Majendie presented the latter to the Institute. 

By Mr. W. Tite. — Two volumes, productions of the press of Ca.xton, in 
the finest preservation, one of them being the " Myrrour of the World," 
printed in 1480; the other, the " Book of Fayttes of Armes and Chyvalrye," 
about 1493-4. Mr. Desborough Bedford (by whose kindness these speci- 
mens of early printing were brought) pointed out in the former a representa- 
tion of an arithmetician making calculations by aid of Arabic numerals. 

By Mr. W. J. Bernhard Smith. — Three spurs, of which one with a long 
neck, date about 1460; the others, with straight shanks, date XVIIth 

By Mr. W. R. Deere Salmon. — An iron spur, date about the reign of 
Henry VI., accompanied by a note of Captain Boteler, of Llandough Castle, 
co. Glamorgan, where it was found. In excavating foundations, about 
20 ft. from the boundaries of the churchyard which adjoins the castle, ten 
or twelve human skeletons were found, buried probably at some very distant 
period. No tradition of such interment can be traced. They lay in separate 
graves, E. and W., three excepted, which lay together: the graves being 
cut out of the hard clay, about 4 feet below the surface; no trace of coffins 
appeared, but a few fragments of charcoal occurred. The remains were 
evidently those of adults. The spur was found at the same place, about 


3 feet deep, not however in a grave. An old parish road passes between 
the churchyard and the spotwhere these remains lay. 

By the Hon. W. Fox Strangways. — A series of drawings by Mr. R. II. 
Short, of Yeovil, representing a ver\ interesting example of domestic archi- 
tecture in the earlier pari of the XV 1th century, Barrington Court, near 
Siiuth Petherton, Somerset. It is now the residence of Mr. Peters. This 
ancient mansion appears to have been preserved in its original condition, 
with scarcely any "restorations." An account of it was given in the 

By Mr. T .WlLLSON. — Specimens of the knives found at Crovland, Lincoln- 
shire, and traditionally supposed to have been of the kind given to visitors 
of Crovland Abbey, on St. Bartholomew's day. This ancient custom, 
abolished by Abbot John de Wisbech (1469 — 1476), had become an 
onerous expense to the monastery. It had been introduced, as stated by 
Gougb in his history of the Abbey, in allusion to the knife with which the 
saint had been flayed. ( Bibl. Top. Brit. No. XI. p. 70.) Gough observes 
that a number of these knives, found in the ruins of the abbey and in the 
river, were in the possession of a local collector, and he gives representa- 
tions of several, from drawings in the Minute books of the Spalding 
Society. Mr. Willson brought also a local token, " The Poores halfe : 
peny of Croyland, 1670," on the reverse of which appear three knives 
with three whip-, the latter supposed to have been used by St. Guthlac. 

By Mr. J. II. MATHEWS. — A small round plate of mixed metal, originally 
enamelled, displaying the arms of Charles I., and probably intended to 
be affixed to the central boss of a large dish or charger. 

By Captain OaKES. — A small watch, of the. With century, in the form of 
a shell; it bears the maker's name — " Tho. Reeue In Popes head Alev," 
and the initials B. P. A key, probably of contemporary date; and a seal, 
with the device of an anchor passing through a heart, arc appended. Also, 
a small relique, such as were worn l>v partisans of Charles L, a silver heart, 
with a heart on one Bide transfixed by arrows in Baltire, and the posy — " I 
Hue and die in Loyaltie." On the other side, a skull, with the initials, C.R. 
— " Prepared be to follow mee." 

Impressions from Seal-. — By the Rev. EDWARD Trollope.- Impressions 
from two matrices found in Lincolnshire. One of them, of oval form, is of 

had, and IB engraved on both Bides. The central compartment on one side 

is in the form of the Norman or " kite-shaped " shield, and the device is a 
fleur '1" l\ b. The inscription is as follows : — sigill' . ma . . . m,' | ? ) nichol', 
I late, X 1 1 1th century. The work on the other side is of rude and probably 
later execution : the device ia a leaf or branch 1 ?) with the inscription, 

* -' j ■ • 1 r ' 1 . . , OR' ALA. This matrix was found in the parish of I'dankiiev, near 

Lincoln. The second matrix was found in the adjacenl parish of Scopwick, 
ubjecl represented upon it is the death of St. Peter, Martyr, murdered, 
in 1252, near Milan, by the hired at assinsofthe Manicbee heretics, whose 
principles be bad zealouslj opposed. The martyr appears in the Dominican 
habit, kneeling, and one of the murderers, probably representing Carinus, 
afterwards admitted into the Dominican convent at Forli, cleaves the head 
of the Sainl with a sword.' Beneath is introduceda monk, kneeling. 'I he 

B •' Livi ioI the Saints, April useful manual of tlie" Emblems of Sainta," 
uriot 1 r • "' ttioni p. I I 1 . 
n hi 1 in • nbeth'a 


following inscription indicates that his name was Warm. — svscipe : petre : 
altvi : (?) devoti : vota : waiiini. This matrix is of hrass, of pointed-oval 
form, with a ridge upon the reverse, terminating in a loop for suspension. 
Date, XlVth century. 

By Mr. Ready, 2, St. Botolph's Lane, Cambridge. — A small heraldic 
seal of good design, of which impressions are preserved in the treasury at 
Pembroke College, Cambridge. It is the seal of William Giflard, valectus 
to the foundress, Mary, Countess of Pembroke, t. Edw. III. The bearing 
is a lozenge within a double tressure flory and counter-flory. — SIGILLVM. 


By Mr. J. Gougii Niciiols. — Impressions from two signet-rings, bearing 
as a device the " Jerusalem cross," or cross potent between four crosslets, 
the insignia of the kingdom of Jerusalem, worn likewise on the mantle of 
the knights of the Holy Sepulchre. fi This device is regarded as emble- 
matical of the Five wounds of our Lord. On one of these rings, of gold, 
purchased at Brighton, the cross appears between two olive branches, with 
the word Jerusalem in Hebrew characters, beneath ; on the other, the 
branches alone are introduced. The ring last-mentioned, which is of silver, 
is in the possession of Mr. Thompson, of Leicester. These are supposed to 
be memorial rings brought as tokens of pilgrimage to the Holy City. 

March 2, 1855. 
The Hon. Richard C. Neville, F.S.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. W. W. E. Wynne, M.P., gave a short account of the discovery of 
burnt bones at a circle of stones near Llanaber, Merionethshire. In the 
excavations which he had caused to be made with the view of ascertaining 
the character of that ancient site, he had found several flakes or chippings 
of flint, with very sharp edges, possibly the points of arrows. No silex 
occurs in the neighbourhood, Mr. Wynne also produced facsimiles taken 
in plaster and gutta percha from the singular sword-like impressions on 
two rocks near Barmouth, as described by Mr. Ffoulkes in this Journal, 
vol. ix. p. 91. The place is called "the Field of the Swords;" and on 
each of these rocks, which appear originally to have formed one mass, now 
riven asunder, there appears an indent, about 2 ft. 7 in. in length, resem- 
bling a leaf-shaped British sword. Tradition points out the spot as the 
scene of a battle. Mr. Wynne observed that he had considered it possible 
these cavities might be natural, arising from the structure of the rock, or 
some fossil remains which had been imbedded in it. On submitting the 
casts, however, with specimens of the rock, to the best authorities at the 
Museum of Economic Geology, it had been decidedly affirmed that they 
are not organic. 

The Rev. J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D., communicated some remarks 
on the Roman Inscription discovered at Bath. (See p. 93, in this volume.) 

The Hon. Richard Neville read a memoir on the deep shafts which he 
had discovered at the Roman station at Chesterton. (Printed in this volume, 
p. 109.) 

A discussion ensued on the purpose of these singular pits, frequently 
found near Roman sites. Mr. Octaviua Morgan, Mr. A. Way, Mr. Hunter, 
the Hon. W. Fox Strangwaya and Mr. J. Gough Nichols, alluded to the 
various opinions of antiquaries regarding them. Some suppose these shafts 

,; Bonanni, Ordinum Equeatrium Catalogus, pi. 1 <>.">, 160. 
VOL. XII. c c 


to be the cesspools of Roman dwellings : Mr. Thomas Wright regards 
them as cloacae. The evidence appears strongly against the conjecture 

that they wen" wells. They have been considered with some degree of 
probability to have been silos — subterraneous granaries, similar to the 
»' Mattamorea " in Barbary, in which the grain is deposited as soon as 
winnowed. Shaw states in his Travels that two hundred or throe hundred 
of these magazines occur together, the smallest containing four hundred 
bushels. Dr. Russell Bays they abound near Aleppo. 

Mr. OcTAViua Morgan, M.P., save the following account of a German 

MS. chronicle of Strasburg, which he brought for examination, from the 

library of Sir Charles Morgan, Bart. "This ancient German manuscript 

■ n in the possession of my family for many years. How or when it 

into our possession I do not know, hut it lias certainly been in the 

library at Tredegar nearly a century. 

" It is entitled ' Chronicles of all the most memorable histories and acts 
of the city of Strasburg from the Flood to the year 1330.' The MS. was, 
however, written about the year 1612, which is the latest date found in it, 
and the binding also hears the date 1(>14. It must then have been com- 
piled from earlier sources, though neither the authorities, nor the names of 
either writer or artist are given. It is beautifully written in a minute 
old German hand, rather flourished in some of the letters, which, coupled 
with the different mode of spelling certain word-, renders it at times 
difficult to read and understand. It is richly ornamented throughout with 
elaborate illuminations, representing certain historical .subjects, of which 
the title-page contains four, the portraits or figures of the Roman and 
German emperors, some on horseback, and some on foot, and also with 
heraldry, giving on the fly-leaf to the title-page, the arms of the city, and 
red throughout the volume are the arms of all the Bishops, as well 
as those of various cities. 1'rinces, and other persons. These illuminations 
are well executed with the most minute delicacy, and the brilliancy of the 
colours, ami the e\<|ui.-ite manner in which the gold ami silver are applied, 
are well deserving of attention. It is written on paper of very tine quality, 
and rather a yellowish hue, probably the result of age, ami it has tor a 

paper-mark in the middle of the pages, a shield of arms surmounted by a 
Crown, and from the bottom of the shield is dependent the golden lleere. 

At the beginning ami end of the 1 k are Beveral fly leaves of marbled 

paper of various Colours, which 1 think are early and rare specimens — the 

hook al-o contains a minutely engraved bird's-eye view of the city of 
burg, dateil I 597. 

" It would nut hi' worth while to go through all the details of this MS., 

which i- inl I with vet e and poetry, which usually accompany the 

illuminations, tt however begins with the Deluge, and here at the commence- 
ment we have a new historical Pact recorded, \i/.., that Noah had a fourth 
ion born after the flood, and of him do the Germans descend. Thil 
fourth on of Noah was the great and mighty hero Tuisco, who, with thirty 
other heroee and princes, his kinsmen, and much people, travelled out of 
aero the water into Europe, ami to Germany, where he Bottled, 

and divided that portion of the World ill i" 1 lu followers. IY"lil 'I'm CO, 

do ! ' Teutonic nations derive both their origin ami name, 

to our Chronicle. This To or 'I'm in is a verj ancient 

. I think, mentioned by Tacitus as one of tin - od <>! 
the German tril ■'■ to have prune from the earth, hot we 


have here a new parent assigned to him. Jajilict is not mentioned among 
the emigrants, but Gomer, Tubal, and others of his sons are among the 
thirty heroes, from one of whom named Albion, does our island derive its 
people and name. Tuisco reigned 118 years, and instructed his people in 
the art of writing. We are also informed that Treves is the oldest city in 
Germany, having been built by king Trebectra, the son of Semiramis, who 
fled from Babylon to escape from the solicitations of his mother, took ship 
and came and settled at Treves. As the population increased the cities of 
Cologne, Mayence, Worms, Strasburg and Basle were built, and that 
Strasburg was a populous city 1200 years before the Christian era, and 
came into the hands of the Romans at the time of Julius Cassar. It then 
gives an account of all the Roman emperors, with their portraits, and the 
kings of the Franks before and after the Christian era. The history of 
the Cathedral is, that it was first founded by Clodoveus (Clovis) the forty- 
eighth king of the Franks, a.d. 500; that being chiefly built of wood it was 
burnt by lightning in 1007; that in 1015 the rebuilding commenced, and 
that in 1275 it was all completed except the towers, that they were begun 
in 1277 by Master Ehrwein of Steinbach, and in 1305 were carried up to 
where the spire begins by John Hultzer of Cologne, when the master of 
the works dying the work came to a stand, but that at length the tower 
was completed by a native of Swabia. It also gives an account of all the 
bishops of Strasburg (the see having been founded in 640), and their 
armorial bearings ; the emperors of Germany, with their portraits and 
arms, and the mayors and Stadtmeisters of Strasburg, who began in 1271. 
Amongst many other historical events it records all the great conflagrations 
in the German cities, severe winters, great storms, appearance of comets, <fcc. 
The last event recorded is in 1327, when a dreadful fire suddenly broke 
out in the house of a currier, in the Curriers' street in Strasburg, and 
burnt down all one side of the street, and fourteen houses on the other. In 
addition to these chronicles it gives the ordinances and forms of proceeding 
in all the different councils and courts of Strasburg, and the oaths taken 
by the various officers, and concludes with finely painted representations of 
all the costumes of the different classes of society in Strasburg at the 
period at which it was written. This is the most interesting and curious 
part of the book, not only from the great beauty and minutely detailed 
finish of the paintings, but because it is very rare to meet with a complete 
series of coloured costumes, as well ceremonial as ordinary, of all the grades 
of society, both male and female, from the chief officers and nobles to the 
humble peasantry of any country at any period, and especially one so early 
as the beginning of the XVIIth century." 

Mr. P. Orlando Hutciiinsox, of Sidmouth, communicated a notice of a 
sepulchral slab, in the middle aisle of the nave at East Budleigh church, 
Devon, commemorating Joan, the first wife of Walter Raleigh, father of the 
distinguished statesman and favourite of Elizabeth. She was the daughter, 
according to Prince (Worthies of Devon, p. 530) of John I Make of Kxmouth. 
Walter Raleigh originally resided, as it is stated, at Fardel, in the parish 
of Cornwood near Plymouth, and having a lease of the farm and house 
called Bays in the parish of East Budleigh, he removed to that place, where 
Sir Walter was born in 1552. In his letter to Mr. Duke, owner of Hays, 
written from the court in 1584, Sir Walter expresses his desire to purchase 
the house in which he Mas born. Sir Walter was the second son. by a 
second marriage ; his mother was Catherine, daughter of Sir Philip 


Champernon. Tlie Blab, which appears to he of dark grey shite, measures 
4 ft. !> in. by 2 ft. 8 in , and a cross flory is engraved upon it, resembling 

rign the crosses usually found on memorials of an earlier date. The 
character of this cross, as compared with the less skilful execution of the 
inscription around the margin, has led the Rev. Dr. Oliver, who gives a 

mentation of the dab in his " Ecclesiastical Antiquities in Devon," 
vol. ii. p. 64, to conjecture thai the inscription bad been cut over a more 
ancient memorial. It is now greatly defaced by time, and partly illegible ; 
the letters stand out on a sunk ground, which was doubtless tilled in with 
dark coloured substance. The inscription, in large ornamental 
character, is remarkable in this respect that the letters are reversed 
throughout, reading from right to left, a caprice hitherto unexplained, and, 
as it is believed, peculiar to this slab. — orate pro aTa [OHAkme ualeyii 

MCC . . . Mr. Hutchinson stated the popular tradition that the head of 
Sir Walter Raleigh was brought to Devonshire by his widow, and huried 
under this slab at Budleigh. It was his desire, in his farewell letter to his 
wife, that his remains should be interred either at Sherborne, or in Exeter 
Cathedral, near his father and mother : his corpse was, however, taken to 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, after his execution, and buried in the chancel. 
Mr. Hutchinson sent, with a rubbing of the cross slab above described, a 
sentation of the date 1537, in Arabic numerals of early forms ; it is 
cut on the woodwork of the seat in the nave of Budleigh church, said to 
been occupied by Walter Raleigh and his family. Also a representa- 
tion of a rudely-incised slab in the south aisle, bearing the name, Roger 
Vowles ( I ) without date. 

Mr. Le Ki:i\ read a short notice of some fragments of the sculptured 
- found at Bakewell, Derbyshire, during the restoration of the church. 
He brought several drawings received from Mr. Barker, of Bakewell, repre- 
senting three early Christian reliques which had been built in and used as 
materia] in forming the piers and walls of the porch. Of these fragments 
one is part of a shaft, with interlaced ornaments of a \cvy early type, but 
only now present any sculptured work, the broad faces having 
been cut away. The material is sandstone. Height of the fragment 33 
Another is part ot the head of a cross, possibly a portion of that 
now Btanding in the churchyard at Bakewell, and of which a representation 
has been given, by Mr. Le Keux's kindness, in this Journal, vol. xi. p. 282. 
The running moulding round the outer edge of this fragment is similar to 
one now remaining on the upper pan of that shaft. Another fragment, of 
.ii,'! tone, now present! three sculptured tacts, the fourth having been cut 
Height, 35 inch It eems singular, Mr, Le Keux observed, that 
remains of object acred a nature Bhould have been thus inconsider- 
ately u ed a mere building material ; thej are evidently of an earlier age 
than the sculptun d monuments <>l the Norman period. I te produced also n 
rapbed representation ol part of the head of a cross of Norman work, 
iting a curious mixture of interlaced with diaper ornament, which he 
dered a new feature in work of the period. 
Mi. 1 ', i offered om< observations on old plate, which might he 
: with interest in connexion with the r< earches of Mr. M 
tablishing the li ti of a aj mark prior to the time whin thi- 
ol the Gold until ' C pany commence. \l<- produced a mall 

which had b igarded by ome per ona as a chalice; 



it was found imbedded in the mud, in forming the docks at Newport, 
Monmouthshire, about the year 1838. Tbe marks are the leopard's bead, 
lion passant, the initials, G. W., and black letter capital, fft, indicating tbe 
year 16G9, according to Alphabet XII. in the useful lists for which we are 
indebted to Mr. Morgan, given in this Journal, vol. x. p. 36. Mr. Cowlnirn 
brought also a salver, the date of which he was enabled to ascertain by the 
same lists to be 16G7. 

•Hnttquittr^ airtr KUorfcS of girt eyhtbttco". 

By the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. — Two bronze weapons, from 
the collection of the late Mr. Deck. One is a strong blade which had been 
attached to the haft by four 

massive rivets. Length, ^ 

11 inches ; width, near the 
rivets, 4 inches. It bears 
much resemblance to that 
found in Shropshire, repre- 
sented in this Journal, vol. 
xi. p. 414. Found near 
Maney, Cambridgeshire, in 
the fen. The other is a 
portion of a weapon of very 
skilful workmanship. In 
form and proportions it is 
similar to those which 
might be produced from 
the stone moulds found 
near Chudleigh, Devon, re- 
presented in this Journal, 
vol. ix. p. 185. The centre 
of the blade is formed with three sharp ridges ; the haft was attached by two 
rivets. Found near Waterbeach. A diminutive urn of the class designated 
as " incense cups " by the late Sir R. Colt Hoare. It was found within a 
large urn filled with fragments of bone in the " Twin Barrow," Bincombe 
Down, Dorset. Presented to the Society by the Rev. J. J. Smith. Height, 
1^ inches. Diameter, nearly 3 inches. On one side there are two small 
perforations, as if for suspension. (See woodcut.) An account of the discovery 
is given in the Communications to the Society, No. V. 

By Mr. W. J. Bekxhard Smith. — A sculptured fragment, in Greek 
marble, recently found at Rome near tbe catacombs. It appears to repre- 
sent a horse. 

By Mr. Franks.— Several bronze palstaves, found near Goudhurst, Kent, 
three of them presented to the British Museum by Mr. S. Stringer. Eight 
were discovered piled up in regular order, and they arc in remarkably 
perfect preservation. They have no loops at the side. 

By tbe Hon. RlCHARD Nevillk. — Several reliques of bronze found at 
Chesterford and tbe Saxon Cemetery at Little Wilbrahain ; they con- 
sisted of objects of personal ornament, a Roman ring of bronze, formed 
to serve as a key, another bronze ring, kc. Mr. Neville also brought 
a silver ring of the XVth century, lately found on the White Farm, 
at Kingston Lacy, Dorset. On the facets of the head are engraved 


diminutive figures of St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, ami a 
female saint holding a pyx with a conical cover, probably Mary Magdalene. 
Another silver ring had been found in the same locality two years since. 
Mr. Neville has recently added to his Dactylotkeca another ring of the same 
as that from Kingston Lacy, with similar figures of St. John the 
Evangelist and a female hearing a pyx. It is of silver, the hoop formed 
with clasped hands, like the rings supposed to have been given at betrothals, 
which usually bear inscriptions without any device. This ring, which had 
been in the possession of the late Mr. Windus, was stated to have heen 
fonnd in digging one of the cofferdams for New London Bridge. 

By Mr. Bsinbken, of Sidmouth. — A bronze figure representing Chiron 
with Achilles on bis hack. It was found in 1840 by some fishermen on 
the beach under the cliffs near Sidmouth, on the Salcombe side of the river 
Sid. Two representations of this singular relique, undoubtedly the head of 
a Roman standard, may be seen in Gent. Mag., vol. xix. N. S., p. 505. 
1 suffered by long exposure to the action of the sea, and some small 
pebbles are still attached to it. The hit. arm is bent out of the original 
position ; the legs of the centaur are broken, and the design is now with 
difficulty to he understood. Chiron is probably represented as giving 
instruction in held sports to the youthful Achilles, who appears to have 
held a how, with a para zonium at his left side, and a parma slung between 
hi- shoulders. The centaur's right hand may have grasped a hunting spear, 
it new appears extended to a dog leaping up in front. Tins bronze measures 
7 inches in height, including a square socket or 8captC8 below the figure, by 
which it was atlixed to the shaft. Mr. lleinckcn ohscrved that this figure 
had been, possibly, carried by a cohort of the second legion of Carausius. 
'I he centaur appears to have heen the device of that corps ; it appears also 
mi coins of GrallienUB, relating to the Legio II. Parthica. The animals 
enumerated by Pliny as placed on Roman standards are, the eagle, wolf, 
minotaur, hoar and horse, corresponding to the live great military divisions, 
Objects of this description are of great rarity ; an example of the horse is 

red in the c Irich Court Armory.' Roman coins have heen 

rrequi ntly brought to light on the shore at Sidmouth, although no distinct 
evidence of Roman occupation can now he traced on that part of the coast. 

There '.ever, on tlie heights in that locality earthworks and other 

vestiges which deserve examination ; the hill-fortress called Sidbury Castle 
is distant about three miles to the northward. 

By the Hun. \V. Pox Stranowats. The recent publications of the 
Society of Antiquaries of the Grand Duchy of Baden, in which has been 
given a Lithochromic representation of a. bronze Roman Btandard, in the form 
of a caoricom. It was found in L850 at Otterschwang, near Pfullendorf, 
in Baden. In the accompanying memoir by Dr. /.ell a copious mass of 
curious information has heen brought together on Roman rigna and vexilla. 
Mr. 8l called attention to the remarkable Roman structure illus- 

: in another niimher of the 81 tl"' castle of Steinsberg, near 

im, of octagonal form, built by Trajan, or at latest bj Caracalla, 

HI. i trations, rol. i. pL ' 6 ' nd or Britannic Legion, it being re- 

i thi l< opard, cordi ■ ! thai an I , lift . on a di f< at in 64,65, Franconia in the timi ol \<> >< tus, buried 

und at tin ■ a le. it «■ igha 71b., and mei m • i 

i . found al 1 3 inche in hi i ;bt A ram occurs on 

it of thi ■ i tndai d on Tj i inn. 


and presenting an instructive example of the Roman system of fortification 
as shown in Germany, a central insulated tower with a high and strong 
enceinte. He ohserved that Skenfrith Castle in Monmouthshire presents 
some analogy in its general arrangement. In the same publication by the 
Baden Society is represented a singular effigy of St. Nothburga, existing 
at Ilochhausen on the Neckar, a crowned figure, on an altar tomb. She 
holds a serpent (?). from whose mouth hangs a branch or sprig of some 
plant, and the same animal appears at bcr feet. This subject is accom- 
panied by a memoir by C. B. Fickler. The advancement of Archaeological 
Science in Germany, Mr. Strangways remarked, had been greatly promoted 
through the intelligence of M. De Bayer, director of the Baden Society, 
under whose care their transactions had assumed an important position in 
Archaeological literature. 

By Mr. J. T. Irvine. — Representations of a sculptured stone, found in 
the island of Uya in Shetland. It appears to have been part of a head- 
stone, and may be assigned to the times of the earliest introduction of 
Christianity in the sixth century, — sketches of the upper portion of the 
chancel-arch in the church of Kirk at Ness, North Yell, Shetland, dedicated 
to St. Olave ; of a standing stone or maenkir in the island of Yell ; and of a 
head-stone found at a spot now called the Kirks of Gloup, in Yell. Two 
sketches of the Roman leaden coffin found, Sept. 1811, in the Old Kent 
Road, London. It was ornamented with two figures of Minerva at top, 
and two escallop shells at the foot, in relief. (Archaeologia, vol. xvii. pi. 25, 
p. 334.) Also a specimen of elaborate medieval locksmiths' work, and several 

By Mr. Eohde Hawkins. — A chess-piece, supposed to be a king, formed 
of the tusk of the walrus. Date, Xllth century. 

By the Rev. Walter Sxeyd. — A silver cross, exquisitely engraved. Date, 
XlVth century. It had probably been fixed in a small pedestal, and used 
in a private oratory. On one side is the crucifix, with demi-figures of the 
Virgin and St. John introduced in the quatrefoiled extremities of the 
transverse limb. On the reverse is seen the Virgin and infant Saviour, the 
field enriched with an elegant fretty diaper. This beautiful little object 
had probably been enriched with translucent enamel, now wholly lost. 

By Mr. Edward W. Godwin. — Representation of two mural paintings in 
Ditteridge church, Wiltshire, subsequently to the discovery previously 
noticed in this Journal, vol. x. p. 78. One subject in the compartments 
lately exposed represents St. Christopher, a mermaid is introduced in front 
of the Saint's statf ; the other is St. Michael holding the scales of judgment ; 
the image of Sin in one of them is very expressive. Also drawings of three 
sculptured figures found some years since, built into an interior wall of the 
Angel Inn, Marshfield, Gloucestershire. One of them is the Virgin, seated, 
and probably formed the centre of a series. They are all crowned. Frag- 
ment of a medieval dish of glazed ware, of highly ornamented character, pos- 
sibly Moorish. It was found on the site of the Dominican Priory at Bristol, 
and when entire the dish must have measured about 9i inches in diameter. 
By Mr. Ootavius Morgan, M.P. — An episcopal ring of silver gilt, set 
with a large cut garnet, and opening with a box to contain relies. Three 
singular lanterns, one of bronze, of the later part of the XVIIfch century, 
one of llispano-Arabic ware, with metallic glaze, and ornamented with 
flowers, and a third of red glazed ware with yellow spots, possibly of 
Flemish manufacture. — A folding viatorium, or portable sun-dial, of 



l'.v lir.W. IIyi.ton Longstaffe. — Representations of two sculptured frag? 

■-. portions probably of crosses, existing in the church at Stainton-le- 

Etreet, co. Durham. (See woodcuts.) Their date is considered by Mr. 

WestWOod to be prior to the lXth century. 

le of nave. 

■ . co. Durham 

• | fool 

X. wall ol choir. 

One of tbc fragments here represented is built in at an angle in the 

. tbc other Bide visible is quite plain ; the second fragment is in the 

North wall of the choir. A road, apparently Roman, ran through Stainton- 

'. The church is placed on a kind of platform, and it is Burrounded 

by remains of buildings still to be discerned beneath the turf. 

Impressions from Seals. —By Mr. Robert Fitch, [mpression from a 
seal lately found al Field Dalling, near Holt, Norfolk. It. i> of pointed 
oval form, the device ; - a badger (?) ' bigill' * petrj * i>' dallingb, Date, 
about L300. The family of thai name held lands in Dalling as early as 
Pub John : Peter, on of Philip de Dalling, occurs about 30 Hen, III., 
and I I Edw, I. Eu tace, son of Peter de Dalling, occurs 2 Edw. 111. The 
owner of this teal may have been one of the Rectors of Dalling, the form 
being thai usually adopted by e< William de Dalling was 

Rector in L333 (Blomefield, vol. ix. pp. 219 2 ' 

Bj Mr. Readt. An extensive collection of casts from Beals of the 
Imperial cries, commencing with the Beal of Charlemagne, ll. 800, and 

or, and comprising the greater pari of the 

ificenl Imperial eals ol the JCIVth and XVth centuries. Tl arlier 

■ • ome remarkable illu trations of the use of antique 
or copies from antiqui . in the Carlovingian age A seal of con 
•iderable inten t to the Engli h collector i thai of Richard, Earl of 

of the B hi , I 157, from b remarkably perfect impn 

. on ilo- continent, 



The objects found in 

April 13, 1855. 

The Hon. Richard C. Neville, F.S.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Neville read the following account of Roman sepulchral remains 
lately found in Essex: — 

" In consequence of information received, I rode over on the 2nd April 
to Ilatfield Broad Oak, Essex, to visit Mr. Thomas Cocks, surgeon, and 
inspect Roman remains in his possession, discovered in the parish of Take- 
ley, which intervenes between Hatfield and that of Stanstead Mountfitchet. 
I accomplished my object, and in the course of a few days received from 
Mr. Cocks a sketch of the articles found, with a memorandum of the date 
and circumstances of the discovery. The following are the particulars sent 
to me, with my own observations on the objects discovered, and an account 
of another funeral deposit of similar nature more recently found in the 
same neighbourhood. 

" Mr. Cocks says — ' In compliance with your request, I send you draw- 
ings of the articles found in a field belonging to Mr. Harvey Clarke, not far 
from the road near Takeley Church; they were deposited in a box about 3 
feet long by 1^ deep, and fastened by the brass hasp now in my possession. 
The box was about a foot and a half from the surface. It was found by a 
labourer employed in land-ditching, January, 1849. The box was greatly 
decayed, and the fragments crumbled to pieces.' 
it are as follow, and 
the accompanying 
woodcut shows their 
relative position in the 
chest : — A circular 
basin of green glass 
(a), with fluted sides, 
terminating in a le- 
mon-shaped pointed 
end. This is in the 
possession of Mr. 
Clarke, the farmer, 
and I did not see it; 
in this basin stood a 
circular glass bottle, 
about 8 inches high, and nearly 4 inches in diameter, with a reeded handle. 
This bottle was full of clay, the soil 
of the place, and the inside of the basin 
bears marks on its surface made where 
the bottle stood when discovered. Re- 
mains of probably an urn of sun-dried 
blue clay, (d) full of fragments of cal- 
cined bones; the clay of which it was 
made was full of fragments of shells, 
or pjobably granulated with small peb- 
bles, of which kind of pottery I have 
many specimens. Two saucers of plain 
Samian ware. (n. c.) with potters' marks, 
op. ponti. and martiali. m. Under each of these dishes were four 
VOL. XII. d i> 




rings of plain brass, not finger rings, but probably part of some personal 
ornament of the persons buried. Similar rings arc of frequent occurrence 
in my experience among Roman remains. Mr. Cucks appealed surprised 
when I assured him they were net what has been frequently termed • ring 
money.' Two second brass coins; (p. p.) one of Vespasian, one of Domitian; 
the former coin baa been struck imperfectly with the head of the emperor 
on the reverse a- well a- obverse, which is properly stamped. The positions 
I'- objects are marked in the Bketch, described a- fragments of 
lamps (i:. i:. . butof these I know nothing further. 

" The other discovery to which 1 have alluded took place in the end of 
last February, or beginning of March, on the property of Win. Fuller 
Miithunl. Esq., of Stanstead. The spot where it occurred is in Takeley 
parish, near the borders of Hatfield, or, as it is called there, Takeley 
Forest, about two miles to the south-east of Mr. Maitland's residence. Some 
labourers were employed in stubbing an old hedge; an oak stood upon a 
small mound in the middle of it; under this tree the men found, and unfor- 
tunately broke most of the following objects, now in Mr. Maitland's posses- 
sion, which I baveseen and examined: — A circular lamp of bronze, with a 
lid and top, about 2 inches high and 2 in diameter; this is uninjured, 
a- well as a cup of the same metal in form like a modern drinking 
lioiii, heing nearly 4 inches high, and not quite 1' in diameter at bottom and 
top. Fragments of several other bronze vessels were shown to me, amongst 
which I traced four different one-; the most perfect of these has a bronze 
horizontal handle, ornamented, in Bhape like one found in Thornhorough 
harrow, Bucks, by the Duke of Buckingham, now in my possession, which 
ha- belonged to a flat pan in both instances, probably Bacrificial. I also 
saw fragments of two glass bottles very much shattered. The only vessels 
of pottery found were an embossed Samian bowl, which, though broken, 
has been \> ry nearbj restored. It has the usual festoon and tassel border, 
and medallions, each containing the wolf and twins; no maker's name 

appears upon it, hut there e fragments wanting, which prevents my 

asserting there ha- been none. A Hat dish of plain Samian ware, with 
potter's n ime, liASCI i.l. If., and a -mail \e--el of the same manufacture, of 
peculiar shape. It is circular, rather more than - inches diameter al top 

and bottom, and a- many in height, being in Bhape like a box with a circu- 
lar hole in the top hi'.:; enough to admit the thumb. The ed^es of this 

aperture are smooth and rounded, and the ware is perfect. I have never 

• 1 of similar form, hut ha\e no doubl it is an unguentarium, for 
which it i- well adapted. No trace, of a wooden chest were observed) hut 
these might easily escape the notice of the labourers. The ground was 

afterward.-, examined in the vicinity of the mound without Ending further 

remains. Possibly when the pi [nolo ed, a nip of timber wa left 

standing to serve as a hedge, and the mound, which wa- no doubl a BmaU 

tumulus, would thus remain uiuli t m bed. The lite of this discovery is 

• n two and three miles from thai where the deposit first described was 

found.- -In December, 1851, s ra e of light green coloured glass, with a 

ottom, in shape like an oval de »ert di b, and with fluted Bides, re em« 

that in the po e ion of Mr. Clarke, of Saffron Walden, was exhibited 

.' the Sooietj of A ntiquai ie bj Mr. Roach Smith. It was 

de ci ound in Takelej Forest, which appeal to be rioh in Roman 

dr. ( ' al o informs me that Mr. Robert Judd, a farmer 01 

II. di. While Rod ing, distant two mile to the south of Hatfield, haa 

. nuracrou o( fictile ware, amongst which he mentioned lamps. 


objects of comparatively rare occurrence. White Roding is close to Match- 
ing, about five miles from Harlow." 

Mr. Blaauw communicated a note addressed to him by Mr. R. G. P. 
Mintv, of Petersfield, relating to the discovery of Roman remains, about 
two miles N. W. of that place, and in the parish of Froxfield, Hants. The 
site is near an encampment which has been assigned to the Roman period. 
.Some labourers had recently brought to light a place resembling a shallow 
bath, about 3 ft. 7 in. square, paved with Roman flanged tiles (16 in. by 
13 in.), placed with the flanges downwards, and lined with a row of similar 
tiles. The depth of the cavity, when examined by Mr. Minty, was about 
13 inches, the width of a tile, and at the N.W. angle were remains of 
imbrices, placed to serve as draining tiles on the level of the floor, and 
apparently communicating with an adjacent fosse. The subsoil is stiff clay, 
which would retain water for a considerable time. Near the spot where 
the drain would open into the fosse, now part of a lane, fragments of 
Saurian and other Roman wares were recently found. On a second 
visit Mr. Minty found the whole taken up and broken in pieces through 
wanton mischief; he had, however, secured specimens of the tiles, which are 
well made, and the flanges cut so that the tiles might dovetail together; a 
portion of the flange being cut away from the lower as well as the upper end, 
a mode of adjustment not invariably found in Roman tiles of this kind in 
England. The camp is of small size, in a strong position, defended by a 
triple fosse on the N. W. side and a single fosse on the S. E.; it occupies 
the termination of a range of heights overlooking a valley of considerable 
extent. On the N. E. side no line of defence is apparent, but Roman tile 
abounds, with remains of rubble-work, apparently foundations. Earth- 
works, tumuli, and other vestiges, occur in the adjacent district. 

Mr. W. D. IIyltox Longstaffe, F.S.A., author of the History of Dar- 
lington, sent a memoir on the church of Norton, in the county of Durham. 
It will be found in this volume, p. 141. 

The Rev. J. Maugiiax, Rector of Bewcastle, Cumberland, communicated 
a memoir on the sculptured cross at that place, and the interpretations of 
the Runes engraved upon it, hitherto unexplained. They have become in 
great part legible through the results of an ingenious process for many 
weeks carried on under his care, in order to detach the lichens with which 
the stone is encrusted. Mr. Maughan has very kindly presented to the 
Institute a cast from the principal inscription, and drawings of this 
remarkable cross. His memoir will be given hereafter. 

Mr. Westwood read a letter from Mr. Shurlock, of Chertsey, relating to 
the discoveries of decorative pavement tiles on the site of the Abbey Church, 
where extensive excavations are actually in progress. Very numerous frag- 
ments have recently been found; they are all of the same elaborate design 
and artistic character as the examples, of which Mr. Westwood had pre- 
viously exhibited careful delineations by Mr. Shurlock. (See page 96, in 
this volume.) Amongst these tiles, which appear chiefly of the close of 
the XHIth century, there occurs a crossbowman mounted, his saddle being 
formed with singularly high projection before and behind, in order to give a 
firm seat and enable the rider to take steady aim. Mr. Hewitt observed 
that mounted arbaletriers appear in illuminations; for instance, in Roy. MS. 
20, D. i., in the British Museum. 

Mr. Hawkins related the following singular discovery of gold coins, and 
the liberal proceedings of the Government on this occasion in regard to the 
rights of Treasure-trove: — 


•• A few weeks since, as a servant was chopping wood, the log of wood 
which had served for B chopping-block for several years, suddenly split, and 
out flew fifty guineas of the reigns of Charles II. and James II. These were 
at once sent to the Lords of the Treasury, who, having allowed the British 
Museum to select Bucfa as were required for the national collection, sent 
back to the proprietor the remainder, and also the amount paid by the 
Museum for the Belected pieces. It is hoped and believed that the liberality 
displayed by the Lords of the Treasury, upon this and other similar occa- 
sions, will be a mean- of preserving from destruction many objects of interest 
and value. It is highly desirable that these proceedings of the Treasury 
should be as extensively known as possible." 

Mr. Neville observed thai so gratifying an evidence of the disposition of 
ivernment to carry out a more liberal course of proceeding in reference 
to Treasure-trove, and to adopt the practice which had been attended 
with most advantageous reBults to archaeological science in Denmark, must 
be hailed by the Institute with lively satisfaction. The judicious and 
energetic proceedings of their noble President, and the interview which the 
Premier had given to Lord Talbot, accompanied by a deputation from the 
Society, in which he (Mr. Neville) had taken part, as also the Viscount 
Strangford and some other leading members of the Institute, with the 
Bpecial object of soliciting the attention of Government to the evils which 
arise from enforcing that ancient right of the crown, had doubtless contri- 
buted to this result. Mr. Neville remarked, however, that antiquaries were 
especially indebted to the unwearied remonstrances and mediation of Mr. 
Hawkins, who for many years had earnestly exerted himself to bring about 
a more lenient and enlightened course of proceeding in such cases. 

A conversation ensued regarding the ultimate destination of the museum 
formed byMr.C. Roach Smith; — the importance of such a classified series 
of illustrations of the progressive manufactures and arts of the chief city of 
England, the habits and manners of its inhabitants at various periods, and 
al interest of the collection, formed exclusively in London, in its 
bearing on historical inquiries, and the exemplification of all that concerns 
icial condition or civilisation of the metropolis in former ages. In 
reply to an inquiry by Mr. Westwood, it was stated by Mr. Hawkins that 
the b the British Museum had refused the offer of these collec- 

tions, which bad been tendered through the President of the Institute, Lord 
Talbot, in conjunction with Lord Londesborough and Sir John Boileau. 
Mr. Roach Smith'- offer of his museum, at the amount whioh he had 
actually expended, had been declined, it is understood, without anj proposi* 
tion for further negotiation, or explanations of the grounds on whioh so 
valuable a means of public instruction bad been rejected. 

flntfqttftfaf anS BBfafM at cut ninbttro". 

Mr. .1. Sates. A collection of antique terracottas, belonging to Mr. 

• , brother of the poet, and compri i and ornaments 

everal of 1 emble the examples pre* 

. in the Briti b Mu eum, and engraved in th" Beries published by the 

late Mr. Taylor Combe. Mr. Yates brought also a drawing of the Norman 

keep it R e, York hire, bj Mr. Moore, of York. 

• . througb kind permissi f the Rev. S. B 

irid hire. — A bronze galeated bust, found in a 

! pit with mucb broken Roman pottery, in the parish of Cottenham; 

i the ancieut watercourse, supposed to be part of the outhern 



extension of the Car Dyke. (See Mr. Babington's Ancient Cambridgeshire. 
Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 8vo,p.G5.) This remark- 
able relique of Roman art may have been one of the Imperial busts which 
were attached to Roman standards. It measures 8 inches in height, and is in 
very perfect preservation. It deserves notice, as Mr. Franks observed, how 
many Roman antiquities of a fine character of art or workmanship have been 
brought to light in Cambridgeshire. He cited especially the bronze bust 
for a stilyard weight, in Mr. Neville's museum, another in the possession of 
Mr. Litchfield of Cambridge, the bronze vases and prcefericulum found some 
years since near Trumpington, and now in the Library at Trinity College, 
the reliques disinterred in the Bartlow Hills, 
the vase of Arrhetine ware found at Foxton, 
in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, and the rich contents of the Ustrinum 
excavated by the Rev. Dr. Webb at Litlington. 

By Mr. Franks. — Two objects found in the 
Thames, — a small bronze two-edged blade, 
suited for a knife or dagger, length only 6 
inches, and a bronze sheath, length 8 inches, 
much resembling that found in the lsis, near 
Dorchester, figured in this Journal, vol. x., p. 
259. (Fig. on right side of the page, the bluntly 
pointed sheath without ornament.) A third, 
found in the Thames, is in the Museum of 
Practical Geology, it was presented by Dr. 
Roots; and there is one, not quite perfect, in 
Mr. C. Roach Smith's Museum, figured in his 
Catalogue, p. 81. A similar bronze sheath is 
in the Collection of Irish Antiquities formed 
by Mr. Wakeman, at Dublin. Mr. Franks 
pointed out that in the example exhibited, as 
likewise in some others, there are round holes 
at about mid-length, a short distance from the 
central ridge, not pierced one opposite to the 
other, so as to form a continuous perforation 
through the sheath, but alternately, that on 
one side of the sheath being on the dexter side 
of the ridge, that on the reverse on its sinister 
side. Plugs of wood usually appear in these 
holes, the intention of which has not been ex- 

By Mr. Way. — A representation of the 
sculptured coffin stone or grave slab, now pre- 
served in the vestibule of the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, at Cambridge. It closely resembles 
the slabs found in Cambridge Castle, when great 
part of it was destroyed in 1810. There were found at the same time two 
stone coffins, head-stones with plain crosses, and the head of a cross, such as 
were placed erect in cemeteries; this iast is now in the Architectural 
Museum, Canon Row, and has been figured in this Journal, vol. xii., 
p. 70. Almost all these reliques present the same character of ornament, 
the gutlloches or the simple interlaced riband pattern, crosses at both ends 
of the slabs, «fec. All the slabs are wider at the head than the foot. 

Coffiu slab found at Cambridge 

Length, S ft. 4} in. Bremlth at top, 
Jl iu.; at foot, Hi in. 


i'i:dci-:edinc;s at meetings of 

Silver bl ' ■ 'i il size. 

d have been engraved in the Archaeologies vol. xvii., p, 22S, with a 
notice by the late Rev. T. Kerrich, whose original drawings and notes of 
the discovery exist in the Brit Bias., Add. MS., 6735, fol. 189, 190. 
The Castle at Cambridge was built by the Conqueror; these remains 
were Found under the original ramparts, and their date may be assigned 
to the Xtli century. The Blab here represented was dug up more recently, 
10 or 12 feet from the foundation of the castle, to the south. It lay nut- 
side the castle, in gravel, at a depth of about G feet, and in the direction of 
north and BOUth. Date, about Xth century. 

By Mr. Yi i.i.i amy. — Two bronze swords, lately found in the Thames, and 
now preserved in Mr. C. Roach Smith's Museum. Also a bronze Roman 
armlet, found in London, from the same collection. 

By Mr. WESTWOOD. — A. drawing of a small round brooch of silver, pre- 
served in the British Museum, and bearing the 
inscription — ►£< r.i.n.n v mi: an. — JElfgyvuowns 
me (Aug. Sax. agan, to own.) It was found 
about ls!4 at Chatham. The name JElfgyvu, 
Mi'. Westwood observed, occurs on the Bavoux 
Tapestry; Stothard's plates, Vetusta Monum. 
vol. vi., pi, 4. Mr. Westwood brought also a 
benitoire, or small holy-water vessel of crystal, 
of the XVIIth century, engraved on the re- 
verse in the same manner as the circular 
••magic crystal" of King Lothaire (A.D. 954 
— 9SG), formerly at the Abbey of Vasor, and 
lately purchased for the British Museum at the 
Bernal sale. On this object the history of Susanna appears, cut in intaglio, 
and seen through the crystal. Over the central subject is inscribed — 
" Lothariusrcx Francorum fieri jussit." The vessel shown by Mr. Westwood, 

a- an earlier example of the same kind of art, presents the instruments of 

the Pas inn — the cross, scourge, verniclo, sponge, spear, ladder, hammer, 

pincers, chalice, three dice, the cock on a pillar, the purse, lantern. Beam- 

Bword, with the ear of Malchus. At the foot of the 
.ire three nail-. Mr. WestW 1 produced a drawing of a painted 

panel at Cassington Church, Oxfordshire, on which the symbols and instru- 
ments of our Lord's Passion are Bhown in marlv the Bame manner. 

By the Rev. W \i.i eh Snei d.- - The horn of an ox. mounted in uilt metal 
as a drinking horn, thus inscribed around the mouth — <©p; utaato: laha: 
inth : a: maato: <5ra: nuh: lonotic. (or Ioitooc), which may be rendered 

Qp inii-t thou take me, and see me all round: or. Up should 1 betaken, 

and ee me empty. On another hand of later date is written,— grvndb : 
i : L764. Grunde sun of Olaf or Olaue of Ousta ( This 
bom i - suppo ed to be Danish, probably of the X \ th century . 

I'.v Mr. Robebi Ma< Adam. A representation of a powder-horn, of dark 
coloured or bog oak, with hand-, and foliated ornaments, interlaced work, 
a e , oj horn, fastened oubj pega of the ame sub tance, which pass entirely 
through the wooden horn. Some of the ornament approaches in character 
to thai of a ren earlj period, but the date of the horn is probably about 
tonnd in the county of Antrim. It will be figured in the 
i ■ Joui n. il of Archaeology • 

•i • horn Found in Iceland, 

I l ■ ; , ..a which inter 
■ in i.uji '1 

with ■ oroll foliations. The traditi >i an 

eai in r ■ i \ I. hi ornament* maj be not ic< ■! 
mi obji oi made in Scotland, as al o in 


By Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. — A gold enameled hunting watch, date 
1630, or 1640. The four subjects on the front, back, and inner side of 
the lid and case, represent the chief incidents in the Episode of Tancredi 
and Clorinda in the " Gierusalemme Liherata " of Tasso. 

By Mr. Hewitt. — Two powder-flasks, and &rondache of cuirbouilli, em- 
bossed with armed figures on horseback on both sides, and with a steel 
spike. From the Bernal collection. Of the former, one is of delicate 
Italian marqueterie work, the other is German. The buckler is remarkable 
as having a small lantern attached to the upper edge. There is an Italian 
target, date about 1540, in the Goodrich Court Armory, formed with an 
aperture for a similar adjustment, an expedient used in nightly conflicts. 
Skelton's Illustrations, vol. i.,pl. 52. 

By Mr. W. J. Bernhard Smith. — A birding-piece of the time of Charles I. 
— A carving in oak, representing the adoration of the Golden Calf; the 
Demon appears playing on the violin, whilst the Israelites are dancing. 

Impressions of seals. — By the Rev. II. T. Ellacombe. — Facsimile of 
the seal of John Iluse, taken from a document in Mr. Ellacombe's pos- 
session. The seal is of circular form, and presents an escutcheon charged 
with these arms, Barry of six, erm. and — within a bordure escalloped. 
►Ji s'ioiiankis : hvse. The bearing, harry of six, erm. &nd gules, but without 
a bordure, was borne by various branches of the family of Hussey, anciently 
settled in Dorset, Wilts, and other parts of England, and it is quartered by 
Edward Hussey, Esq., of Scotney Castle, co. Sussex. Mr. Ellacombe 
stated that the " Johannes Iluse, dominus de Charlecumbe," to whom this 
seal belonged, was living in 1240, as ascertained by the Prepositi of Bristol 
named amongst the Avitnesses to the deed. The manor of Charlcombe near 
Bath was held at the time of the Domesday survey of the Abbey of Bath 
by William Hosett or Ilosatus, and by his descendants subsequently for 
several generations.^ 

By Mr. Ready. — Facsimiles taken in gutta percha from two impressions 
of the seal of Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who succeeded as king Richard III. 
It displays an escutcheon of the arms of France and England, quarterly, 
with a label of three points. Helm and lambrequins, with the crest, a lion 
statant. The supporters are two boars. — Jjtgtlltim . magnum . ritarti . 
fcucts* . Cjlouccs'trte. This is one of the numerous acquisitions obtained by 
Mr. Ready in the Treasury at Queen's College, Cambridge, to which, as 
also to the muniments of several other colleges, he has liberally been per- 
mitted to have access. 

Annual Report of the Auditors, Mat, 1845. 

We, the undersigned, having examined the accounts (with the vouchers) 
of the Archaeological Institute, for the year 1854, do hereby certify that 
the same do present a true statement of the receipts and payments for that 
year, and from them has been prepared the following abstract, dated this 
5th day of May, 1S55 : — 

(Signed) Geo. Gilbert Scott. 

Wm. PaBKBB IIamond, Jun 




Inland. Compare the Highland powder- Ml. Madox gives a lease of land in 

horn, presenting features of a very early Ceorlecumbe to William Hosett by 

age, but dated 1685, probably its real date. Wlf wold and (Elfsig, abbots of Bath, to- 

Wilson's Prehistoric Annals, p. 221. wards the close of the reign of the Con- 

9 Colliuson, Hist, of Somerset, vol. i. p. mieror. Form. Angl. p. 7;?. 

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ilotias of Srrhacologtral publication*. 

ANTIQUITIES OF SHROPSHIRE. By the Rev. R. W. Eyton, Rector of Ryton. 
London : John Russell Smith, :!(>, Soho Square. B. L. Beddow, Sliitl'ual. Vols, 
I. and II. 8vo. With Illustrations of Early Architectural Examples, from 
Drawings by the Rev. J. L. Petit. (Three hundred copies only printed.) 1854-55. 
To be completed in Five Volumes. 

We regard with cordial satisfaction every exertion that is made to extend 
our knowledge of county history. The minute details into which the topo- 
grapher is necessarily obliged to enter, contribute very essentially to the 
enlargement of historical truth ; and of all kinds of histories, there is none 
can interest us more than those relating to spots and districts with which we 
are individually familiar. But in the volumes before us we discover more 
than the common attractions of topography, inasmuch as Mr. Ey ton's 
labours throw new light upon one of the most interesting counties in Great 
Britain, hitherto too much neglected in the course of Archaeological investi- 
gation, and introduce its medieval antiquities for the first time to public 

It is not a little remarkable that so extensive a district as Shropshire 
should, up to the appearance of the present work, have received less atten- 
tion than any other portion of England. Yet its claims on the score of 
interest can yield to none. Indeed, in many of those points to which the 
historian chiefly directs his attention, such as the antiquities of the earlier 
ages, the British battle-fields, vestiges of Roman occupation, manorial and 
genealogical research, the county of Salop is pre-eminently attractive. 

At the commencement of the xvmth century a Shropshire gentleman 
began to search amongst the public documents for the illustration of his 
native county. The result of his labours lay in obscurity for a considerable 
length of time, and it was not until a very recent period that the original 
manuscript was discovered, though two or three transcripts were in existence. 
One amongst Gough's manuscripts in the Bodleian was frequently consulted. 
Mr. Eyton's work is carried out very much on the same plan as these collec- 
tions made by Mr. Mytton, being, like his, essentially written from unpublished 
archives in the custody of the Master of the Rolls, or amongst private 
evidences. The author, therefore, of the "Antiquities of Shropshire." 
has rendered the county an important benefit by communicating the result 
of his labours in that rich and almost unexplored mine of information. If 
he had done nothing more than print a series of extracts from the evidences 
belonging to the people of England, he would have deserved the thanks of 
an enquiring public, by rescuing these facts from ultimate oblivion — to 
which all facts are inevitably consigned as long as they remain in manu- 
scripts and confined to perhaps only one record. But be has done more, for 
by taking up his history at the period when the author of " Salopia 
Antiqua " left off, and giving his toil to events which rest on the indubitable 
testimony of official statements, he has greatly augmented our knowledge of 
the medieval history of Shropshire. 


As far aa tills work has proceeded it IS entitled to our warmest appro- 
bation, for the very clear and simple method of its arrangement, and for 
the BOUndnt SB with which the author has in many cases of difficulty arrived 
at his conclusions. The history of the peculiarly interesting and picturesque 
town of Bridgnorth is followed out with much care. We seem to have 
the very freshness of the Pipe Rolls themselves in the whole of this section, 
but placed so methodically before us that the student may draw from 
this undiluted Bource with refreshment and additional knowledge. The 
squabble- between the Ecclesiastics of the Burgh, and the intercourse 
held with the town by king John, are very fully set forth, and this portion 
is so complete, that we regret more space had not been given up to the 
history of Robert de Belesme, whose name above all others is prominent in 
it- earliest annals. 

As the value of this unpretending and laborious work becomes known, 
and it- progress advances, it will satisfactorily remove the stigma from 
Shropshire, that it possesses no county history, and show to the literary 
world that they owe works of this nature to the unselfish energies of private 
gentlemen, who, like the late Mr. Blakeway, Archdeacon Owen, Mr. Rowlands, 
and Mr. Bartshorne, can find time from the labours of their profession, to 
devote their talents to the investigation of the history of their own county. 

Mr. Petit, with bis usual freedom of pencil, and his desire to forward 
Mr. Byton's labours, has placed some of his own at the disposal of the 
author, who bas been aided likewise by the Rev. J. Brooke, in the illustra- 
tion of various Buhjecta of interest. It will give us gratification to learn 
not only that Mr. Byton's work receives sufficient encouragement to enable 
him to bring it to a satisfactory completion, but that persons who are 
individually interested in the county will follow the example thus set them, 
by the contribution of other illustrations. 

Shropshire contains numerous examples of church architecture, possess- 

ituree of interest to the student of that class of antiquities. The 

magnificent monastic structures now in picturesque decay, are inferior in 

importance perhaps only to the abbeys of Yorkshire, but it is in the more 

simple rural churches, many of which in remote parts of the Western 
Marches have remained almost unknown, that the BccleBiologist will find 
gratification in tlii- district. Mr. Byton bas not contemplated in the work 

before as, relating mainly to the interval which elapsed between the 

Conquest ami the death of I [enrj III., to describe or illustrate the churches 

of all tho-c parishes, the early hi-tory of which he has so succe.-sfull y 

developed. The interesting examples, however, of the earlier period, 
such a- Morville, the Membrefelde of Domesday, Quatford, Upton Cressett, 

with its rich Norman door and singular jar lhaped font, l.inlcy and 

Shiffnal, are brought under notice in these volumes, ami their peculiar fea- 
illustrated by Mr. Petit'a skilful pencil. The readers of this 
Journal will remember with pleasure the Memoir relating to Tong church, 
which Mi. I'etit kindly contributed almosl at the commencement of our 
publication. Mr. Byton has devoted much attention to that interesting 
structure, ami entered fully into tin in ton of the earlier lords of Tong, <\r 
Belmei and la Zouche, the Pembrugea ami the Vernons, and the ezqui 

ter, which will pre .lit n ilinary attraction to the 

student of medissval tculpture, on the occasion of tin' \isit of the Institute 
to Shropshire, thii year. Mr. Byton has at length appropriated, as we 
belie'.. :!,, t of these impre jive memorials, and we are 



indebted to his kindness fur permission to place before our readers the 
accompanying woodcut, from a drawing 1 > v the Rev. J. Brooke. We must 
refer to Mr. Byton's volumes for other illustrations of this most picturesque 
church, well deserving of a visit for the sake of many time-honoured me- 
mories, and not least as having preserved the verse of eulogy on Sir 
Edward Stanley, attributed to Shakspeare. 

There exist many other examples of monumental sculpture in Shropshire 
well deserving of attention, and we observe with pleasure that Mr. Eyton 
has recognised the interest of these sepulchral portraitures, deficient, it 
may 1"'. in artistic perfection, but very valuable as regards their authentic 
originality. The cross-legged effigy of Sir Walter de Dunstanvill, now in 
the A ■< v church at Shrewsbury, appears amongst the illustrations of the 
Becond volume ; he took active part in the affairs of the times of Henry II. 
and died, probably at Wbmbridge Priory, having retired from the world in 
the reign of Cceur de Lion, about 1195. As examples of sculpture in the 
Norman period we may invite attention to the curious baptismal fonts in 
this part of England ; of two, at Linley and at Morville, parishes closely 
adjacent in the neighbourhood of Bridgnorth, Mr. Byton lias enabled us to 
give the accompanying representations. They present a greater similarity in 
design than is usually found in productions of a period when repetition or 
imitation seems to have been sedulously avoided. The south door at 
Linley Chapel is not less deserving of notice than its font (see woodcut) and 
more especially the vortical herring bone work with which the tympanum 


it filled in so unusual a manner, At Morville there wa a collegiate foun 

and the font maj po iblj be a relique of that age i 

the church pr< ent ' I Norman work, hut great part of the fabric 

be referred to that int Pran itional period, when the pure 

Norman ityle wa ix \ for the Gothic which succeeded 



it. In this instance, the arches are Bemi-circular, their mouldings indi- 
cating the incipient change, whilst in other buildings, as in that most 
instructive example of this interesting epoch of architecture, Buildwas 

Abbey Church, the transition is marked in the form of the arch. 

We have thankfully availed ourselves of the author's kindness in bring- 
iug before our readers some of those illustrative features of his work, with 
the desire, more especially at a time when the notice of the Institute is 
directed toward- Shropshire, to invite attention to the interesting character 
of that district, and to the value of Mr. Eyton's arduous undertaking. 
We heartily wish him a large measure of that encouragement and cordial 

•• in his purpose to which he is BO justly entitled. 

;3uf)ncoloatcnl Entclliacncc 

The Cambrian Archaeological Association has recently produced the 
third number of the new series of their journal. (London, .). K. Smith.) 
It is issued quarterly to members only. Mr. Westwood has continued Ids 
valuable -cries of illustrations of early inscribed monuments in Wales. Mr. 
Longueville Jones contributes the Church of Beaumaris, in continuation of 
lii- '• M"iia Mediseva," and a very curious account of Capel Trillo, in Caer- 
narvon-hire, a diminutive structure vaulted over with rough stones, and en- 
closin" - a holy well. Mr. Wrighl gives a notice of the ancient fortified man- 
sion of Treago, in Berefordshire, and of the "Tump," or great mound at 
St. Weouard's. opened in April last under his directions, when its sepulchral 
character was clearly shown. — The annual meeting of the Association will 
take place in September, at Llandeilo Fawr, Caermarthen shire. 

An important benefit has been secured for the preservation of ancient 

Vestiges in North Britain, and the permanent record of local facts of -rent 
value to the archaeologist anil the historian. At the instance of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, the government have determined that, in the 
future prosecution of the Ordnance Survey of Scotland, especial attention 

he directed to all ancient remaiuB, camps, roads, tumuli, (fee, and their 

position carefully indicated. Lord Panmure, in announcing to the Marquis 

..i Breadalbane, President of the Society, the ready compliance of the Hon. 
Board of Ordnance on this occasion, expresses the request for local informa- 
tion from tie- ministers of parishes, and other persons, in furtherance of so 

desirable an object. This important result has been attained through the 
tion of an intelligent antiquary, known to the readers of this journal 
through hi .he- in the Orkneys, Mr, A. II. Rhind. The sub- 

ject was brought before the society by him in April last. 

The annual meeting of the Caerleon Antiquarian Association, will take 
place at Caerwent, on August 16. A complete in m of the Roman 

remains there will forthwith be undertaken, under the direction of Mr. .1. Y. 
man, Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries. 

ERR \tim 

ih. Note at the and ol the last number of the Journal, p 108, m to Godfrey de la 
mould have been omitted ; en opportunity haviug occurred ol Inserting the 

ii • ol n in the U I si i 

Eijt Slrcijaeologtcal 3)ouvnaK 




To the student of the Roman Antiquities of the North of 
England, Cambridge has a peculiar attraction. Several 
altars and inscribed stones, derived from the region of the 
Roman Wall, are there preserved. The collection is not 
large, but it possesses great historic value. Nearly every 
stone sheds light upon the early annals of our country. 
Although much has already been written upon the subject 
of these stony documents, it may not be amiss to call the 
attention of the Institute to them, now that it has met within 
the bounds of the ancient borough of Cambridge. The 
inspection of them will be all the more interesting from the 
locality whence they were taken having been visited by the 
Institute two years ago. 

In the year 1600, Camden and Sir Robert Cotton visited 
the Roman Wall. In consequence of the disturbed state of 
the district, and the "rank robbers thereabouts," they were 
unable to inspect the middle region of its track, where the 
most complete portions of it are to be found. They saw 
much, however, to reward them for their toils and brought 
away the altars which are now deposited at the foot of the 
staircase of Trinity College Library. 

Before examining the inscriptions in detail, we may attend 

1 Communicated to the Section of Antiquitiea at the Cambridge Meeting, July, 1854. 
VOL. XII. l' F 


to some general facts which these altars press upon our 

The circumstance that these stones sculptured by Roman 
hands were brought from the most northerly part of England 
is impressive evidence of the extent of the Roman dominion. 
Who can look at them without being reminded of the words 
by which on one occasion the Romans are described in Holy 
Writ, "a nation from far. from the ends of the earth." 

Some of the altars were found at Bremenium, the modern 
High Rochester, which is upwards of twenty miles north of 
the Wall, and some are from llabitancum, the modern 
Risingham, about twelve miles to the north of the Wall. 
Both these places are on the Watling Street. Here we have 
convincing evidence that the Romans when they drew their 
line of wall from the Tyne to the Solway, had no intention of 
relinquishing their hold of the country north of the barrier. 

The character of the carving and letters on some of the 
altars -hows they belong to the best periods of the empire ; 
others exhibit signs of the lowest age. In this we have 
proof of the enduring character of the Roman rule. In 
taking possession of the bleak and inhospitable solitudes of 
northern Northumberland, the Romans contemplated no 
ephemera] occupation, but one of the most lasting nature. 
W >■ have many proofs that these northern stations were not 
evacuated until the final abandonment of Britain. 

The altars in the vestibule of Trinity College Library 
have not much in their appearance that is attractive. They 
seldom arrest the step of a student ascending the staircase. 
Even this (acl is instructive. The Romans in tin.' north of 
England did not find themselves in circumstances calculated 
to foster the line arts. They were engaged in warj they 
had a held and vigilant enemy to il;\\ with; all theircir- 
cumspection and all their energy were required to Bt rengthen 
their position and to preserve themselves from destruction. 
Articles of taste and luxury, such as are found in Roman 
villas in th<- south of England, are rarely met with in tin; 

Campfi of the north. The rude character of seine of tin; 

altars in question is in keeping with this observation. 

Another fact will strike the student, when giving these 
altar- evens cursory examination. Two or three of them 
are n ddened by lire. This is a circumstance of common 
occurrence. Yen can scarcely walk over the site of a sta 



tion without noticing fragments of stone artificially reddened. 
A careful examination of the stations proves that on two 
occasions, at least, they have been involved in ruin. The 
first occurred, probably, in the reign of Commodus, the last 
on the final withdrawment of the Romans. The Caledo- 
nians, on making a successful onslaught on the Roman lines, 
burnt whatever was combustible about the stations. To this 
cause the reddening of the altars is no doubt owing. 

In the collection in Trinity College there are some mere 
fragments of altars. It is by no means unusual to find the 
sculptures in a Roman station broken in pieces. The excep- 
tion is to find one entire. The injury is usually of such a 
nature as to prove that it was the result of design and of 
the application of considerable force. It may be, that the 
Romans and their allies on being converted to Christianity, 
destroyed their altars and their idols in testimony of their 
change of belief, but it is more likely that the work of 
demolition was effected by the Caledonians after the stations 
were abandoned by the Romans. These northern tribes seem 
to have taken a special delight in destroying everything 
that bore traces of Roman handiwork. 

We may now examine the altars in detail, beginning with 
one which was taken from Bremenium, the most northerly 
station in England. 

This is described by Camden at page 661 of the last 
original edition of the " Britannia." 
He thus interprets it — " Duplares Nu- 
meri exploratorum Bremenii Aram in- 
stituerunt Numini ejus (Caio) Csopione 
Charitino Tribuno votum solverunt 
libentes merito." — The exploratory 
troops of Bremenium (receiving double 
rations) erected this altar to its di- 
vinity, Caius Crcpio Charitinus being 
tribune ; freely and duly have they dis- 
charged a vow. Horsley (xcv. Northum- 
berland) in commenting upon what lie 
justly calls " that remarkable altar, with 
a curious inscription upon it, published 
by Mr. Camden," says, " The reading 
I have given of the body of the 
inscription is the same as his, which I take to be right : 



V&S L M 


but nobody (that I knot* of) has given a satisfactory explica^ 

tioii of the D i: s at the top. 1 think it plain that they arc 
to be read Dea Roma Sacrum. That they made a goddess 
of Rome, and erected altars and temples to her, needs no 
proof to those who have any acquaintance with medals and 
other Roman antiquities." 

Hodgson gives a different reading of the three initials, 
rendering them De reditu suo, and translating the whole 
inscription thus — "Cains Caspio Charitinus being tribune, 
the duplares of the picket-guard stationed at Bremenium, 
freely and duly performing a vow on aeeount of his safe 
return, set up this altar to his guardian god." — Hist. North. 
Part II.. voL L, p. L39. 

No one acquainted with the wild region to the north of 
r.ivnieiiiuni can fail to recognise a sort of fitness in Hodgson's 
rendering. Charitinus and his troops might well congratu- 
late themselves on their safe return from an exploratory 
expedition — the bogs, the forests passed, the wily enemy 
i scaped. At the same time, Horsley's reading is less forced 
than Hodgson's. It is. moreover, usual to commence a dedi- 
cation with the name of the god to whom the altar was 
i rected. 

That Rome was worshipped as a goddess there can be no 
doubt ; and that she was held in very high estimation is 

apparent from the lines of Martial — 

•• Terrarum dea gentiumque Roma, 
< !ui par >•-: nihil, ei nihil secundum." Epig. XII, viii. 

Words more lofty could not be applied to Jupiter himself. 
A- the father of the gods is usually invoked on altars by the 
initial letters, [.o.M., there is no impropriety in this goddess 
being indicated in a similar manner \<\ the letters, D.B.S, 

The chief value, however, of the altar arises from the 
mention of Bremenium upon it. On the thud line, the 
letters Bremen, occur, and a stop is placed after them to 
indicate a contracted word. The firs! Iter in the Itinerary 
of Antoninus, is entitled, " A route from the limit, thai is 
from the Wall, to Prstorium, L56 miles : and the firs! place 
mentioned in it is Bremenium. Camden at oner conjectured 
thai the contracted word on this altar was Bremenii, and 
conc< ived I hat it furni bed a I rong probability that 1 1 igh 
Roch i If mri ing point of the Iter. 



The probability of the correctness of Camden's conclusion 
was increased by the discovery of another altar in the same 
station, two years ago, in the course of the excavations 
carried on there by direction of the Duke of Northumber- 
land, on which the formula occurs, N. explorator. BRBM., 
Numerus ewploratorurn Brcmcnii. 

The inscribed stones from Risingham next claim our 
attention. Amongst them is one which is remarkable, as 
giving the name of a local deity worshipped by the Romans, 
and fixing, with much probability, the ancient name of the 
station. Horsley, speaking of it, says, " I was pleased to see 
the whole inscription still so legible, and particularly the 
word ffabitand plain and distinct, though it is now above a 
hundred and twenty years since this and another altar, 
mentioned by Camden, were taken out of the river Rede, 
which runs near this station." Now that we have another 
period of above a hundred and twenty years to add to 
Horsley's, our satisfaction is proportionately increased in 
finding it in so satisfactory a state as it is. All authorities 
agree in reading the altar, " Deo Mogonti Cadenorum et 
numini Domini Nostri Augusti, Marcus Gaius Secundums, 
beneficiarius consulis, Habitanci, 
prima statione, pro se et suis 
posuit." — To Mogon of the Cadeni 
and the deity of our lord Augus- 
tus, Marcus Gaius Secundums a 
consular beneficiary at Habitan- 
cum, the first station (from the 
Wall), erected (this altar) for him- 
self and his friends. 

The god Mogon is no doubt the 
local deity of the Cadeni, who 
seem to have been a tribe located 
in the territory of the Vangiones. 
Mogontiacum, the modern May- 
ence, was the capital of the pro- 
vince of the Vangiones, and always contained a strong 
Roman garrison. There is something interesting in noticing 
the yearnings of soul in these Cadeni, banished to Rising- 
ham, after the gods of their native land. 

Camden mentions a similar altar belonging: to the same 
place, also erected by the Cadeni, bearing the inscription — 

«,«h miT i M i i«i«HHiu7Ti " H| |i i 


^fgoshabii 5 





Deo Mouxo Cad[ exorum]. For a number of years this 
altar was missing, having been used in the erection of a cow- 
shed ; this structure being now pulled down, it lies in the 
middle of the station, but the inscription Is barely legible. 

The chief value of the altar arises from the mention of 
Habitancum. This, in the absence of any evidence of a con- 
flicting character, warrants us in supposing that Habitancum 
was the Roman name of the station. 

We next direct our attention to a slab derived from the 
same station, which is of a more ornate character than any 
other found in the region of the Roman Wall. It has been 
repeatedly engraved, but never so correctly as to supersede 
another attempt, which is here presented. 

The slab consists of three compartments. The centre 
contains the inscription surrounded by a very elegant octa- 
gonal border. The inscription is, " Numinibus Augustorum 
of the emperors the fourth cavalry cohort of the Gauls 
erected this. 

That the emperors were worshipped as gods admits of 
abundant proof] and that the more worthless an emperor was, 
the more slavishly he was adored is quite natural. The 
emperors bore referred to are probably the two sons of 
Severus. Several inscriptions mentioning Caracalla and 
Greta have been recently discovered at this station. Among 
them is a slab found among the ruins of the south gate- 
way, and now preserved in the museum at Newcastle ; it 
bears a Btrong resemblance to that which we are discussing. 
CTpon it the uame of Caracalla is given with all the usual 
epithets. The name <>f his brother has also been there, but 
is erased. This is uniformly the case with reference to the 
uame of this emperor in Northumberland. Ii is interesting 

to notice the Same thing iii the arch nf Severus at Rome. We 

here gel a striking proof of the unity of the empire even in 
the time of Caracalla. An order of a comparatively trifling 
character issued in Rome was quickly obeyed in the remotest 
region of I he earl h. 

The troops by whom this slab was raised were the fourth 
cohort of the Gallic cavalry. The Notitia places Me fourth 
cohort oj '/In Gauls in the station of \ indobala, the modern 
Ch< terholm, where several inscriptions by this body have 
been found. The Vindobala cohort was a troop oi foot, the 

St a E 

« ^ 


cohort mentioned upon our slab was a mounted one. They 
are no doubt different bodies. 

The principal portions of the side compartments of the 
Risingham slab are occupied with figures of Victory and 
Mars. Both appear as they are usually represented. Victory 
has wings, a laurel crown is in her right hand, a palm-branch 
in her left ; a globe placed beneath her feet indicates Rome's 
claims to universal empire. Mars appears fully armed ; his 
uplifted right hand grasps a spear, his left rests upon his 
shield : his whole posture is a personification of the motto — 

'■ Ready, aye, ready for the field." 

Between the central compartment and these figures an orna- 
ment which is of frequent occurrence on Roman shields is 
introduced. It is probably the conventional form of a shield. 
It resembles the shield which is sometimes introduced into 
trophies, and is probably an ornamental adaptation of the 
shield of the earliest period of the Roman polity. Above the 
shield, on each side, are human heads ; that on the left side 
is triple-faced, it may be intended for Janus, the guardian 
deity of gates ; thai on the righl may be intended forSeverus. 

Beneath the shields are cords formed into a knot. Beneath 
the figure of Victory is a bird apparently a stork about to 
seize a fish ; near it is a small twig, apparently bearing a few 
billies of some description. 

On the other side, below the figure of Mais is a bird, appa- 
rently a goose : before it is set a small vase which seems to 
contain .-nine fruit. 

How far these minor objects are emblematic of the faith 
or the philosophy of the cohort of the Gauls, or bow far they 
are the mi -re offspring of the taste of the sculptor, is not easy 
to decide. If the bird under Mars bad been a cock, as has 
r .- 1 1 i \ been stated, the appropriateness of its introduction 
would have been plain. We know that Koine was once saved 
from the Gauls by the cackling of geese. If the allusion is 
to this circumstance, it shows how entirely the Romans had 
succeeded in destroying the nationality of their conquered 

:■ < and in infusing the national spirit intothe whole. 
Another dab which was found in the same station, and 
probably attached to a temple or other building, bears 

the inscription, Coh[ors] mm ma V"ang[ionum] fecit oi bante 
Jul[io] I'm i.i.o tbibi ffo. The firsl cohorl of the Vangiones 



erected this under the command of Julius Paullus, the 

The Vangiones, as has already been said, were a people of 
Belgic Gaul. As several in- 
scribed stones found at Ilabi- 
tancum mention the Vangio- 
nes, it has been concluded that 
this station was chiefly garri- 
soned by them, though they 
are not named in the Notitia 

Below these two slabs in the 
wall of the lobby of Trinity 
Library is a large altar. It 
is reddened by fire, and is 

deeply scarred by the bad usage it has received ; notwith- 
standing this its aspect gladdened the heart of Horsley. 
" This is a very stately altar,"' he says, "erected to the invincible 
Hercules. It yet remains at Conington very entire, and is, 
I think, one of the largest altars that I have seen, that are 
so beautiful." It reads " Deo invicto Herculi sacr[um] 
L[ucius] ^Emil[ianus] Salvanus Trib[unus] coh[ortis] 
rRDLE Vangi[onum] v[otum] s[olvens] l[ibens] m[erito]. 
Sacred to the unconquerable god Hercules. Lucius iEmi- 
iianus Salvanus, tribune of the first cohort of the Vangiones, 
(erected this) willingly and deservedly, in discharge of 
a vow. 

Personal prowess being a qualification of considerable 
importance to a soldier, Hercules was popular in the Roman 
army, and we find several altars dedicated to him. 

The formula vslm, at the close of an inscription, is, with 
occasional variations, of common occurrence upon Roman 
altars. Whilst we deplore the folly of the idolatry of the 
Romans, we cannot but admire their readiness in acknow- 
ledging the obligations under which they supposed them- 
selves to be laid by their gods. 

In the mention of the Vangiones on this altar, as well as 
on the slab already noticed, we have an illustration of the 
Roman policy of prosecuting their conquests by means of 
tribes already subjugated. The Vangiones were stationed 
at Risingham, the Varduli and Lingones at High Rochester, 
and, along the line of the Wall, were troops of Spaniards, 



n > i i HE ■ 



Moors, Germans and others. The Britons themselves were 
drafted off in large numbers to the other ends of the earth, 
or perhaps to keep in order the very tribes and nations who 
were doing this service for their own countrymen. By this 
means a single legion of Roman troops were sufficient to 
hold in check the whole of North Britain. This, which was 
the sixth legion, was stationed at York, whence they could, 
from the nature of the country, on any alarm, expand them- 
selves like a fan over the region to the north, or concentrate 
themselves on any position of the mural barrier which was 
exposed to danger. 

One other inscription only from this station shall detain 
us ; it is on a monumental slab. It reads — D[ns] M[anibus] 


viginti unum.— Blescius Diovicus erects this to the divine 
manes of his daughter ; she lived one year and twenty-one 

The bust in the triangular head of the stone is probably 
meant as a likeness of the de- 
ceased. The rude character of 
the carving, the peculiar shape 
of the letters, and the mode 
of spelling vidit, prove the in- 
scription to be of late date. 

There is something touching 
in all these Roman tombstones. 
The rudest and most meagre 
of them shadow forth the 
kindliest affections of human 
nature. Blescius Diovicus, a 
wanderer, probably, from the 
banks of the Rhine, and inured 
to all the hardships and priva- 
tions of war, had a heart that 

% sews 


S t V A -h I 

AC A/ vV^/A 

could bleed for his little daugh- 
ter. In committing her dust 
to the urn, he was unwilling 
that the memory of her brief 
existence should perish hastily, and accordingly he carved, 
roughly enough, but probably according to his ability, the 
lines we have been examining. It is a pity he has not 
inserted the cognomen of the young lady, for, in that case, a 


splendid immortality would have been hers. The name 
of the daughter of Blescius Diovicus would have been a 
household word with the learned sons of Trinity College, 
( lambridge. 

We now turn from the stations north of the Wall to those 
of the Wall itself. 

The Notitia Impi rii gives the stations along the line of the 
Roman Wall, and mentions the troops and the prefects which 
were stationed in each. At Condercum, the fourth station 
on the line, reckoning from the eastern extremity, it places 
the prefect of the first Ala of the Astures. At Benwell 
several Blabs and altars have been found inscribed by this 
of soldiers. Proceeding westwards, we meet with a 
Roman station at Rutchester. The Notitia gives us as the 
camp next in order to Condercum, Vindolana, where the 
fir-t cohort of the Frixagi were stationed; here, unhappily, 
no stone has been found mentioning this cohort or any other. 
Going still further westward we meet with a station near 
Balton Castle. Next in order to Vindolana the Notitia gives 
us the camp of Hunnum with the Savinian ala for its garrison. 
The only stone naming this troop found at llalton or else- 
where in England is the broken fragment preserved at 
Cambridge and here represented. Fragmentary as it is, it 
is sunicienl to prove Halton Chestcrs to be the Hunnum of 
the Notitia, ('specially as there is abundant evidence for 
Wishing the station next in order to be the Cilurnum of 
the Notitia. This inscription is apparently a monumental 

one erected by Messorius 

Magnus to the manes of his 

brother. The reference to 

J^y the Ala Sabiniana is how- 

r\ er disi inct.and i.^ sufficient 

- : \m. 

| toestablish for this battered 

and ill-used stone an historic 
value. Several ligatures or 
tied letters will be noticed 
in it. For example, the 

i luce letters teb in Frater 

are all combined in one 

form. A peculiarity in the writing of the word llae is 

worthy of notice. The second \ which is adjoined t«» the 

r< pre i nted upside down. In Saxon inscriptions 




Roman letters are not unfrequently inverted ; this docs not 
often occur in those carved by Latin hands. 

At Carvoran the Roman Magna, the eleventh station on 
the Wall, the Syrian goddess seems to have been extensively 
worshipped. An altar derived from this quarter is preserved 
in the collection at Trinity College. The upper portion of it 
is elaborately carved, and the first and second lines of the 
inscription, and part of that of the third are complete ; but 
all the subsequent lines, amounting to four, have been lost 
through the exfoliation of the stone. Fortunately Camden 
had copied the inscription before this destructive process had 
taken place, and the figure 
here given has the missing 
lines supplied chiefly from his 
copy. I have ventured to 
render the last line more com- 
plete than he has done, for 
the discovery of several other 
inscriptions at this place of 
late renders it quite certain 
that the first cohort of the 
Hamii, not the fourth cohort 
of the Gauls (as Horsley sup- 
posed), were the dedicators 
of the altar. The inscription 
reads Deao Suriae sub Calpurnio 
Agricola legato augustali pro- 
praetore Aulus Licinius Clemens 
praefectus cohortis prima) Ham- 
iorum. To the Syrian goddess 
Aulus Licinius Clemens prefect 
of the first cohort of the Hamii 
under Calpurnius Agricola, 
Augustan legate and proprie- 
tor. The Hamii were natives 

of Syria. The Syrians were much addicted to the worship 
of Cybcle. There is at present lying in the garden at 
Carvoran a fragment of a stone which bears- all the ap- 
pearance of having formed part of an altar similar to this 
one ; at all events the name of Calpurnius Agricola is 

To one other altar only will we direct attention. Though 


not from the region of the Wall it still belongs to the north 
of England, li is without doubt the most elaborately carved 
altar which the Romans resident in Britain have Left us. It 
is now preserved in the quadrangle of St. John's College. 
Camden mentions it. and tells us it was found in the Roman 
station of Ribchester. The inscription, which he informs us 
•• was copied for him. he gives as follows: — 




AL. Q. Q. SAR 





r, perhaps, was so unmeaning a concatenation of letters 
submitted to the gaze of a bewil- 
--— dered antiquary. Camden could 

make nothing of the inscription, 
but BUggests somewhat waggishly 
thai it contained little more than 
the British names of places ad- 
joining. Ilorsley grappled with 
Camden's corrupted copy, and 
elicited one portion of truth. He 
Bays, " I believe the foui th line 
may he Alae equitum Sarma 
[ tarum I." 

The altar seems soon after its 
disco\ ery to ha\ e been used as a 
common building-stone in the 
ereel ion of Salisbury I [all. In 
L815 it was disentombed, and 
fell into the hands of Dr. Whit- 
aker, who bequeathed it to St. 
John's College. Dr. Whitaker 
clli bory of Richmondshire, 70L 
ii. p. 161) thus expands the inscription : Deo sancto Apollint 
Apono 06 8alutem Domini nostri ala equitum Sarmatarum 

•E ao-SAU . 


R'DI'ANl-' !j 
TON! : 

vs ;vj ' ! 

to , \tsj:j:( 

1 '.-.'"■ 



Brenetcn. sub Dianio Antonino centurione legionis settee 
victricis. The correctness of this reading, in the main, 
cannot be disputed, but one or two emendations may be 
suggested. Instead of Apono, which Dr. Whitaker conceives 
to be an epithet of Apollo, Mapono is probably the true 
reading. We nowhere else meet with Aponus (indolent) as 
an epithet of this deity. At Plumpton, in Cumberland, an 
altar has been found which is inscribed 1 — 



To Mr. Roach Smith I am indebted for the reading now 


suggested, as well as for the idea that Maponus may be the 
British name of Apollo, as Belatucader is of Mars. It is 
nothing uncommon to address a god both by his classical and 
local name. The first letter in the fourth line appears to be N 
(numerus) rather than a (aid) ; both designations as applied 
to a troop of cavalry are common. The last letter on the 
ninth line is worthy of notice. The sculptor seems in the 
first instance to have made the word domic and then to have 
altered it to the usual form of domo. 

The chief value of the inscription depends upon the fifth 
line. Mr. Hodgson Hinde, in a paper read before the Society 
of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and published in their 
Transactions, 2 conjectured (without having seen the altar) 
that Dr. Whitaker's reading of Breweten, should be Bre?weten. 
Such, as is shown in the woodcut, appears to be the feet. 
He further argues that the station at which the Sarmatian 
cavalry (Ribchester) were located, was the Bremeten racum 
of the Notitia. He does so upon the same principle that 
High Rochester is conceded to be Bremenium, and Risingham 

The emperor, for whose welfare this altar was erected, 
docs not appear, but judging from the excellence of the 
design of the altar and from the clearness of its lettering, he 
must have been one of the earlier series. 

Besides the inscription, the altar is sculptured on two of 
its sides. The subject of one of these carvings is the youthful 
Apollo resting upon his lyre. The figure, notwithstanding 
the hard usage it has met with in the course of centuries, 

Lyson's Cumberland, p. civ. Archeeologia .K'iuna, vol. iv. p. 109. 



exhibits considerable grace. Two females, the one fully 
draped, the other only partially so, are shown on the other 
Bid • of the altar. They hold some object between them 
which is so much injured as to be {indistinguishable ; it may 
have been a basket of fruit or an offering of flowers. 
Dr. Whitaker is Burely wrong in describing these figures as 
two priests holding in their hands the head of a victim. 

Such are "-nine of the objects oi antiquity connected with 
the domination of Rome in the north of England, thai are at 
pri 31 nt to be met with within the precincts of the University 
of Cambridge. However rude the carving of some of them, 
they \\ ill ever 1"' interesting to Englishmen, as indicating the 
progri - of their forefathers from a state of barbarism into 
one of high ei\ ilisation. 

[The Centra] Committee of the institute have the gratification to 
rledge the kind a istance of die author of this valuable memoir, 
in d< frayin portion of the oo -< of the accompanying illustrations, 

prepared under hi direction bj Mr. [Jtting.] 



There are few subjects of that class and period, whereunto 
the foundation of Lilleshall Abbey belongs, which can be 
more exactly described both as regards dates and circum- 
stances. Much of this has been ably done already, 2 and the 
object of the present narrative is mainly to supply a few 
additions to, and to suggest some trifling corrections in, 
former accounts. 

Richard de Belmeis, first Bishop of that name, who held 
the See of London, died January 16, 1127. He had been 
for a great portion of his life the representative or Viceroy 
of Henry I. in Shropshire. He died seized of a temporal 
estate in that county, which included the manor of Tong, 
also of several churches, and of the deanery or chief pre- 
bendal interest in the church of St. Alkmund, Shrewsbury. 
The last he held immediately of the king. 

At his death he left two nephews, sons of his brother 
Walter. The elder of these, Philip, was his temporal heir, 
and so became at once lord of Tong. The younger, Richard, 
was not yet of age, but was already destined for the Church. 

In the years 1138 and 1139, or about that time, Philip de 
Belmeis seems to have been interested in the prosperity of 
Buildwas Abbey, a Savigniac house recently founded in 
Shropshire, by Roger de Clinton, Bishop of Chester. The 
manner in which he encouraged that establishment, and his 
own personal admission into the fraternity of Savigny pre- 
clude all idea of his having a contemporary admiration for 
any other religious order. 

Before many years had passed — specifically before the 
year 1145, Philip de Belmeis was of another mind. The 

1 Communicated to the Historical Sec- - History of Shrewsbury (Owen and 

tion, at the Meeting of the Institute ill Blakeway), ii. '_' . a. 



introduction of regular, as distinct from secular canons, into 
Knuiand. belongs to lin earliri- period than the reign of 
Henry [., and according to one account, the elder Richard 
de Belmeis had been instrumental, about a.i>. 1108, to their 
first settlement in this country. 3 During the next thirty 
i, many colleges of secular canons were changed into 
regulars, and many houses of the latter class were newly 

In the Lateran Council of 1139, all regular canons 
throughout the dominions of St. Peter were subjected to the 
rule of St. Augustine ; but there was a sect of this order 
which had long previously professed an improvement on its 
fundamental ordinances, and which from its first house 
having been dedicated to St. Nicholas of Arras, and situated 
near that city, was called Arroasian. A number of these 
latter canons are said to have been introduced into England 
in I 1 40, under the auspices of Alexander the Magnificent, 
Bishop of Lincoln. They were placed at Dorchester in 
Oxfordshire, once the episcopal seat of Alexander's prede- 
cessors, and where probablya college of secular canons made 
way for these Arroasians. 

Within five, probably within three, years of this date, the 
Dorchester canons were ready to increase their influence by 
emigration. Some of them found their way into Shropshire, 
where Philip de Belmeis was their first patron. By a charter, 
addressed to Roger, Bishop of Chester, he gave them a tract 
of land in his manor of Tong, dow known as the Lizard 
Grange, and other advantages, which, be it observed, must 
have somewhat qualified the value of his previous favours to 
Buildwas. Verbally, his charter conveys " land to found a 
Church in honour of St. Mary (given) to Canons of the 
Order of Arroasia, who had come from the Church of St. 
Peter at Dorchester, and are Berving God and St. Mary 
there" (thai is, in the locality now given to them), "regu- 
larly," (that i-. according to the Rule of Regular Canons). 

This humble introduction under the patronage of a. 
Shropshire knight, was a prelude to greater fortunes; but 
before 1 pass to the uexl event which befel these Arroasian 
canons, I musl resume my account of Richard, younger 
nephew of Richard de Belmeis, Bishop of London, \\ Tien 

• i a4 Chri t< bur< h, witb d Aldgato, London. 


tlic latter had been dead about seven months, that is, in 
August, 1127, 4 King Henry I. is known to have been waiting 
on the coast of Hampshire for a favourable opportunity of 
crossing the Channel. Doubtless to the same period belongs 
a charter dated at Portsmouth, whereby the king grants to 
Richard de Bclmcis, nephew of the deceased Bishop, all the 
" Churches, Lands, and things " which having in the first 
instance been held by Godebald and Robert his son, had 
since been held by the Bishop, of the King. 

There is every presumption that we rightly indicate the 
gift thus conveyed, if w r e say that it consisted of the pre- 
bendal estates of Lilleshall, Atcham, Uckington, and Preston 
Gobalds, with the Churches thereon, and that the whole 
constituted a preponderating interest in the Collegiate 
Church of St. Alkmund, Shrewsbury. 

Richard de Belmeis, whom we will only call Chief 
Prebendary of St. Alkmunds, was at this time hardly of age. 
He w r as nevertheless a dignitary of St. Paul's, London, and 
had actually been appointed Archdeacon of Middlesex by his 
uncle several years before. His extreme youth, however, 
had induced an arrangement wdierebyone Hugh, a Chaplain, 
had custody of the archdeaconry, to hold as it were in 
commendam, till Belmeis should attain a fitting age. This 
period arrived during the episcopacy of Gilbert the Universal 
(January, 1128, August, 1134) ; but the archdeacon in 
possession forgot or evaded his oath ; and his refusal to 
resign his trust was countenanced by Bishop Gilbert. The 
death of the latter prelate was followed by a long vacancy in 
the See of London. In 1138, Richard de Belmeis went to 
Rome as a representative of the Chapter of St. Paul's in its 
opposition to the election of Anselm to that bishopric. The 
appeal succeeded, and Belmeis then brought forward his 
own personal grievance in regard to the archdeaconry of 
Middlesex. This matter the Pope (Innocent II.) referred 
back to the decision of two English bishops (Hereford 
and Lincoln), who before the end of the year gave sentence 
in favour of Belmeis. In apparent connexion with his 
induction to this office, Belmeis was ordained deacon in 
December, 1138, by Henry, Bishop of Winchester, at com- 

1 Monnsticon, vi. 262, Num. II. Mr. but Simeon of Durham's Chronology ol 

Blakeway (Hist, Shrewsbury, II. 264, the period (which Mr. B. followed) is 
note 3) dates this charter in August, 1 128, erroneous by a year. 


mand of the papal legate, Alberic, who was then visiting 

in July 1141, for that undoubtedly is tlic date of the 
document referredso, I find Archdeacon Richard deBelmeis 
in the court of the empress at Oxford, and attesting her 
charter to the Shropshire Abbey of Haughmond. 5 It was 
the era of her pride and triumph, for Stephen was then her 
prisoner. Anion-- her other attendants, were David, King 
of Scotland, Robert de Sigillo, recently appointed to the long 
vacant see of London, Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, Regi- 
nald, earl of Cornwall, William and Walter Pitz-Alan, and 
Alan de Dunstanville, — the four last all associated with 
Shropshire history. 

The release of Stephen towards the close of this same 
year, again set the kingdom in a blaze. Political parties 
were once more confounded, and many men re-adjusted 
their allegiance as interest or passion might direct. Amidst 
all this turmoil and distrust, it is marvellous to observe the 
impulse which was given to religious institutions. Stephen 
and the Empress vied in their patronage of the Church, not 
befriending different orders in opposition to each other, but 
more commonly lavishing their jealous favours od the same/' 
Meantime, there were nun whose conduct, favourably inter- 
preted, would indicate that they belonged to no political 
party, and of whom the worsl thai can be said is, that they 
adhered to each party in turn, according as it might suit 
their designs \ designs, 1 mean, not of rapine or bloodshed, 
but of peace and benevolence. These men pursued their 
ends without molestation, uav, often with double encourage- 

Among them was Richard, Archdeacon of Middlesex, 
who, whether at the suggestion of his brother Philip, or in 
sympathy with the bishop of Lincoln, selected the Arroasian 
order for his munificent favour. His first Btep, taken, I 
doubi Dotj in l I I I. was to transfer them from the Lizard 
to Donington Wood, a pari of his prebendal estate of 
Lilleshall, nol -\\ miles distanl from their first abode. This 
he did, doubtless, under a full assurance of thai consent, 
V mporal as well as ecclesiastical, which followed his act. 

Harl ta ure %• rtal ooniea oi i »eh other The 

■ I irten of Stephen policy of ili<- rivals In thii reepeel being 

•ad tin usually found in onci made known, of course the chartered 

|inir»- . Mi. j bodi< syailed themselves largely of it 


We know that in the spring of 1145, Stephen was occu- 
pied in the eastern counties, specifically in Norfolk and 
Suffolk ; we know that at the same time, Imarus, Bishop of 
Tusculum, was in England as legate of Pope Lucius II., who 
died during his deputy's embassy, viz. on Feb. 2(J, 1145. 

This, then, is the proximate date of a charter 7 whereby 
king Stephen, then at Bury St. Edmunds, "at the prayer of 
Archdeacon Richard, grants and concedes to the Canons 
Regular, of Duninton, the prebend which the said Richard 
had in the church of St. Alchmund at Salopesbcry, and all 
his demesne and things, and moreover, all the other prebends 
of the aforesaid church, whenever they should fall vacant." 8 
The first witness of this charter was Imarus, Bishop of Tus- 
culum, legate, the second Robert (de Betun), Bishop of 

It is obvious to me that the consent of the diocesan Bishop 
(Roger de Clinton) to this enormous transfer of Church 
estates was as yet wanting, and I know not that it will be 
extravagant to associate his hesitation with a very natural 
feeling of jealousy in behalf of his own foundation of Build- 
was, which had already been brought into a kind of rivalry 
by Philip de Belmeis' adoption of the Arroasian canons in 
preference to the Savigniac monks. Still suggesting, rather 
than asserting, I venture to point out how Eugenius III. 
succeeded to the papal chair in March 1145 ; how Alexander, 
Bishop of Lincoln, the great patron of the Arroasians, was 
in especial favour with that pontiff ; how he visited him at 
Rome in 1145-6, and again at Auxerre in 1147 ; and how, 
within those intervals, Roger Bishop of Chester had the 
Pope's order to confirm Richard de Belmeis' endowment of 
the I)onino;ton canons. — 

We know the latter fact, not from any existing charter of 
Bishop Clinton, but from a succeeding and further confirma- 
tory charter of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, which 
is preserved and records the circumstance. 9 

Theobald's charter, even if written in his exile, was appa- 

" Lilleshall Chartulary, in possession 9 The original deed, with a perfect flea! 

of the Duke of Sutherland, p. 48. of the Arebbishop, is among the Duke of 

8 Or " be surrendered " by the existing Sutherland's Muniments at Trentham. 

prebendaries; for I take it that the read- A copy thereof (given Afonasricon, vi., 

ing of the original, was " quando dila- 263, Num. VII.) is from fo. 46 of the 

bantur." Perhaps, however, (whenever Lillesball Chartulary. 
they should lapse) was the expression used. 


rently written before he knew of the death of Roger de 
Clinton, and therefore in or before 1148. It indicates one 
if not two changes which had taken place since Stephen's 
confirmation. It speaks of Belmeis' gift as intended for the 
building of an abbey in the Wood of LiUeshull. Thither, 
therefore, had the canons at length removed, viz. to a site 
three miles distant from Donington Wood. There they 
remained. Lilleshall Abbey was therefore commenced 
between the years 1144 and 1148. Archbishop Theobald 
also calls Richard de Belmeis, Dean of St. Alkmunds, and 
describes his particular prebend to be that of LiUeshull and 
Hetingeham (Atcham). 

If Belmeis had only recently become Dean of St. Alkmunds, 
and probably such was the case, 1 it was obviously that he 
might have every facility for converting the secular into the 
regular establishment, a business which we know to have 
been substantively and eventually completed. Thus, whether 
in Belmeis 1 time, or later, all the prebendal estates of St. 
Alkmund's became the property of the canons of Lilleshall. 

The next charter which I should notice, is the confirma- 
tion of the empress Matilda to Lilleshall Abbey.-' This 
interesting document seems to me to have passed very soon 
after she quitted England, viz. in 1 148, but 1 must speak of 
it with caution, as its nearly obliterated condition makes 
some of the few words which I fancy myself to have deci- 
phered \'-rv problematical. — 

Matilda, the empress daughter of king Henry, addresses 
William Fitz-Alan and Walter (perhaps his brother) and all 
her faithful in Shropshire with greeting. She receives 
William. Abbot of LylleshuU and the canons, who are there 
serving God for the souls of her father Henry and her 
mother Matilda, and for the welfare of herself and hers, 
under her tutelage and protection. Wherefore, her will and 
mandate was, thai the aforesaid William and his canons 
should hold all their things freely and quietly: \i/. the 
Church of St. Alcmund, of Salop, with its appurtenances and 
franchises asalready confirmed to them by episcopal autho- 
rity. The witnesses seem to be, II. (Hugh) Archbishop ol 
ujJoceline, Bishop of Sarum; Philip, Bishop of Baieux ; 

1 The 1 1 r> 1 1 1 • r.f the Dean of St, A IK- Stephens, was Adam. Monasticon, rol 
miind'*, at the cl ■■■■ ol Henry l.'a reign, »ii. 750, No. nvi. 

■ ■ commencement oi I II hall Cbartulary, p, 14. 


Richard, her chancellor ; Robert de Curcy ; William do 
Ansgervill. The deed (I think) is dated at Faleise. 

We must now say a word as to the confirmation of Walter 
Durdent, Bishop of Coventry (consecrated 2 Oct. 1149), 
which seems to me to have passed soon after his succession, 
and before September, 1152, 3 when Richard de Bclmeis was 
elevated to the see of London. The latter person is men- 
tioned in Durdent's charter only as Dean of St. Alkmund's. 
His conversion of the secular prebends is spoken of as a thing 
done. The building of the Abbey of St. Mary, in the wood 
at Lilleshull, has commenced. The previous confirmations of 
king Stephen, pope Eugenius, archbishop Theobald, and 
bishop Clinton, are all alluded to. 4 

Next follows the Charter of Henry duke of Normandy, 
sought and obtained by the prudent canons of Lilleshall 
while that prince was still an exile. It merely confirms the 
Church of St. Alkmund's with all the privileges which it 
enjoyed in time of Henry I. It is attested by Arnulf, bishop 
of Liseux, (Humphrey) de Bohun. Walcheline Maminot, 
William fitz Hamon, Warm fitz Gerald, Richard fitz Halde- 
brond, and Manasser Biset. It is dated at Argentan, in 
Normandy, and passed probably in 1151. 5 

The same prince's charter, after he ascended the throne, 
is a document of some historical interest. He confirms all 
things, quoting the previous charter and grant of his " Lady 
the Empress," a mode of designating his mother, which I 
have not elsewhere met with. The deed is attested by 
R. (Robert) 6 Bishop of Lincoln, R. (Richard) Bishop of 
London, Thomas the Chancellor, Manasser Biset Dapifer, 
Warin fitz Gerald Chamberlain, Robert de Dunstanville and 
Joceline de Baliol/ It is also dated at Alrewas "in exercitu," 
a circumstance which, with the witnesses' names, proves the 

3 There is a doubt about this. One of In the autumn of that year bo became also 
the witnesses is Geoffry Abbot, of Com- Earl of Anjou by Ins said Father's death ; 
bermere, and William, first Abbot of and in 1152 he acquired further titles by 
Combermere, is said to have been living his marriage with Eleanor of Poitou. In 
in 1153, viz., when " Pelton Abley was the deed before u«, he simply styles bi in- 
founded." There is, however, a strong self Duke of Normandy, but he is known 
presumption that the foundation of Pelton to have used his other titles before his 
was earlier than 1153. It 80, the objec- accession to the throne of England. The 
tion to dating Walter Durdent's confirm- presumption therefore is that he used 
ation earlier than 1153, is invalid. them as they accrued. (Vide Lilleshall 

1 MonaBticon, \i. 263, No. Lv. Chartulary, p. 14 ) 

5 The date is assigned on these grounds. 6 y ne uame /,;;,/,,,■,/ nas been used 

Henry became Duke of Normandy early here by error of the transcriber. 

in 1151, by cession of bis father Geoffrey. ' Lilleshall Chartulary, p. 44. 


deed to have passed in the first year of Henry's reign (1 155) ; 
hut whether the king took Alrewas (Staffordshire) in his 
line of march when going to or returning from York in 
February, or when going to or returning from Shropshire in 
July, seems uncertain. 8 

A contemporary precept of the same king gives the ahhot 
and canons of Lilleshall a new privilege, viz., an exemption 
from " toll and passage," under a penalty of 10/. recoverable 
from any one who should charge them with such dues. 

It would 1'" beside my present purpose to attempt even a 
Bummary of the various grants and privileges which were 
bestowed on Lilleshall Abbey within the first century after 
its foundation. Neither will I enumerate the bulls of popes, 
or the charters of kings, archbishops, and bishops, which con- 
firmed and recorded these successive benefactions. 

As. however, I profess to give full particulars of the 
Foundation of Lilleshall, it seems fitting to relate whatever 
mi. iv is known of its founder, 8 Richard de Belmeis. 

Notwithstanding all his ecclesiastical dignities, he was not 
ordained priest till September 20, 1152, when his previous 
election to the Sec of London rendered that preliminary to 
his consecration imperative. His consecration followed at 
Canterbury, on Sunday. September 28, L152, Archbishop 
Theobald officiating, and nearly every English Bishop 
attending. — 

Henry of Winchester, the only notable absentee, sent a, 
in — .-I-.- to the synod exeusing his own non-attendance, but 
expressing in high terms his assent to Belmeis' promotion. 
Elegance of person, polished manners, industrious activity, 
and scientific accomplishment, are all attributed to the new 
bishop by his great panegyrist, who predicts that the tree 
now to be planted in God's temple will, with divine help, 
flourish and be fruitful. Such was the pious tone assumed 
bj Henry of Blois, who, though do1 asyel sated with ambition 
and statecraft, gave after-evidence that he sometimes spoke 
both solemnly and sincerely. 

Richard de Belmeis, Bishop of London, Beems to have been 
a part) to tin' conventions which, in I L53, gave peace t<> the 

- Antiquities of Shropshire, by the Rev. which Philip de Belmeii had in tin' 

I: \\ i. ton, vol. i. p matter. For an account of him, see An 

■ ' iIm- i. in founder would be tiquitiet of Shropshire, voL ii. pp. 

i ace to thi linn 


distracted nation by settling the succession on Henry Duke 
of Normandy. 

On December 19, 1154, lie attended the coronation of that 
prince at Westminster. I find him occasionally but not 
often at court in 1155 ; and Prince Henry, who was born at 
London on February 28, was baptised by Bishop Belmeis. 

The next year the king was in Normandy, but a court 
held at Colchester May 24, 1157, was attended by Belmeis. 
Not again at any later period do I hear of him in public or 
in attendance on the king. He died on the fourth of May, 
1162, after suffering for many years from some disorder 
which, as one of the chroniclers informs us, deprived him of 
speech. 1 His uncle, the former Bishop of London, was, as 
we know, attacked by paralysis many years before his death, 
and the nephew's malady was not improbably of a similar 
nature. His age at his death must have been considerably 
less than sixty. 

No record remains of his having done anything for the fabric 
of the Church of St. Paul's, the Cathedral of his See. His whole 
cares of this kind were probably devoted to the completion of 
that Augustine Abbey of which we have been speaking. It 
was associated with the neighbouring heritage of his kinsmen 
and with the memories of his own early advancement : — it 
was situated also in the county which had nursed the greater 
genius and fortunes of his illustrious uncle. 

1 Job. Hagustald. col. 278. 




In the clioir of the church of Wensley in the North Riding 
of the County of York there is a splendid brass, which has 
long attracted the admiration of archaeologists. It represents 
an ecclesiastic with a chalice and the host laid upon his 
breast. The priestly vestments are most beautifully executed, 
and the whole figure is so carefully designed and admirably 
wrought as to deserve a high place among our clerical 
-es. 1 It is probably the production of some Flemish 
artist, and it has been supposed to commemorate a rector of 
the church during the XlVth century. The name of the 
ecclesiastic who is thus represented has been long forgotten, 
as the fillet of brass which ran round the edge of the stone, 
and which contained the inscription, has been removed or 
destroyed. At the head of the figure there has been let 
into the marble stone a small square tablet of brass, bearing 
the following inscription : — 

"Oswaldus Dykes jaceo hie; Rector hujus ccclesia 1 \\ 
annos, reddidi animam j Decemb. 1607. 

"Non tnoriar sed rivara el narrabo opera Domini." 

Thifi tablel detracts Bomewhal from the effect of the 
stately figure which lies beneath it, but we have to thank 
Oswald Dykee for the name of his predecessor, into whose 
resting-place he so unceremoniously intruded. In his will, 
dated on the Beventh of November L607, and proved .-it 
Jfork en the 2nd of February following, he desires "to be 
buried in the quier of Wenslow, under the stone where Sir 
Symond Wenslow was buried, yfyl please God soe to provide 
the -.'ime. havinge this superscription, Non moriar sed uiinam 

Tbori i :i i.-ii ■• « ii - 1 . i \ 1 1 1 lc <>f this Mutation in Waller 1 ! Sepulchral Bn 
ii Or win:, i' iii toryol Rich ii oecurt ilao in Mi- Boutell'i Monu- 
, and :i more accural repn mental Brawea and Slab*, p. 20, 


ut narrabfi opera Domini." This inscription differs slightly 
from that which occurs upon the tablet. The clerk evidently 
made a mistake when he was transcribing the will. This 
document gives us the name of the rector whom the brass 
commemorates — Sir Simon de Wenslegh. Before however 
I turn to him, a few brief notices of Oswald Dykes may be 
; i ] >] iropriately introduced. 

Oswald Dykes, Rector of Wensley, was, I believe, a 
younger son of Thomas Dykes, Esq., of the parish of Burgh- 
on-Sands, in Cumberland, by Anne, daughter of John Layton, 
Esq., of Dalemain. His will contains some interesting bequests, 
and I give some extracts from it. 

" To the parishe of Plumland in Cumberland, where I was 
borne, 5l., at the discretion of the parson and of William 
Orfeur, Esq., my cozen. To Sir John Dalston my weightiest 
ringe of gould, and to my Ladye his wife an unyon. 2 To 
every poore house in Laborn, Wenslowe and Preston, 12d. 
To my brother Robert Dykes my best satten doublet. I give 
my librarie of bookes unto my brother Edward Dykes parson 
of Distington. To my Ladie Bellingham a booke called 
Grenehams second tombe. My wife, Mrs. Emme Dykes, 
executrix. To my neece, Mr. Leonard Dyke's his wife, of 
Wardall, my bell salt gilted over with gold. 3 To my 
countreman Edward Gibson a booke called Mallarette upon 
Sainte Mathewe. To my sonne Daniell Hodgson that is 
now at Stoad in Germany my goodly foale with the starne 
in the head. To Rachell Hodgson my virginalls." Dykes 
was presented to the rectory of Wensley by lord Scrope, 
June 5, 1587. 

It was by no means unusual to appropriate earlier grave- 
stones and to disturb the remains which they covered. The 
great number that sought interment in the churches rendered 
this appropriation necessary. Altar tombs and stone coffins 
appear to have been used again without the slightest scruple, 
and in many cases we may still observe two or three inscrip- 

- Probably a fine pearl, unio ; the term resembling a bell, and terminating in a 

i- so used by Shakepeare, Hamlet, V., 2. perforated ball, was exhibited by the 

See Nares. It lias been suggested, how- Rev. F. Raines, in the Museum of the 

ever, that it may signify a betrothal ring, Institute, at the York Meeting, 1846. 

a gimme! ; Fr. allia/nce, sometimes formed (Museum Catalogue, York volume, p. 16.) 

of a thread or wire of ^'"M interlined A similar salt is described, Gent. .Ma^ r . 

with one of silver. vol. xxiii. N.S , p. 136. 

3 A double salt of remarkable form, 


tions of different dates upon the same stone. The incumbent 
might, of course, select the place for his own interment, and 
he occasionally made a curious selection. In 1585, Thomas 
Taylor, Rector of Langton upon Swaile, desired " to be 
buried in oonder an owld tombe or monyment within the 
chaunsell of Lanketon," bequeathing " to Thos. Rychmounde, 
or to eanye other in his absence for openynge and cnclosynge 
of my tombe, of there owne proper costes and charges, xs." 
The tomb, here referred to, is probably that of an ecclesiastic 
in the north wall of the church, of which Dr. Whitaker gives 
an engraving. I may here mention the burial place of 
another llichmondshire, incumbent, as recorded in his parish 

" Thomas Tothall, rector of Romaldkirkc, departed this 
life the 26th of December, 1664, about half an houre past 
nine of the clock att night and was interred the 28 day of 
December, in the chancell under the marble stone which 
adjoinesto the north side of Parson Livelie his tombe." This 
rector was the son of Christopher Tothall, notary public, who 
was buried in the same church, as he desired, " in linncn, 
without chiste or cophin," on the 31st of March, 1628, 
"sub marmore juxta marmor vel tumulum Domini Johannis 
Lewelyne defuncti." I now turn to Sir Simon de Wenslagh. 

Sir Simon de Wenslagh was a man of eminence in character 
and position. He was probably a member of the ancient 
family of Wenslagh, 4 which was of some influence and con- 
sideration in Yorkshire. The Wenslaghs were connected 
with the great Baronial House of Scrope, and it was probably 
to that illustrious family that the Rector of Wensley was 
indebted for his christian name, Simon. The first notice we 
have of Sir Simon de Wenslagh is in the year L352. On 
the 14th of September in that year, Henry de Bellerby puts 
Simon de Wenslawo. clerk, together with John de Huthwate, 
clerk, and Philip do Pulford, chaplain, in trust for the whole 
of his manor of Walburn, 8 This manor the trustees release 
to Bellerby and his wife fifteen days afterwards. Soon after 
this, Sir Simon was preferred bv Richard Lord Scrope of 

1 The family of Wenslagh bore for their tin- Bame place in 1895. A Simon <1" 

ami-, Vert, four escallops in c ; Wen lagh was incumbent of Co wlam-upon- 

•■f eacfa being turned toward* the the Wold, and died, circa, I H5. He was 

i •>: John 'I'- Wenslagh, probably nephew, or some kinsman <>f tin 1 

with' •■ wi Hunt, r at W.'illiimi in l.'Cil. rrrtor of Wi-nsley, 

as another at ■ See note A. 


Bolton to the valuable and important rectory of Wensley. 6 
Bolton, the residence of the Scropes, was in the immediate 
vicinity of Wensley, and I am inclined to think that Sir Simon 
became now very closely connected with that distinguished 
family. Almost all the available legal knowledge of those 
times was centred in the ecclesiastics, and the lords of Bolton 
would gladly enrol among their clients one who, in addition 
to his own local influence, was so well qualified by his 
ability to advance their interests. We soon find Sir Simon 
again undertaking the trusteeship of the Walburn estates. 
On the 8th of June, 1361, Henry de Bellerby and Alice his 
wife put Simon parson of Wenslaw, John de Wawton, and 
others, in trust for the lordship of Walburn, and their estates 
in Bolton-on-Swale, Leeming, Scurveton (Jiodie Scruton) and 
Crakehall. The subsequent release is missing. Eight years 
afterwards, for the third time, we find the Rector of Wensley 
put in trust for the same estates. On the 21st of September, 
1368, Henry de Bellerby grants all his lands in Walburn, 
Bellerby, Bolton-on-Swale, Great Langton, Leeming and 
Exilby, together with the lordship of Walburn, to Simon, 
parson of Wenslaw, John de Huthwat, parson of Danby 
Wiske, and Philip de Fulford, chaplain. This trust was 
released by Wenslaw and his co-trustees to Bellerby shortly 
afterwards. We now lose sight of Sir Simon for a consider- 
able period. The next and the last time that he occurs is 
in the year 1386, when he appears at York as a witness on 
behalf of his patron lord Scrope, in the celebrated controversy 
with Sir Richard Grosvenor, who had usurped the ancient 
bearing of the Scropes, azure, a bend or. Sir Simon had now 
an excellent opportunity for repaying the kindness of his 
patron, and his statements are so singularly curious and 
important, that I shall give them at length. His testimony 
was evidently considered extremely valuable, and it occupies 
a prominent position among the depositions 7 which were then 
received. It runs as follows : — ■ 

" Sir Simon, parson of the church of Wynsselowe, of the 
age of sixty years and upwards, said, certainly that the arms 
azure, a bend or, appertained to Sir Richard Scrope, for that 

G Dr. Whitaker siys, that Sir Simon " I must refer my readers to the Scrope 

was presented to this living on the 29th and Grosvenor Roll, edited by Sir Harris 
of September, 1361. This date is incor- Nicolas, to which I am greatly indebted, 
rect, but I am unable to give the exact 
time of his appointment. 


they were in his church of Wynsselowe, 8 in certain glass 
windows of that church, of which Sir Richard was patron; 
and on the wesl gable window of the said church wore the 
entire arms of Sir Richard Scrope in a glass window, the 
setting up of which anus was beyond the memory of man. 
The said arms were also in divers other parts of the said 
church, and in his chancel in a glass window, and in the east 
gable also were the said arms placed amongst the arms of 
Lords, such as the King, the Karl of Northumberland, 
the Lord of Neville, the Karl of Warren. He also said that 
there was a tomh in his cemetery of Simon'-' Scrope, as 
might be seen by the inscription on the tomb, who was 
buried in the ancient fashion in a stone chest, with the 
inscription, Cy gist Simond le Scrope, without date. And 
after Simon Scrope lieth one Henry Scrope, son of the said 
Simon, in the same manner as his father, next the side of 
his father, in the same cemetery. And after him lieth 
William, son of the said Henry Scrope, who lieth in the 
manner aforesaid beneath the stone, and there is graven 
thereon, Ycy gist William Is Sa 'ope, without date, for the 

bad weathe^ wind, and BnOW, and rain, had BO defaced it, 
that no man could make out the remainder of the writing, 
so old and defaced was it. Several others of his lineage and 
name were buried there, one after the other, under Large 
square stones, which being so massive were sunk into the 
earth, so thai uo more of the stone than the summit of it 
could be Been ; and many other of their sons and daughters 
were buried under greal 9tones. Prom William came Henry 
Scrope, 1 knight, who Lieth in the U)beyofSt. Agatha, armed 
in the arm-, azure, a bend or, which Sir Henry was founder 
of the said abbey ; and Sir William 8 Scrope, elder brother of 
Sir Richard thai now is, lieth in the Bame abbey, 3 with the 
arms depicted, bul nol painted. The said Sir Simon placed 
before tin' Commissioners an alb with flaps, upon which were 
embroidered the arms of the Scropes entire, the making of 
which arms and the name of the donor were beyond the 

1 The ehnrch of Wenaley contain otne oi the monumenta in the cemetery which 

a morials ol the Scropes and Sir Simon mentions ere now observable 
i he only iroi ' See note It. 

r- in the window! in Dr. \sint ' See not C. 

wer< Hi" w "I Scrope sod • note I ' 

i he church m i con idi rably I i. 

ll' in \ \ 1 1. None 


memory of man. He added that the patronage of his church 
of Wynsselowe had always been vested in Sir Richard 
Scrope and his ancestors bearing the name of Scrope, beyond 
the memory of man ; and that the arms azure, a bend or, 
had always been reputed to belong to him and his ancestors, 
and he never heard to the contrary ; he had never heard 
that the arms had been challenged, or of Sir Richard 
Grosvenor, or any of his ancestors." 

After this deposition, we hear no more of Sir Simon. He 
was above sixty years of age in 1386, when he gave his 
evidence, and he probably died before the new century 
began. He is not mentioned in the will of his patron, lord 
Scrope, 4 which was made in the year 1400. That illustrious 
nobleman was a great benefactor to Wensley, and we can 
hardly suppose that he would have omitted the name of the 
aged rector, if he had been then alive. 



a. Walburn Hall, near Richmond in Yorkshire, was the ancient estate of 
the family of Bellerby. Margaret, daughter and heir of Henry de Bellerby, 
married Peter Greathead, whose daughter and heir carried the estate into 
the family of Sedgwick. The heiress of the Sedgwicks married into the 
house of Lascelles of Brackenbergh. The estate afterwards came by purchase 
into the family of Hutton, and it is at present in the possession of Timothy 
Hutton, Esq., of Marske Hall, who has carefully restored the building. 
The present hall was built during the reign of Elizabeth, but some of the 
walls and other traces of the ancient mansion of the Bellerbys are still 
remaining. There used to be some fine old panelling and stained glass in 
the hall, but it is no longer to be found. Walburn Hall was garrisoned for 
Charles I. during the great rebellion by some companies of the Richmond- 
shire train-bands, who were supplied with provisions by Matthew 
Hutton, Esq., of Marske. The little parish church of Downeholme con- 
tains no memorials of the owners of Walburn save a rude shield bearing the 
arms of Bellerby, or, a chevron gules, between 3 bells argent. 

B. Simon le Scrope of Flotmanby was of full age in 1205. He was 
living in 1225, and, on his death, was buried at Wensley. By Ingolian. his 
wife, he had Henry le Scrope, his son and heir, who was of full age in 1205. 
lie married Julian, daughter of Roger Bruue of Thornton, by whom he had 
a son, William le Scrope, who was interred at Wensley, near his father. 

C. Henry Scrope, Knight Banneret, Lord of Croft, co. Ebor, 27 Edw. I. 
Judge of the Common Pleas, 1308. Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 
1317. Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 1327. Chief Justice of the 

1 See note F. 


King's Bench, 1330. Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 1333. He died, 
Sept. 7, 133b, and was buried in the abbey of St. Agatha, where, as the 
Abbot trlls as, in his evidence in the Scrape and Grosvenor controversy, 
" Under the choir and higher up in a part of their church above the choir 
under raised Btones, and upon the stone, is the representation of a knight 
painted with the arms azure, a bind or, who was called in his life-time 
[enry Scrope, one of the founders of the Baid abbey." 
i'. Sir William Scrope was born in 1320. Ho Berved in the wars of 
Scotland and Brittany, and died. November 17, 1''! 1, of a wound received 
at Morlaix. lie was buried at Easby, " sculptured on a high tomb, armed, 
and the arms engraven on a shield represented upon him without colours." 

e. The beautiful abbey of St. Agatha, near Richmond, was supported, 
reat extent, by the piety and munificence of the Scropes. The abbot, 
; pears aa a witness in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy, after 
describing the tombs of the founder and his family, tells us, that there 
W( re many others of the family buried there, " under flat stones with their 
effigies sculptured thereon, and their shields represented with their arms, 
and mi one side of the shield a naked sword ; and their arms were through- 
out the church of St. Agatha in glass windows, on tablets before altars, on 
vestments, chambers, glass windows of chambers, in their refectory, and on 
a corporal case of silk, the making of which and the donor of it were 
beyond memory. He refers to the Chronicle of Bridlington as his authority 
for the Scropes using the arms, and says that the family was so ancient as 
to Burpass the memorj of man." A weather-beaten shield, with their well- 
known bearing, on the porch of the parish church, is now the only me- 
morial of the Scropee at Easby. Jt is extremely probable that the chapel 
of the Familj within the monastery will ere long he opened out by the owner 
of the estate. 

i. Richard, first Lord Scrope of Bolton, a most distinguished soldier and 

man, and one of the greatest men of his day. A full account of 

ploite ami services will be found in the Scrope and Grosvenor Roll ; 
to which must be appended bis interesting will, which has been given 
in the Testaments Bboracensia, Vol. I. p. cc, published by the Surtees 

In that document the testator leaves 402. to repair the bridge at 

Wen ley, and be bequeaths tin; remainder of his vast estate to his Alms 

liOU.-e- and ( lollege at \Yen-by. 



There is perhaps no object so completely identified with 
the idea of Cambridge in the mind of every member of this 
University, as the Church of Great St. Mary. Conspicuous 
from its situation in the very centre of the town, and from 
being by many degrees the largest and most stately of its parish 
churches, there is no other building which has for so long a 
period been so intimately connected with the public life of 
the University. It is within its walls, or those of the churches 
which occupied the same site, that the University has for 
centuries been accustomed to assemble in its corporate capa- 
city, to hear sermons, and perform all the more solemn reli- 
gious ceremonials ; and it was here that, until the erection of 
the Senate House, the Commencements were kept, the speeches 
recited, the theological disputations held, and much public 
business transacted which has now happily obtained a dis- 
tinct and more appropriate location. It seemed, therefore, 
only fitting that at the Cambridge Meeting of the Archaeolo- 
gical Institute some attempt should be made to illustrate the 
history of this, the oldest, and, in many points of view, the 
most interesting of our University buildings ; more especially 
at a time when the extensive alterations which have taken 
place in its immediate vicinity, render some large and well- 
considered work of renovation almost an object of necessity, 
and an opportunity is thereby presented of removing the 
awkward and unsightly excrescences by which this noble 
edifice has too long been deformed, and restoring to the inte- 
rior that air of space and grandeur which it originally pos- 
sessed, but which, in its present encumbered state, can hardly 
be appreciated. My purpose has not been so much to 
illustrate the architecture, as the history of the church, and 
to present a record of the more interesting events which have 
from time to time been transacted within it, and of those 

1 Communicated to the Architectural Section at the Meeting of the Institute in 
Cambridge, July C, 1854. 



successive alterations in its services, and furniture, which so 
accurately index the mutations in the national creed, and the 
varying tone of feeling of the governing body in the Church, 
and University. 

Tlir original foundation of St. Mary's is wrapt in the same 
irity with that of most of our parish churches. The first 
notice I have been able to discover of it, is of its being " much 
with fire," July !>, 1290. 2 This injury was attributed 
to the Jews, those scapegoats of the middle ages, who were 
in consequence commanded to leave the town, where they 
had a large synagogue. A considerable time seems to have 
elapsed before the damage was fully repaired, for, in 1315, 
Alan de Wellis, burgess of the town, bequeathed " a mark 
to the building of St. Mary's Church/' 3 From Bishop 
s Register we learn that orders for the consecration 
of the high altar were sent, May 17, 1346, but from some 
unknown cause the ceremony Beems not to have taken place 
till March L5, L351. About this time the advowson was 
given by I'M ward III. to his new foundation of Kind's 
Hall, from which it has descended to its present possessors, 
Trinity College. As the chief church of the town it is 
probable thai it was from the first the place where the 
University a-- mbled lor religious purposes, and that it thus 
gradually acquired the character of the University Church, 
Other churches, however, shared tlii< dignity with it. In the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, while > s t. Mary's was slowly 
advancing to completion, the University met in St. Benet's 
Church, or that of the Austin Friars, "which stood on die site 
of die ul d Botanical Garden. 4 The church of the Franciscans, 
which m 1 "ii Sidney Sussex fouling green, was also fre- 
quently used lor public exercises, and as late as 1507, the 
Commencemenl was held there. It is nol generally known 
thai ill 1. University narrowly missed obtaining, in tins last- 
named church, tli. -it which has for so Long a tune been desired 
Ij\- her possession of a church free from all parochial claims, 
which die mi-Ill regard ;i- exclusively her own, and use 
without question or dispute. This was at the Dissolution of 

- Fa]] 1 1 • 0,11,1,. p, 77 Bi a use of the parish bell. In the Unireraity 

account* «>■ find " \ i>. I 198, pro emenda- 
lione /• < impane Sci Benedict!, 

time the Univi Pro una oorda campane magui 

■ -■ Beneti Sci Benedicti iiij d ." The last payment 
1 annuaJlj fox th< for th< u i "t the lull w> mi 


Monasteries, when the University applied to Henry VIII. for 
a gift of the church which they had already found so suitable 
to their requirements ; but the monarch turned a deaf ear 
to their request, and gave the sacred edifice to Trinity College, 
(which he had recently founded by the amalgamation of 
several smaller halls and hostels,) whose members, actuated 
by a very different spirit from that which now distinguishes 
that noble foundation, immediately pulled it down, and 
employed the best of the materials in erecting their own 
buildings. 5 But, to return to the subject of the present paper : 
within two centuries of its repair after the fire, little more 
than one after the consecration of its Altar, it was found neces- 
sary, either from its ruinous condition, or from the church 
being inadequate in size and beauty to the requirements and 
taste of the University, to rebuild the whole, and the first 
stone of the present building was laid May 16, 1478, "at forty- 
five minutes past six p.m." 6 " All church w r ork," says Fuller, 
" is slow ; the mention of St. Mary's mindeth me of church 
work indeed, so long was it from the founding to the finishing 
thereof." And well might he say so ; for, as he further 
records, notwithstanding the great exertions made by the 
University to obtain contributions to the building, and the 
liberal sums voted by them from their own chest, forty-one 
years elapsed before the fabric of the church was finished, and 
a hundred and thirty before the top stone of the tower was 
laid, and the edifice completed. The same historian informs 
us that "there was expended in the structure of the church 
alone, 7951. 2s. Id., all bestowed by charitable people for that 
purpose." 7 The largest benefactor w r as Dr. Thomas Barrow, 
Archdeacon of Colchester, Fellow of King's Hall, and Chan- 
cellor of the House to Richard III., who gave no less than 
240/. ; nearly one-third of the entire sum ; the next largest 
sum, 70/., was contributed by Bishop Alcock of Ely. King 
Henry VII. also, when visiting his mother's recent foundation 
of Christ's College, was persuaded to assist in the work, giving 
100 marks (661. 13s. id.) in money, " a fair sum in that age," 
says Fuller, "for so thrifty a prince," besides an hundred 
oaks towards the framing of the roof, which was set up in 
1506. 8 The Lady Margaret herself gave 20/. Of the sums 
given by and through the University between the years 1 1 78 

5 Essex. MSS. A'lilit. Brit, Mus. Acker- s In commemoration of his munificence 
man, Mia osm of Cambridge, ii. 261. a yearly obit waa kept by the University 

6 Caii Hist. Acad. p. 89. for which a pall of great splendour was 
" Hist. Univ. Camb. p. ISO. provided. 


and 1519, a record exists among App. Parker's MSS. in the 
library of C.C.C. 9 The whole amount is 555/. 2*. Id. The 
Bums are very small for the first nine years, when they sud- 
denly rise to upwards of 9(>/., and nearly 60/. in the year 
following (1488). After this the contributions sink again, 
till 1503, in which, and the six ensuing years, nearly three 
hundred pounds were supplied by the University. Thesmall- 
ness of the collections for so many years was not the conse- 
quence of any want of zeal on the part of the University, 
who, in 141*3, went so far as to send out the Proctors on hired 
horses, to collect for the Church, with begging letters written 
by the Vicar of Trumpington, who received 6s. &d. for his 
trouble. Their journey, however, which lasted three weeks, 
proved a sad failure, for the whole sum furnished by the 
University this year, from every source, amounted to no more 
than 5/. 2s. 2\d. ; and w T e are not surprised that the experi- 
ment does not appear to have been repeated. 1 The general 
superintendence of the building seems to have been com- 
mitted to the parish, who appear to have been the willing 
recipients of the bounty of others, while they contributed 
little or nothing themselves towards the work, which was 
creeping on in the midst of many difficulties and discourage- 
ments, and was at last completed in L519, with the exception 
of the tower, for which it had to wait nearly another century. 
As the body of the church drew to a conclusion, we find 
notices of the glazing of the windows. Henry Vese} r , apo- 
thecary, by his will dated April 15. 1503, orders that "imme- 
diately after the south yle is new made mye executors do 
glase one of the windows with the lyfof S. Edward the King 
and Confe8SOr. w In 1518 the parish books contain "pro 
l'aliro vitriario pro fenestris \i ," and the nexl year,"1519, 
paid to James Nycolson, the glasier, for windows in Seynt 
Mary's, vii. lib." Nicholson wasoneofthe glaziers employed 
in the executing the windows of King's College Chapel, from 
the gorgeous tints of winch we may form some idea of what 
we have losl in the total destruction of the glass winch once 

■ Printed in Dr. Lamb' u Documents," rigintidiebus \x\" 
p. 7. See Baker MSS The vicar of Trumpington oftbaf day 

Proctor*! Account*, 1498. "Winn seems from the University a tuntstohave 

they went with letters for S. Maries pro !»•'■" generally employed i" write letters 

senptione literarum Vicario de Tram- f'<>r lii^ learned neighbours, eg., " L499. 

, vC. mij 1 ." Trampiton pro Uteris ad mat 

"Exp pro itinera Procura- rem regis delatis w 1 ." "pro scriptione 

toram ram Uteris pro fabrica, ESeel B, aliaram >j ' " u 1500, pro scriptione trinm 

tribni equis la Itinare pro literarum 16 d ." 


adorned St. Mary's. The building of King's College Chapel 
was being carried on at the same time with St. Mary's, and it 
is seen by the entries in the churchwarden's books that the 
same workmen were employed on the fabric of each edifice, 
as well as on their windows. 

The church being now completed, very nearly in the form 
in which we at present see it, with the exception of the 
tower, which was not finished for nearly a century, steps 
were taken to provide it with the furniture required by the 
existing ritual. Nothing was then considered more essential 
to the completeness of a church than a gorgeous Rood Loft. 2 
Parishes vied with one another in the rich and elaborate 
character of the structures which had by degrees usurped 
the place of the primitive cancelli, and though few have been 
allowed to survive the iconoclastic zeal of the Reformation, 
or the ignorance of later (so-called) church restorers and beau- 
tifiers, those that remain enable us to appreciate the taste and 
skill which were employed in their erection, and the lavish 
expenditure which they must have involved. No doubt 
every effort was made to furnish the University Church in this 
respect with the utmost splendour ; and the original inden- 
ture for its erection, which has been fortunately preserved to 
us, proves that St. Mary's Rood Loft was one of no common 
magnificence. This document is as follows : 3 — 

" Thys Indenture made y e last day of June in the xij yere of y e reign 
of our soueraigne lord Kyng Henry viij, bytwen Petir Cheke 4 gentilman 
and Rob 1, Smith, wex-chaundeler chirche wardyns and kepers of y e goods 
and catells of y e s d p'ishe chirche of Seyn* Marye next the Markett of Cam- 
brigge, M r - W m - Butt Doctor of physike, M r - Henry Hallched, Richard 
Clerk, Rob 1, Hobbys &c. with other raor parochianers of y e s d parisshe un 
that oon parte, And John Nunn of Drynkeston and Roger Belle of Ashfild 
in y e countie of Suffolk, kervers, on that other parte, Wittnessyth that the 
s d John Nune and Roger Belle covenaunt and graunte and also bynden 
them, ther heyres, and executors by theise presents, that they schall make 
and cause to be made a new Roodde lofte mete and convenyent for j e s d 
Chirche of Seyn 4 Marye stretchynge in lengthe throughoute the same chirche, 

2 There was among the Church furni- 4 This was probably the father of the 

ture in 1506, " A clothe for the rood-lofte famous Sir John Cheke, immortalised by 

Bteyned with Moses." Milton (Sonnet xi) as the reviver of the 

8 This indenture was found by the late study of Greek in the University, and 

industrious Mr. Bowtell in the parish chest, tutor of king Edward V. 

tied up with others and labelled '• these He was one of the esquire bedells of 

deeds appear to be useless." Happily the University, and died 1 5"29, bequeath- 

he took a transcript of it, which is to be iug "his soil to Almyty God, and to our 

found in his MSS. in Downing College. On Lady St. Mary, and to all th' hole com. 

searching the chest, the original cannot pany of heven, and hys body to be buried 

now be found. in St. Mary Chyrche before Sent Poll." 


and the lies tlierof, correspondent to B dure made in a walle un y c Soutlio 
of v s J Chirche. all y 8 Howsyngs, Crests, Voults, Orbs, Lyntells, 
Vorcers, Crownes, Archebotyns, and Bacs' for y small Bowsyngs and all y c 
, fynyalls, and gabeletts therof, schall be of good Substancyall and 
hable wavnescote : And all y l pryncypal] BaCS and Crownes for y e great how- 
Byngs therof and v Archebotyns therunto belongyng, schal be of good and 
hable oke withoute sappe, ri 1 1 c, wyndestrukk, or other deformatiff hurtefull. 

•■ And v briste of y e Beyd new Roodde Lofte schal be after and accordyng 
iriste of y e Roodelofte within y e p'isshe Chirche of Tripplow in all 
maner honsyngs, fynyalls, gabeletts, formes, fygures, and rankcnesse of 
Werke as good or better in ev"ry poynte. 

" And \ ■'' briste of y e sayde new Roodelofte schal be in depnesse viij foots, 
and v soler 6 therof schal ho in bredith viij foots with surhe yomags 7 &b Bchal 
be advysed and appoynted by y* parochyners of y c said p'isshe of Seynt 
Maryes And the Trenitie, after y c Roodelofte of y e perclose of y c qnyer with 
a double dore, y percloses of y c ij chappells eyther of y m with a Bingledore. 
The bakkesyde of y 1 ' Bayd Roodelofte to be also lyke to y e bakkesyde of y e 
Roodelofte of Gassely or bettor, wyth a 8 poulpete into the niydds of y e 
quyer. And all and ev'ry of these premysses schal be after and accordyng 

to the Trenitie, the Vonltc, the dores, y c percloses and y works 

of v R lelofte of y e Chirche of Gassely in y e countye of Suffolke, as good 

or better in ev'ry poynte, and to agree and accord for ye'' of y e 

Bayde Cbirche of Seynt dfary after y° best workmanBchippe and proporcon 

in eu'ry poynte. And all y e Tymber of the same Roodelofte schal ho lull 

med tymher. And all y e Yomags therof schal be of good pyketurs, 

-.and 'Vicenamyes without Ryfts, Crakks, or other deformatyvys. 

The pillours therof schal be of full seisoned oke. 

" The honsyngs, entayles, lyntells, fynyalls, and gabeletts, schal bo 
Waynschott, And also schal set up a Berne whempon y c Roode schall Btonde 
lyke unto y c Berne within y c sayde Roode of Gassely as good or hotter as 
1 heme of Gassely, met and convenyeni for y 1 -aid Chirche of Seynt 
Marye. And also schall make a Candyllbeme mete and convenyeni for 
our Ladye Chappell within y° aayd Chirche of Seynt Mary. All theise 
premysses after and accordyng to the best werkmanschipp and proporcon as 
good a- the patrons afore rehersed he, or hotter in eu'ry poynte. to be 
babied and juged in fcyme convenyeni after y' be made and BfynisBhed by 

• Professor Willis, u Architectural No- pinnacles, and the ornamented canopies 

menclature of the Middle Agi of the niches, the former word never 

•■mii- as "the elementary partaof being applied in the middle ogee, in us 

tabernacle and canopy work of the rich I present restricted sense, t" the bnnch of 

ur m thai which crowna foliage at the top of a pinnacle or canopy, 

tin- monuments, stalls, and altars "f iliis which now usurps the name. 

. ■ // | .;i led also The Boor <>i the Loft or gallery con- 

.-in- 1 I. ad i"r tab< rnacli i or tuning the Rood, 

nichi 1 b kttlementa, ; [ma 

or other ornamental finishing ; net- Pulpit, 

I for blank panelling; ' [n the copy of this Indenture in Bow- 

for the upper portion "f windows; tail's MS-., this blank is filled up with the 

word Rume,markod however as doubtful : 1 

• li. % i'ii- . are, probably, am unable to guess what the true res 

nl in - ■-. oh canopies ; on A- ' " 1 

ii Hying buttn as ; bact for the "Whena the paine of death he tasted had 
in, a 1 m \\ ■ i . . . -ii Aii'l but ball scene ln-^ <> [ly in nomte.' 

in ii.- mal • r niches ; Queen, V. iv. 11. 

while, lastly, 1 1 ■ * ai i the 


two indifferent persones, wherof oon 9chal be chose by y e foresaide chirche- 
wardens and paroehianers of Seynt Mary p'isshe : tliodir by y c sayde Jobn 
Nunn and Roger Bell. And y e saide John Nunne and R. Bell covenaunt 
and graunte by these presents that they schall clerly and holly ffynysshe all 
and eu'ry of y e sayde premysses accordyng as ys afore rehersed, byfore y e 
ffest of pentycost, whiche Bchal be in y c yere of our lord god in 1 D c .\.\ij. 
For whyche premysses so to be accomplysshed and don, the sayde Chirche- 
wardens and paroehianers afore-named by th' assent and consent of all y e 
paroehianers of y e said parisshe, covenaunt, and graunte, and also bynde 
them, and ther Executors, by these presents, to pay therfore and cause to 
be payed unto the sayde J. Nunne and Roger to ther Executurs and 
assigneB lxxxxj 1 iij 8 - viij d - sterling, wherof y e saide J. Nunne and Roger 
knowlegge thcmselffs well and truly to be content and payed and therof 
dothe utterly acquyt and discharge y e saide Chirchewardens and parochyaners 
ther Executors and Assignes by theise presents. 

"And xl. sterling resydue of y c say cd suiume schal be payed unto y e 
sayde J. Nunne and Roger to their hers Executors and Assignes, in maner 
and forme folowyng ; That y s to Wytte atte y e fest of y c Natyvyte of Seynt 
John Baptist nextcoumyng, after y c date herof, xx 1 - sterling, And atte suche 
tyme as the sayde J. Nunne and Roger have clerly and holly fynysshed all 
y e premysses other xx 1 - sterling in full payment and contentacon of thefore- 
sa yd sume of Lxxxxij 1- iij 8 - viiij d ' To y e which couenaunt payments graunts 
and articles aforesaid and eury of them or eyther parte of the foresaid 
partyes well and truly to be obserued performed and kept, eyther of ye sayde 
parties bynde them to tliodir ther hers and Executors in y e sume of an c L 
sterling by these presents. 

" Into Witnesse wherof y e parties aforesayde to theise Indenturs Inter- 
changably haue putte ther Sealls. Goven the day and yer abovesaid. 

" per me ROGERUM BELLE, 
"per me JOHN N~UNE." 

The works of the Rood Loft seem to have been continued 
during part of three years, and to have been brought to a 
conclusion in 1523, when the images of the Blessed Virgin 
and St. John on either side of the Rood were dedicated. 2 
Further decorative works, however, were carried on for some 
years longer, and in 1525 we find it noted in the parish 
books that the executors " of Mr. John Erliche owe for a 
Legace by hym made to the said chirche over and by sides, 60s. 
already paid, for the guylding of the Triniti in the Rode Loft." 

In 1519, the body of the church was seated by general 
subscription ; 71. 17s. 5d. was raised, and 30s. was paid to 
William "Why to " for the full contentacyon of the paryssche 
parte of the payment." A few years later a very early 
instance of the practice of letting seats is met with in the 

- Parish Books. u It. for holowyng ofy c Ymagcs c e of Mari and Jhon viij d ." 


parish books — "rec d of the Materasse maker in the Petycuri 
for the Lncumbe of a seate xvij d ." In 153S, the side chapel 
was erected and seats made in it ".•it ye charge of xx.wiip 
iiiij'." and two new seats were made in the body of the 
church, for the "bord and tymber" of which 13s. Ad. was 
paid. One of these was a permanent erection, being 
•• under pinned with stone and mortar." The heads of houses 
and University officers were probably seated at this time, 
as they certainly were subsequently till the erection of the 
Doctors' gallery, in the middle of the last century, in stalls 
on cither side of the Chancel. Here too the representatives 
of the monastic orders of Cambridge had their place, when 
mon adclerum, or any other special occasion drew them 
from their own churches. 3 

The tower, though of no great height (131 feet), nor 
boasting of any remarkable beauty or stateliness, was the 
work of nearly a century. It was carried on with spiritless, 
halting progress j tin- necessary funds being raised with the 
utmosl difficulty, in spite of the most persevering endea- 
vours en the pari of the University and Town to free them- 
selves from tin' disgrace of having begun to build and ii"t 
being able to finish. Subscriptions were entered into in the 
colleges, collections were made from year to year at the 
Commencements, legacies were hunted after, and in some 
obtained, and letters couched in terms of the most 
humble supplication were despatched to various rich and 
noble members of the University : but the sums that were 
derived from every source were far from commensurate with 
the plans and expectations of the promoters of the work, 
and when al length, in 1608, it was declared finished, and 
the topmosl stone was laid by Robert Grumbold, the master 
workman, it was only by a kind of compromise, as ii was 
still destitute of the spire, with which we learn from docu- 
i f , ■ ntary evidence it bad been intended to crown the whole. 

Bi lore the building of the tower/ the bells were in a tern 
porary bell lodge in the churchyard, which, the parish books 
inform us, was, in 1505, taken down, the materials sold, and 

p ]:. ■ i,. [fi08. "When there in -h It toij pieces ol tymber for the bang, 

n if! cl< ram, the whyte ehanons in ing ol the bells, iiij*' vij ,L 

onthi outh and the monkeys It to the smith in the peticurj For the 

in ti j ..n the Dortb syde." Iron woi ke oi the b< 11 c. ij*. 

• c. ii. 1505 •■ it to s mason to make It for 400 ol legg forth itepelL" 

to I • ■■' i i liJJ*. 


the bells hung in wheat was by courtesy called "the steeple,"'' 
though it had not quite reached the elevation of the church, 
and was covered with a roof of sedge. The parish books 
show that the work was slowly going on from this date, and 
was, in 1536, sufficiently advanced for the great west window, 
a truly noble specimen of perpendicular architecture, to 
be glazed. The entry in the following year, " payd to two 
men for half a day werk to bord y° stepill to keep oute byrds 
vjfl?.," proves how incomplete the tower still was, in which 
state it remained till 1544, when fourpence was paid to one 
" Father Rotheram for vewing the steeple." The result of 
this survey appears in the entries of the following year, when 
stone and slate were brought in considerable quantities from 
the now dissolved monasteries, 6 and several additional feet of 
height were added. The west portal of cinquecento design, 
which, though possessing no beauty, and out of keeping with the 
architecture around it, has, not unregretted, lately given place 
to a beautiful design of Mr. Scott's, was completed Jan. 20, 
1576. Lady Burghley and others contributed money to it, 
and Sir W. Mildmay, the founder of Emmanuel College, 
twenty tons of freestone. It cost 113/. 4s. 2c/.: 7 an enormous 
sum considering the altered value of money. The clock 
which surmounts it was the gift of Mr. John Hatcher. 
It cost him 33/. 6s. Sd., and in 1584 he bequeathed a sum of 
40-9. annually to keep it in repair. This same benefactor, in 
1576, caused " a newe dore to be made on the south side of 
S. Marie's church into the hier chappie." 

Dr.Perne, Master of Peter House, the Vicar of Bray of Cam- 
bridge, from whose convenient changes of opinion in confor- 
mity with those of the governing body in church and state, 
the wits of the day coined a new verb, pemare s — was at this 
time the most active promoter of the completion of St. Mary's 
tower. It was under his superintendence that the western 
portal was erected, and either by him, or at his instance, 
letters were written to Whitgift, then Bishop of Worcester, 

5 "1517. For takyn down of the segge " It. of W", Meere for ye stone at ye 

and tymbre of the stepyll xvj d . Black Friers xl s . 

1518. For timber for the stepyll, xiiij fur caryage of 20 lodes of slate 

fotte. from the late Austen Fryars iij" iv' 1 . 

1529. To iij laborers for h uieing for 4 pecys of great tymber con- 

keepe hearing up stonys to the steple teyning 64 feet, x* viij '. 

either of them v dayes workc v 8 ." for two lodes of lyme from the late 

1532. For makyn of studdys to hold up White Fryers iv 1 . ? Baker's MSS. xxiv. 

ihe steeple roofcxiij d . s Fuller's Hist. Univ. Camb. p. 258. 

VOL. XTI. 1, L 


Scambler, Bishop of Peterboro', Bentham, Bisliop of Lichfield, 
to Serjeant Bendlows, and others. Betting forth the poverty 
of the University, and earnestly petitioning for liberal bene- 
factions. These Letters, copied by Cole from the Public 
Orator's Book,'-' are curious examples of begging letters two 
centuries ago. Writing to the Bishop of Peterborough, he 
laments that the tower " nunc humo serpit, atque in obscuro 
delitescit, unde nee ipsavideri, neque campanae in ea collocates 
pulsari, neduin audiri possint/' and begs that he will con- 
tribute to the raising of it at least to a suilicient heiirht for 
the ringing of the bells. To Serjeant Bendlows lie speaks of 
the wish of the University to raise the steeple above the 
roof, which "in summa aerarii nostri paupertate nunquam 
aggredi sumus ausi." At his death, Dr. Perne bequeathed 10/. 
towards the work, which was then approaching completion. 
We have already referred to documentary evidence of a 
apa for completing the tower with a spire. The following 
is the record alluded to ; it is from the Cottonian Collection 
( Faustina, c. iii.) : — 

" The square tower of St. Maries to be bulded 24 foote higher: the 
Spire or Broclie wil be SO foote hie at the leaste good Btone (free Btoue or 
asheler) at Thorney Abbey, 1 belonging to Sir William Russell Knight — 
water Berveth very well to bring it hither from thence, in winter time whiles 
the waters be Lie ; newe Stone, from a j»laee called Kind's Clitic belonging 
tn Sir Walter Mildmaye, by water from Gooneworth ferric, 5 miles from 
the auarie the parishioners to make a Here for the hells —to new east tin* 
Bermon bell — to have a chime to go on those five hells everie fourth hower 
and to have tlic greate Bell Ronge to the Sermon." 

To this design the following entry in the parish honks 
probably refers — 

" 1592. It. to a paynter for drawing of a platforme of S. Maries 

Steple upon velam parchment for mj Lorde Axchbysshop of 

( aunterburie. .\ \ i ij' " 

It wi- fated, however, thai there Bhould be no rivalry in 
this respect between the two Universities, and thetowerwas 
continued on the present plan, which, though not devoid of 
dignity, is a striking contrasl to the exquisite grace and 
beauty of the steeple of St. Mary's, Oxford. 

In L 593, the parish, wearied out with perpetual delays, 

.-mil ashamed of the still unfinished condition ot theirchurch, 

the matter into their own hands, and "agreed to finish 

I.. • i ,,i th&nki i Pari h Bool ,1*94. " I or , Tonne of 

to the work are round, I r< . lone which came from Thornej 
100. • '" Martindall of Thorm \, for 2(1 Ton.* 1 


the building of the steeple ;" which, in three years, by the 
aid of legacies and collections,- 2 they were enabled to effect, 
so far that the bells, which had been hung in 1595, were, in 
15.9G, "all range oute, and never afore." Tabor, who was 
Esquire Bedell at this time, relates that — 

"The steeple, which was not finished when I came to Cambridge, but was 
covered with Thacke, and then Mr. Pooley Apothecary first, and after him 
John Warren undertoohe the worke, and had collections in the several 
Colledges. I well remember in Bennett Coll., where I was first Pentioner, 
as Pentioners we all gave at the first collection 2s. a peece, Fellows 10s. a 
peece, and Schollers of the house IScl. a peece, Fellow Commoners 5s. a 
peece, or more as their Tutors thought fitting. And so a second collection 
when that would not serve : and these two contributions, with money 
usually gathered of strangers at Commencements, could not be lesse than 
about £800 or £1000." 

Twelve years later, 1608, the tower was finally completed, 
an event which was unhappily signalised by the death of 
John Warren, the superintendent and active promoter of the 
work. A melancholy occurrence, commemorated by the fol- 
lowing curious epitaph within the church : — 

A speaking stone 
Reason may chaunce to blame ; 

But did it knowe 
Those ashes here doe lie 

Which brought the Stones 
That hid the Steeple's shame, 

It would affirm 
There were no Reason why, 

Stones should not speake 
Before theyr Builder die. 

For here John Warren 
Sleeps among the dead, 

Who with the Church 
His own Life finished. 
Anno Domini 1G08. Dec. 17. 

The master workman, at the time of the completion of the 
tower, was Robert Grumbold. He was the builder of the 
river front of Clare Hall, the parapet of which is decorated 
with stone balls, similar to those which, till within the last 
few years, surmounted the turrets of St. Mary's. Their 
removal was an act of very questionable propriety, for, like 
the western portal, though far from beautiful in themselves, 
they were interesting as records of the taste of the period, 
and as the last link in the long chain of architectural evidence 
connecting the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries, afforded 
by this building. 

[To be continued.') 

3 Mrs. Magdalen Purvey, of Lincoln- 1792. 12s. 7A; that expended, 2191. ', 

shire, bequeathed 1°3Z. 6&. !!</. The whole We can not learn whether the difference 
sum received by Mr. John Tooley was was made up to him. 



DURING a visit to Sweden in 1849, impressions of sonic 
seals preserved at Wisby, a seaport town, capital of the island 
ofGottland in the Baltic, were obtained by me and brought to 
England. At a subsequent time, these seals being con- 
Bidered as possessing more than ordinary interest, I procured a 
more perfect set of impressions through the kindness of 
G. J. R. Gordon, Esq., H.B.M. Secretary of Legation at 
Stockholm, and Herre Eneqvist, the Rev. Dean of Endre, 
Custos of the Museum formed in the Gymnasium at Wisby. 
The seals described in the following notices arc seven in 
number, six of large dimensions, and one of much smaller 
size. Representations of the entire series are here given of 
the same size as the originals. 1 

No. 1 . The seal of the Germans in Wisby of the guild of St. Canute. 
A round seal 2\ inches in diameter, and cut in very deep intaglio. Within 
a border is this inscription in Lombardic letters : 


Sigillum Teuthonicorum in Wisbi de Gnilda Sancti Kanuti. The Inner 
margin of the area of the seal is elegantly cusped, each cusp terminating 
in a fleur-de-lys. The device is a st sated figure of a king, 2 inches long, 
which undoubtedly represents Saint Canute, although do nimbus appears 
around hU head. 1 In the right band be holds a sceptre tipped with a 
fleur-de-lys, with the left hand he holds an orb surmounted by a cross, 
He i- eated on a throne or faldistoriutn, of which the sides or arms 

1 [t must be observed that of the large had made predatory incursions into Eng- 

i last of the set of impressions landfoi , Canute, a tfSweynel. 

i hi by Herre Eneqvisl are numbered 'i Kins oi Denmark, finally subdned the 

and 7, whilst No. 5 is omitted) as also in whole country in a.o. 1013. Boon after- 

terac ipanying th< seals. I have wards Canute succeeded his father as King 

been unable to ascertain whether this is of D larkand England, and in 1028 of 

to some ovei ight, or whether ties Norway also, and was esteemed one ol tl>" 

to .1 eal ofthisserii ■ braves! snd mosl powerful warriors of 

l h'lun ' at lost or now inacci i thai age. In the latter pari <>i lii.s life, be 

Imili churches snd monai b riei . and made 

iming that Saint Canute was & a pilgr to R ■: for which piety, 

: : ■ npj i closely con after his death in 1036, he waa canonii i d 

. with England after the Danes by the church of Rome, 


terminate in two lions' heads, as if two demi-lions were conjoined to form 
the throne, and each holds in the mouth a sprig of oak leaves. A cloth 

embroidered or quilted in lozenges with a centre spot, covers the animal?, 
the two fore-paws of each lion forming the support. 

The date of this interesting seal may probably be the beginning of the 
Xlllth century. 

The inscription upon it tells as much as is known of what its use was, 
and who possessed it ; all that can be said about the employment of it is 
this. — That being the seal of the guild or corporation of German 
merchants dwelling at Wisby, it was used in sealing the charters, treaties, 
«fcc, which this guild had to make, either as members of that great 
mercantile confederacy, the Hanseatic league, in their general commerce, 
or perhaps in sharing in the municipal concerns of Wisby. 

How the Germans were interested in Wisby will be alluded to presently 
in noticing another seal of the series, and the history of their connection with 
that town will be sketched briefly. 

No. 2. The seal of the brothers of the convivium of Saint Lawrence. 
A pointed oval seal, 3| inches long by 2f broad, not cut in such deep relief 
as No. 1, and of inferior workmanship. It bears this inscription : 

+S':FRATRVM:Da : a oiivivio: sairunrRanan 

Sigillum Fratrum de Convivio Sancti Laurencii. Within the border is an 
upright full-faced figure representing St. Lawrence. The Saint has a 
nimbus round his head, which is clean shaven, except the ordinary tonsure. 
He is dressed in the deacon's dalmatic over an alb, and at the neck is the 
usual embroidered amice. His right arm holds up the gridiron, emblem 
and instrument of his martyrdom ; the left band holds a closed book. 

This seal is also of the Xlllth century, though perhaps later than 
No. 1. 

The inscription appears to confirm the idea suggested by the shape 


usually employed For ecclesiastical Beals, that this is not a secular seal, 

bot was used by the brothers of the Convent of ;5t. Lawrence, it" the term 

"/// may he assumed to denote some kind of conventual esta- 

N'i. 3. The eal of the brother! 1 of Saint Nicholas in Gottland. A 

seal -' inches in diameter, cut in bold relief, ami of good, hut careless 
workmanship. It bears thi in cription : 

Sigillum confraternitatis Sancti Nicholaj in Gotlandia. Within the horder 
i- 1 1 , » - full-faced figure of a Beated bishop. Round the head is an oval 
nimbus ; I pointed mitre, ami bis faoe is cleanshaven ; be wears 

an alb having an embroidered apparel at tin- feet. Over tin' alb 

he wean a chasuble, over it i- laid tin 1 orphrey in the shaj f a pall ; 

and round bis broad neck i- tli" amioe embroidered «iih trefoils ; tin- righl 
hand is held up with the firsl two lingers extended, tin 1 usual gesture of 
benediction: in tin' lefl In- holda a pa toral stall". 

I In' [( .' I tool or bench having no I. ark, ami in the place of 

• b< d . i' embling the head of a fawn or kid, facing inwards ; 

• '■nis to he a solid erection of m lonry, hollowed at the sides by 

!<• cut in : all ili«' blank oi 1 1 eal ia marked by a diaper of 

to form lozengi . bul irregularly. Though at first sight ii 

t be ( ■ ■ • tb cal eal, from the reprei entation of 


a bishop on it, yet, the shape being round, the inference that may be 
drawn is that this is a secular seal ; and that the " confraternitas," or 
brotherhood, was not a religious body like a conventual establishment of 
monks, but a society whose members lived not only in Wisby, but were 

scattered, as the inscription shows, " in Gotlandia," that is, throughout the 
whole island of Gottland. What this society of St. Nicholas actually was, 
there is nothing left to show ; it might be merely a guild of merchants, or 
a mixed general institution like the modern free-masons. We can only 
conclude that it was a secular body which took the figure of Bishop Nicholas 
as the emblem for their seal, and called their society by his name. 

The date of this seal is probably of the early part of the XlVth century. 

No. 4. The seal of the Germans frequenting Gottland. — A round seal, 
2^ inches in diameter. (See cut, next page.) It bears this inscription : 


SigillumTheuthonicorumGutlandiam frequentantium. The whole of the circle 
within is taken up by three stems springing from twisted roots ; the centre 
stem bears at the top a fleur-de-lys. 3 This seal is unquestionably secular, 
its date seems to be the end of the Xlllth century, and it was used, as the 
inscription shows, by the Germans frequenting Gottland. Whether these 
" frequenters " were a resident corporate guild, or whether they were 
travelling merchants, can now only be imagined ; this seems to have been 
the official seal of a recognised body, whether of a corporate guild or not, 
and it must be concluded that this enriched form of the fleur-de-lys, whether 

3 On the Secretum of Stephen de Lis, haps the fleur-de-lys of these Germans 
Prior of Lewis, is the figure of a lily, frequenting Gottland was emblematical of 
plainly the emblem of his name. Per- tlieir trade, office, or character (!) 



considered as a merchant's mark or not, was as valid an emblem for sealing 
as the figure of a saint or king. 

No. 5. The seal of the Convivse of St. James of Wisby. A pointed 
oval seal 2j inches long by 2 inches wide. It bears the inscription : 

+s\- aonvrvjLR'*: sar.EuaoBi d<i visby 

Ri prill nm Convivarum Sancti Jacobi de Visby. It will be observed that the 

fir t letter of the word de is capriciou ly formed bo as to have the appear- 
ance of an K. Within ia the standing figure of St. .lames ; his bead is ou1 


of all proportion, being too large for the rest of the body, while the lower 
parts are also far too small, except the feet ; the head appears to be 
tonsured, with the hair long and flowing behind the ears, which are thus 
placed unduly forward ; the mouth is open, and surrounded by moustache 
and beard ; the dress is a gaberdine, or simple frock, and round his broad 
neck hangs a cord supporting a bag or palmer's scrip, on which is a large 
escallop shell ; with the right hand he holds a staff ornamented with a 
knob at the top, and with a ferule and a point at the bottom ; in the 
left hand he holds a closed book. The imperfections of this seal, 
together with the character of the letters, combine to give rather an 
earlier date to it, it may be of the early part of the XHIth century. 

Possibly these Convivas were only members of a Guild ; but the pointed- 
oval, or ecclesiastical shape of this seal, together with the cross placed at 
the beginning of the inscription, and the emblem of the saint, tend some- 
what to suggest that the society for whom it was made were Coenobites, or 
monastics. By this light, therefore, thrown upon the meaning of the word 
" convivarum," these "eonvivse" may have been persons of some 
ecclesiastical character, who lived together under a common roof, and were 
bound by certain rules and habits. Yet, since from the name they do not 
seem to have been either nominally monks or friars, or bound by any strict 
rule of fraternity, possibly they were guests who lived together, wan- 
dering ecclesiastics. The idea conveyed by the pilgrim's dress of St. 
James leads further to the notion that they also had adopted the palmer's 
garb : and since few in those days were accustomed to assume that mark of 
distinction without having first made the pilgrimage to the Holy Land, 
it is not impossible that these Convivae, who lived in times so connected 
with the Crusades, were really palmers, who had returned from their wan- 
derings, and lived as a corporate body in Wisby. 

No. 6.— The seal of the Mayor of the Guild of All Saints in Wisby. 
A round seal, 3 inches in diameter, and by no means less interesting than 
those previously described, on account of its late and somewhat richer 
style of workmanship. It is cut in deep relief, every portion of the surface 
being employed, unlike those preceding, in which the spaces between the 
border and the figure are blank ; and it conveys the notion of resemblance 
to a Flemish brass, in which country indeed it may have been executed. 
Within the border is this inscription, 


Sigillum majoris gildse omnium sanctorum in Wisby. The principal object is a 
sitting figure. A round nimbus marked with the cross commonly given to re- 
presentations of Christ, points out at once that this figure is Jesus, and helps 
to explain the subject of the seal as representing the Saviour sitting in heaven 
receiving the saints with a blessing, and being attended by angels. The 
face is oval and thin, compared with the broad full faces of St. Laurence 
and St. James. The hair is long, and hangs in curls on the shoulders. 
The right hand is held up, with the first two fingers extended in the atti- 
tude of blessing; the other is held lower, with all fingers spread out. The 
seat is very small. On each side of the Saviour are three kneeling figures 
in long robes, with the hands uplifted in the attitude of supplication. There 
is no distinction indicating sex, all have bare faces, long hair twisted 
round the ear, according to the fashiou of the XlVth century, and in 

VOL. XII. il M 


i and shape, the garment is the Bame for all ; two figures of the six 
have a broad hand of embroidery round their dross, and another has the 

whole dress spotted with a quatre-foil or flower. Above the Saviour's 
hands there is an angel swinging a censer on each side. 

Thus this seal is superior in elaborate deeoratioii to the preceding ; the 
general characteristics of the workmanship seem to indicate it to he of a 
later date, probably made in the first quarter of the XlVth century. 

Notwithstanding the holy character of the emblem, the inscription and 
circular shape Beem sufficiently to Bhow that this is a .-ocular seal, used by 
the Mayor of the Guild, or, as the inscription has 1 > v Borne been explained, 
by th( Gr< .''■ r Guild, of All Saints in VVisby. 

if the order of 
receding, hut its 
tally interesting. 

No 7. The seal of brother Gerard of Gottland, 
preachers. This Beal is verj much smaller than the 
1 nd subsequent wanderings have made it i 

i pointed oval, 1 | inch long, and j of an inch wide, of somewhat 
stiff design and workmanship. Around the edge is this inscription: 


Sigtllum fratris Gerarardi de Gotlandia ordinis predicatorum. Within is a 
crowned female standing, holding b child, and a tnonli is kneeling, praying 
to them. There can be no doubt thai this group represents brother Gerard 
and the Virgin Alary with the Infant Saviour. With the right hand she 
holds a ball, with the lefi hand she holds the Infant Jesus, while he is 
up to her face, and with hi lefl hand behold b cro on her bosom. 

(in the \ o "in ' right ha ml kneels brother Gerard, with the ten sun', a I I 

and lo . hi hand are uprai ed in the attitude of prayer. Over his 



head is a star of six points, and there is a similar star helow the ground 

on which the figures rest. 

The date of this seal appears to he the early part of 

the XlVth century. Its shape and inscription point out 

plainly that it was the personal seal of an ecclesiastic, 

and, although he calls himself only " frater," since 

it was not the custom for each ordinary monk in a con- 
vent to have his own peculiar seal, and indeed for none 

hut the head or some official of the hody, this must be 

concluded to have been the private seal of brother 

Gerard of Gottland, who may have been chief of the 
order of Preachers (or Dominican monks) in that 

At what time or in whose hands it left Gottland is 
not known, but the mode of its restoration a few years ago is too curious 
to be omitted. The seal is of silver, the shape not fully described. 
In 1825 a Wisby ship-master having taken a ship- load of copper from 
Alexandria to sell at Athru, in Candia, he there received in payment, 
together with all sorts of coin and curious things, this seal : and after 
keeping it for nearly twenty years, he presented it, in 1844, to the museum 
in Wisby. 

To trace the progress of this seal during 500 years, and from such 
remote and disconnected islands as Gottland and Candia, is now of course 
impracticable ; but in the words of that kind friend who has so materially 
assisted in procuring this and the other seals (H.B.M. Charge d' Affaires at 
Stockholm), we may fancy, perhaps, brother Gerard voyaging to Rome 
and dying there or on board his ship, or being obliged to part with his 
silver signet for want of money. By some accident it may thus have reached 
Candia. But, certainly, the coincidence which after such a lapse of time 
brought it back to Gottland adds to its interest and value. 

The first observation resulting from this minute examina- 
tion of these seals is this — there is a curious degree of 
similarity in all the large seals, which seems to show they 
were made within a certain country, as well as century of 
time. Germany seems to be that country, and the Xlllth 
century that date. Some one or two differ, and they are 
evidently slightly later than the rest ; but, as a series, 
they are of a coeval period, and an unique series for the 
variety of kindred subjects displayed upon them. 

The next observation is the absence of heraldic bearings, 
which is a remarkable feature, and more curious because 
several of these seals seem indubitably to be of German 
manufacture, and amongst the Germans there was a great 
regard to heraldic insignia. Perhaps the reason was this, 
these guilds were formed of persons who did not possess 
the privilege of using arms as individuals, and yet con- 
sidering themselves too important to use, as corporate 
bodies, the mere merchants' marks, they employed these 


emblems. From this entire absence of heraldic devices the 
inference also may perhaps be drawn, that noble families 
had no connection with the societies to which these seals 

To proceed now with the history of these seals, mention 
must first be made of the few facts that are known respect- 
ing them. It is satisfactory to know they are all now 
preserved amongst the numismatic collections of the Royal 
Gymnasium (or Museum) at Wwby, being considered to be- 
to the Record-office of the Cathedral Consistory there. 
They were all found in Gottland, and collected a few years 
ago from different places, having been rescued from different 
mean uses, to which, for a long time, they had been exposed. 
One was found in a peasant's house, where it had been used 
as .-i -lamp for gingerbread cakes ; others, there is reason to 
think, had been employed for a like purpose, or for butter 
stamps : and while we may smile at this ignoble use of these 
seals, we Bhall feel glad that the practical purpose to which 
they were applied by the Swedish peasants has been the means 
of preserving these interesting seals of comparatively un- 
known institutions and people, whilst cupidity too commonly 
destroys any metal treasures soon after their discovery. 
Tic shape of the seals easily suggested this domestic use of 
them by the peasants, for they are raised on the back in the 
usual form of mediaeval seals, with a handle for the fingers 
to grasp when making an impression. There is no inscription 
On the back. l>ut in the handle of each is a hole large enough 
to have passed through it a chain or strong cord. The 
material of which some of them are made is stated to bo 

•• metal," by which the Swedes generally mean brass, and 
one or two are described as bronze ; the probability is, they 
are made of thai hard mixed metal, of winch the seals 
found in England are made, and which was generally used 
during the mediae al age. 

After stating thai none of these seals have been used 
officially for a longtime, "several hundred years," as it is 
Baid al Wwby, and having mentioned all thai is known of 
their later history, it may uow be well to consider, verj 
briefly, w hat has been recorded about them, and bo glean 
the circumstances of their early history as far as they can 

Ik in- BSneqvi b, the Curator of the \VM>\ Museum, in his 
I' to i -i reference to a Swedish hook. "Gothlandska 


Samlingar " (Gothland Collections) by George Wallin, in 
which, at Parti., page 116, and fig. iii., he states, that with 
the exception of No. 6, the preceding five (large) seals are 
all figured, and that the accompanying text " gives all the 
information that any one possesses respecting them." Not 
being able to find this book in the British Museum, or any 
library within my reach, the foregoing observations have not 
been confirmed or gathered from it : yet, inferring from 
another sentence in the letter, " We have no historical in- 
formation whence these seals have come," that this book 
referred to would not enlighten us much, its absence therefore 
is not felt. 4 " As regards No. 6," Herre Eneqvist continues, 
" about which Wallin gives us no information, this seal has 
probably belonged to the Guild which was attached to the first 
or oldest church here in Wisby, by a person of the name of 
Bolair of Akubeck, and which was dedicated to All Saints, as is 
mentioned in the short history attached to the edition of Goth- 
land's Civil Law by Hadorph, 5 and latterly again by Schlyter." 6 

In another sentence, Herre Eneqvist says, " It is probable 
that after the churches (of Wisby) were ruined, and the Guild- 
halls also, they all, finally, were united with the only church 
preserved, viz. : St. Mary's church, and (the seals, &c.) were 
preserved in the archives of its chapter." He also says, 
" No. 4 appears, in fact, to have been used in commercial, 
perhaps even in diplomatic affairs. All the others, viz. St. 
Canute's, for the Germans dwelling in Wisby, St. Lawrence's, 
St. Nicholas', St. James', and All Saints' have been in fact the 
seals of different Guilds." 

It should be mentioned that some who have examined these 

4 Mr. A. Ni-sbitt having informed me that it represents the same seal. No. 2 

of a book which he thought might throw is a seal as large as those oi my series, 

some light upon the history of these seals, the Lombardic inscription is " Sigillum 

after writing this paper I turned to it, and Theuthonicor' in Gotlandia manencinm, - ' 

found it valuable in affording one more and the device a stem of fleur-de-lys with 

B .il to the scries, and in confirming the two branches on each Bide but of a dif- 

dates I had assigned. At the end of fer< nt character to No. 1 ; this, there. 

G. F. Sartorius'" Urkundlichc Gesehichte fore, is the seal of another guild of 

des Ursprunges der Deutschen Hanse, "Germans remaining in Gottland ;" the 

von J. M. Lappenberg," is a plate with explanation adds that No. 1 is the seal of 

two round seals engraved. No. 1 is re- a deed made in November 1280 (confirm- 

presented attached to a deed, but the ing my idea of the date), and No. 2 of 

impression is very broken, and only two a deed dated ]2H7. 

words of the inscription left, " Sigill' Job. Hadorpbius" Collection of Schon- 

Teuthonico'," the device, however, plainly ish Laws," Stockholm, l<i7ii. 
consists of stems ot fleur-de-lys; and G C. J. Schlyter "Juridiske Afhan- 

though this engraving is smaller, the de- lingar." Upsala, L8S6. Neither of these 

vice and words being identical with No. 4 Swedish hooks i tains plates, and I have 

of my series, there can be little doubt not had opportunity to examine them. 


seals concur witb Ilerre Erieqvist in the belief tliat none of 
them are ecclesiastical But, ha\ bag quoted all the information 
sent from Wisby, it is to be hoped presumption will not be 
imputed, when it is said a different opinion exists in my 
mind as to the character of the seals. This difference is 
mentioned, because the other point, the curious union of 
churches and guild-halls, also quoted, might not improperly 
be [uestioned either as a mistake, or that we must under- 
stand the ancient guilds in Wisby were really connected with 
the ancient churches, the corporations with certain parishes, 
and so the same saint was the emblem of both. It is certain 
there were churches in Wisby of the same names as the 
saints on these seals, and undoubtedly the sacred characters 
us I by these guilds as emblems on their seals seem to coun- 
' ce this idea of union, but it may be better to understand 
the remark in the latter as referring to the churches exclu- 
sively ; viz. that on their destruction in 1 dill, the parishes were 
united, and one church was a centred union for them. Indeed, 
there can be little doubt that these guilds ofwhich we have the 
- for waiving further discussion, fourcertainly are secular 
of guilds — were corporate bodies, separate and distinct 
from the churches and each other. At the present time it 

i- do! known that any guild-halls ever actually existed at 
Wisby : but amongst the numerous ruins of churches and 
other buildings now extant there, it is impossible to say 
whether or not some of them might truly have been the halls 
of guilds of which these were the Beals. 

Notwithstanding the doubt then of the buildings belong- 
ing to these corporations, these secular seals are plainly 
valuable proofs of the existence of native and foreign mer- 
cantile bodies; they certainly are relics of some of the 
ancienl guild- of Wisby, and if the only vestiges of them left, 
are the more interesl ing. 

The oexl and las! point is, What was the immediate cause 
of thie series of 3eaU ! For want of recorded information 
cting it, the origin of these seals may be attempted 
from inference. 

The German element is clearly the chief feature in the 
t and without doiiht it only remains to brace the con 
ncction of thi e German guild witb the Swedish town of 
Wisby, in order to find the immediate cause of the seals ; 
and in the kindred Germanic character of the guilds, we 
arrive at the probable origin of these Swedi h seals. 


Wisby, where tlicse seals were used, is the only town in 
Gottland, an island in the Baltic Sea, a country now chiefly 
known as supplying lime to the otherwise destitute granite 
soil of Sweden. The ancient marine laws of Wisby arc 
generally known, but besides these, except to the sports- 
man, the tourist, or the archaeologist, the attractions of 
this locality are little known. Yet Wisby is an ancient 
town, and had early intercourse with its transmarine 
neighbours, so that it is a town of the highest historical and 
antiquarian interest. " The feudal walls and towers still 
exist almost in as entire a state as they were in the Xlllth 
century ; " and ruins and records prove that after the esta- 
blishment of the Ilanseatic League, Wisby attained, during 
theXIVth and XVth centuries, even a still Greater decree of 
wealth and importance than it possessed as a powerful mer- 
cantile city in the Xth and Xlth centuries. That Wisby 
was not too obscure a place to have so many guilds of 
merchants as these seals indicate, is shown by the fact that 
throughout Gottland, which is about eighty miles long by 
thirty-three at the widest, there are now about 100 churches, 
mostly early Xlllth century in date, and still in good preser- 
vation. In Wisby alone there are the remains of eighteen 
churches, of which some features are so curious that it is 
impossible to explain them. There was a St. Lawrence's as 
well as St. Nicholas' church ; and therefore our seals might 
have belonged to fmilds of these names, and been connected 
with the churches in some way. Romish convents and large 
houses also are numerous there, and present the proofs that 
Wisby had varied and extensive mercantile dealings with 
places equally mercantile and civilised. And what places 
could these be but the llanse towns 1 It is then to the 
influence of the Hanseatic League that the origin of these 
seals must be ascribed, and consequently their use and 
validity recognised ; for Wisby indeed was no unimportant 
city in the confederacy of the Ilanseatic League, and we 
can understand both somewhat of W T isby's extensive com- 
merce from the character of the seals before us, and the 
dignity and value of these seals from their Hanseatic con- 
nection. Remembering, therefore, what the Hanseatic 
League was, we understand also directly why these seals 
of the Teutonics or Germans represent German guilds in 
Wisby, and indicate so close a connection between Germany 
and Gottland. " The Hanse towns (in Germany first) were 


certain commercial cities associated for the protection 
of commerce ; to this confederacy acceded certain commer- 
cial cities in Holland. England, France. Spain. Italy, (and 
Sweden it only by Wisby) until the number of the Hanse 
cities amounted to seventy-two." The German origin of the 
league and the proximity of the German coast by the Baltic, 
explain to us therefore at once how easy and natural a thing 
ii would be that Wisby should have, not only "Germans 
frequenting CJottland." a body of sufficient importance as 
to haw a corporate seal lor their guild, hut that the Germans 
should have a permanent guild in Wisby known by the 
name of a national saint St. Canute. 

There can be little doubt then that these Wisby seals are 
of Hanseatic origin, and of Hanseatic use ; and further, that 
the very existence of these seals at the present time has 
been influenced by that league ; for the fact of their preser- 
vation is owing probably to the subsequent obscurity of the 
Hanseatic League after its decline, when the seals were dis- 
persed because uncalled for and uncared for. 

Doubtle8S there were many more seals of other guilds and 
of convents, and in due time modern research may discover 
them; as it has been shown, even these before us were un- 
known to exist till lately. At the end of the XlVth cen- 
tury Wisby was taken by the king of Denmark, and plun- 
dered of enormous wealth in merchandise ; it thus received 
a fatal blow to its prosperity, and the dispersion of the seals 
may have then commenced. But certainly the Hanseatic 

League, although for centuries it had commanded the respect 
and defied the power of kings, began to decline about the 
middle of the XVth century; and if the assumed connection 
of these Wisby seala with tic Hanseatic League be their true 
history, their dispersion occurred probably at this date. 

W'nli the league Wisby fell; and these beautiful seals 
from Wisby proofs of the civilisation of mediaeval Gottland 

valuable indications of tlie stati' of art amongst the mer- 
chant-traders of that time vestiges of that splendid 
confederacy, the Hanseatic League, were lost for full 300 
and only preserved from being cake-moulds bj the 
hand ot the •■' rchaei ilog ist, 

(The Central Committee desire to acknowledge the kindm a of the 
author in contributing largeh towards the cobI of the woodcul bj which 
: tomoir is ill u tratcd.) 

(Original IDociinunis. 

EDWARD VI. a.d. 1552-53. 


The Inventorie of the goodes, juels, and plate of the parishe cherch of 
Saynt Alkemundes of Salop, made the day of August, anno domini 
mccccclij * et Edwardi VI. sexto, before Sir Addam Mitton, knyght, and the 
bailyfes of the towne of Salop. 

In primis, oon chalis with a paton parsell gylt. Item, iij. bels of oon 
accorde (and oon sawntz bell, erased). Item, a crosse of brasse, and a pix 
of copper, a senser of brasse and ij. candelstikes of brasse. Item, iij. cor- 
porace cases, and on pere of organs. Item, one cope of clothe of gold. 
Item, a cope and a vestment of purpull velwett (and gold together, erased). 
Item, on cope of blcwe vehvett (and one coope of tawny velwett, erased). 
Item, ij. coopes witly colored of silke and golde. Item, iiij. coopes broken 
to make a carpett to the lordes table. Item, one vestment with ij. tunicles 
of blue velwett. Item, oon vestment with ij. tunicles of tawny velwett. Item, 
oon vestment with ij. tunicles of wite silke. Item, oon vestment with ij, 
tunicles reased with velwett. Item, iiij. (viij. erased) vestmentes of sondrie 
colors. Item, ij. alter clothes and ij. towls. 

Presented by Robert Ilelyn, Richard Jukes, cherchwardens, Edward 
Sherer, Humfrey Arosmyght, Robert Hobbys, and Thomas Add r ton, and 
George Crane, Clarke. 

Foriet ORIEN. 1 — The Inventory indented of all the goodes, juelles, belles, 
and all other ornamentes belongynge to the paryshe of the crosse nere the 
towne of Salope, in the countye of Salopc, taken by sir Wyllyam Hordeley, 
clerke, vycare there, Humfrey Butler, Thomas Lye, wardens of the said 
paryshe churche, Richard Hatton, John Prynce, Thomas Ofeley, Thomas 
Fraunce, syxe of the honest men and inhabytantes of the said paryshe, and 

i Possibly Foriet oriens, or oriente parte, suburb, now known as the Abbey Fore- 

tbe"Est Fored," as this parish is called gate, is tlius described. — " Vicus Bifo* 

in the indenture which is given hereafter. rietta vocatur, quod nos lingua Gallica, 

The parish church of Holy Cross had pre- antt portatn dicimus." Dugd. Mon. Hi., 

viously been tlie cluircli of the Bene- p. .517. On the ancient seals still pre- 

dictine Abbey, situated in the suburb of served in the parish chest, it is termed 

Foregate on the east side of Shrewsbury. " Fforyate monacliorum." 
In the history of the foundation this 

VOL. XII. N n 


by the sa'ul vycar and vj. honest men, presented and delyvered the 
daye of August in the Byxte yere of the reigne of ower soverane Lorde king 
Edward the Byxte, by the grace of God Kynge of England, France and 
Irelande, defendour of the faythe, and of the churche of Englande and also 
of Irelande in erthe the supreme hed. 

In primis, a (chales, erased) chalyce with a patent parcell gylte, weyng 
xij. ownces. Item, a crosse of wood and covered with (sylver, crated) laten 
plate and gylte. Item, a pyxe of maslyn J Item, a sensar of maslyn. Item, 
a payre of cruetes of pewter. Item, a cope of whyte damaske. Item, a 
restyment of grene Batane abrydges," and an albe of the same. Item, a 
restyment of blewe Bylke brothered with guide, and a albe. Item, a vesty- 
ment of whyte fostyane with a albe. Item, a restyment of red Bylke with a 
blewe crosse brothered with gold. Item, a veatyment of whyte fostyane 
with a blake crosse of velvett. Item, iij. corporas cases of Bylke with a 
halowed clothe for the same. Item, too alter clothes. Item, nun.' paxe 
of glasse. hem, iiij. ringinge belles, with a bell whiche the clocke goethe 
upon. Item, too sacrynge belles. 

Item, a lytic chappelle which they use to bury at, beeyng at the townes 
ende, railed Saynt (ivies chappell, with three 1 small belles yii hyt. 

Thomas Ofeley. — 4< llumfry Butler. — Thomas Alve. 

The inventory and presentment of John Skynnerand Hughe Bones, with 
air John Greffeys, Curat of Saynt Julyans, and the saved Skynnerand Benes 
beyng churchewardens, wyth Rychard Dawes, John Evance, Thomas Lloid, 

and John Bolywell, parisl era of the Bayed churche, of all the goodes, 

juelles, ornamentes, belles there belongeng to the Bayed parishe churche 

irdyng as the charge to them ■u'wu by the kyngea oomysyoners 

assyngened [sic) for the tyme; anno regni regis Edwardi sexti sexto, 

\ icessimo quarto Augusti. 

In primis, one cope of (gold, erased) clothe of gold. Item, one chalyce 
Belver gelte, weyng x. ownces. Item, iij. belles agreyng in one accorde. 
[tern, one \ yeleti coppe of Bilke. Item, too chaunter coppea of taune Belke. 
Item, a coppe of redde Belke with lyenea of golde. Item, a green coppe of 
Belke. Item, a coppe of blowe and redde Belke. Item, a restmenl of 
ryeletf Belke. Item, a vestment of redde Belke with lyones of golde. Item, 
a restment of redd velvett. [tern, a vestment of ray Belke. Item, a vest- 
ment of selke blowe and redde. Item, a vestment of grene sylke. Item, one 
p. are of organes. Item, iij. auturclothes. Item. iiij. auturclothea pented, 
Item, one towelle. Item, a crosse copur and gelte. Item, a pyxe copur 

and g( Ite. Item, iij. CO! pOl J 

John Qryfythys, curat. Thomas Lloyd. 

This presentment made rxiiij. day of Anguste, in the syxt yer of 
Bdwarde the syxt, b\ Sur Job .... clarke, cura . . . . <>t 

Mi l \ ii wai ■ kind of mixed yellow crosses <>f mastlyn, brass, latin, base 

met i iuon of metal, and of copper. Nichols 1 Hist, 

which it is not easj to define. Aug. Sax. Leic., rol. iii. See Gloss, to Robert 

in' in these in filmic r, Mastiyng. la I 100 an eccle 

rentorii it appears to be diatingui hed siastic In Yorkshire bequeatha "pelvim 

■ the yellow metal termed latten, as cum lavacro de nu yng." Test Bbor. 
also in ••■■■ .1 lists of church goods ttin manufactured at Br 

in rm ntion occui i i>i 


Saynt Maris within the towne of Salopc, Wyllyam Wyttycares, William 
Yevans, Thomas Longley .... of the Bayde churche, of all suche 
godes, juelles, ornamentes, and belles to the sayde churche accordyng to 
the .... geven by the kynges eommysioncrs asined for the Fame, 
sir Adam Mitton, Kynght (sic), Roger Luter, Ry chart Wytticars, baylcs of 
the towne of Salop. 

In primis, one coope of clothe of gold. Item, a chalis parcell gylt with a 
paten, weyng xij. ounces. Item, another chalis parcell gilt with a paten, in 
the handes of sir Edward Byscou. Item, a crose of coper and gylt. Item, 
a boxe covered with red velvet, with a lytic cupe in hit. Item, ij. brasen 
candl stikes. Item, a sute of vestmentes (with a cope, erased) of blu velvet 
brodrid with grapes of golde. Item, a sute of vesmentes (sic) of blu 
(velvet saten, erased) sarenet. Item, a sute of vesmentes of blake wosted. 
Item, a sute of vesmentes (sic) of whit bustion for lente. Item, viij. (sutes 
of, erased) coopcs and vestmentes of divars sortes. Item, ij. pere of vest- 
mentes, with albes and all therto belongynge. Item, an alter clothe befor 
the alther frynged with sylke and crule. Item, a stoned clothe for the 
sepulker. Item, a paulc quilted with sylke. Item, sixe corporus cacis of 
divers colors. Item, ij. alter clothes and ij. toweles. Item, a rynge of 
belles of v. with that that the cloke strykes on. Item, a litle saunce bell. 
John Butlerre. — Wjllyam Wytakar. — Wyllyam 
Yevan. — Thomas Langley. — Rye' Rider. 

The presentment of Edward Stevyns, clerke, curat of the parishe 
chu[rche of Saynt Chads in] 4 the towne of Salop, Thomas Hosyar, 
Rychard Clerke, Roger Allen and Morgan .... wardens of the sayd 
churche, with Ilumfrey Onysloo, Thomas Sturrey, Nycolas [Purcell] and 
Edward Hosyar, Esquiers, paryshenors of the sayd paryshe, of all suche 
goodes [juelles] ornamentes and bells belongyn to the sayd churche, 
accordynge to the char[ge to them] gevyn by the Kynges commissioners 
assyned for the same, the day of . . . . in the syxt yere of the 
rayne of owr sufl'eryn lorde kynge Edward the Byxt, before sir Adam 
Mytton, Knyght, Roger Luter, and By chard Whytacres, bayles of the 
town of Salop for that yere. 

Item, one cope of clothe of golde. (Item, one sute of vestmenttes 
with one cope of red reysyd velvett, erased.) Item, one sute of vest- 
mentes of red velvet and one cope. Item, one sute of vestmentes of blue 
velvet and one cope. Item, a sute of vestmentes of blue velvett with cros- 
leettes, and ij. chauntre copes. Item, one sute of vestmentes of grenc 
sylcke. Item, a sute of vestmentes of sylcke, for sondayes. Item ij. states 
of vestmentes of whyte af lick (sic) gold. Item, a sute of blacke vest- 
mentes. Item, a whyte vestment for lent. Item, a sute of grene vest- 
mentes, lackyng the subdeacons. Item, a syngle vestment of black 
worstyd. Item, a vestment of violett worstyd. Item, ij. violett copes 
callyd chauntre copes. Item, ij. grene copes and a red cope. Item, ij. 
grene copes, the one callyd the Monday cope. Item, iiij. whyte copes and 
a cope of dornex. 5 Item, a nother grenc cope. Item, ij. cusshynges of 

4 Several defects here occur in the MS. Yj>re, — of Dornyk (rendered in French 

which may probably be supplied as above. Twirnay) of ryselle (Lylle). See .Mr. 

■' A tissue manufactured al Tournay, .J. <;. Nichols 1 Glossary to the Unton 

formerly called Dornyck. Caxton,in tin' Inventories, v. Domex. 

Book for Travellers, mentions Cloth of 


red velvett and grene on the one Byde, and the other Byde red damascke. 
Item, ij. pillowes of clothe of golde. Item, iij. pyllowes of the passion 
and one olde pyllowe. (Item, a front of green velvet for the hygh awter. 
Item, another frount party red velvett and black, erased.] Item, a sute 
of vestmentes called the nones vestmenteB, and a cope. Item, a cope of 
okle red velvett. Item, iiij. brasen candelstyckes. Item, ij. paxes of 
latb n of Antvek worck. Item, a - nsor of latten. Item, ij. corporas 
Item, iij. towells of Bylcke for Corpus Christi day. Item, a towell 
of ray Bylck. Item, a towell of nydle worcke. Item, viij. diaper towells. 
Item, v. flaxen auetour clothes. Item, x. towells. Item, iiij. halltl' reyvyd " 
diaper towells. Item one chalys, weyng xxxiij. onces and iij. quarters. 
Item, another chalys, weyng xiij. onces and iij. quarters. (Item, a boa of 
Bylver with a cheyne, iij. onces and di, erased.) Item, iij. gret bells. 
Item, ij. small bells eallyd tbe sauntes bells. Item, one gret bell that tbe 
clocke goethe apon. 

Per me, Eumfrey Onyslow. — Per me, Nicolaum Purcell. — Per me, 
Edwardum Hosyer. — Thomas Yrland. — Richard Germyn. — John Muke- 
worth. — Edward Stevyns, clerke. — Thomas Hosyer.- Rychard Evared. 7 

Indentures for the sale keeping of the church goods which the king's 
commissioners allowed to remain in use, in May, 7 Edward VI. 1553. 

Thys indenture made the xxiij. day of May, anno regni Regis Edwardi 
Bexti vij.", betwene sir Adam Mytton, Knyght, John Corbett of Lye, 
Bsquier, and Roger Lewes, commissyoners by vertue off the rlynges 
majestes letters off commyssyon to them amongst other directed, of the 
rtie, and sir John Gryfres,, Clerke, ('mat oil' saynl July an es in the 
of Saloppe, John Skynner, Hugh Dene-, wardens of the Bame 
churche, Rychard Dawes, gent, John Evanes, gent, John Halywell, -cut, 
parisheners of the Baid churche, of thother partie, wytnessyth that there be 
remayneng within the same church on chalice with a patten weyng twelve 
owences, and thre bellys in one corde, whicbe chales with the patten and 
belles the Bayed commyssyoners mi tin- Kynges majestes behalfe straytly 
chargeth ami commandyth them Bavely ami surely to kepe unsold ne other- 
wise imbessyllyd, untyll Buche tyme as the Kynges majesties plesure be 
unto them further Bignifyed and declared. 

By me, John Gryfyths, cl. Per me Rychard Dawys. Hugh Beynes. 

There follow in like form another Indenture ami three - Bills indentid." 

The indenture, dated 1' 1 May, in the ame year, was made between the 

ame commi sioners and George Crane, Vicar of St. A-lkemund's, Salop, 

Robert Helyn and Richard Jukes, churchwardens, as to tin- custody of one 

parcel 'jilt with a paten, weighing ten ounces, and three bells. 

The first bill indented, dated L'.'i May, 7 Bdw. VI., was made between the 

tame commissioners and •• Sir John Buttrye, clerk, vicar assistent of Saint 

Maryes in Salope," Edward Clerke and Richard Ryder, wardens, Thomas 

Longley ami William Bvauns, parisbionoi . as t" the custody of one 

chalice with a paten weighing 12 ounces, live hill- and a saunoo bell, 

econd bill, dated 24 May, 7 Edw. VI., was made between the same 

,|.|.1j. .| to i ■ \ mark bare occui , probablj the 

mutual. 'I'Im Prompt. Parv. symbol "i "ne of the pariahioners who 
■ rendyn, lacero. Ely f us could aol write his name. 


commissioners and " Sir Wylliam Hordley, clerkc, vycar of the est Fored, 
llumfrey Butler and Thomas Lee, wardens of the Est Forhed, Wyllyam 
Powner, Thomas France' jiarischoners," as to the custody of one chalice 
with paten weighing 12 ounces, four hells and a clock hell in the said 
parish, and three little hells " in the (parishe, erased) huriall of seynte 
Gyllys, beynge a beryall." The third bill, dated 23 May, 7 Edw. VI., 
was made between the same commissioners and "Sir Robert Scherer 
clerke, vicar of Meolle brace, RycardMedulycot, Rychard Scherer, wardens 
of the parish churche of Meolle, Arthur Macwort, John Scherer, 
pariscboners," as to the custody of one chalice with paten weighing five 
ounces, and three small hells. Meol-Brace, now called Bracemeol, is a 
vicarage in the liberty of the horough of Shrewsbury, and situate about a 
mile south of the town. 

The following notes have also been preserved, comprising information of 
Church goods, supposed to be detained by private persons, in 1571 : 

Villa Salop. 

Certayne pipes of leade under the earthe, conveying water to the Abbey 
of St. Peter and Paule by Shrowsburye, as well within the Scite of the seid 
Abbey as withoute, moche within taken up by one William Langeley, by 
coloure of the purchase of the seid Abbey. Allso a cesterne of leade 
without the wall, taken up by the seid Langeley. 8 

Thomas Burnell, Bailiff of Shrowesburye, bathe xlviij. peces of Coapes 
and vestimentes perteyniug to St. Chaddes. 

In thandes (sic) of William Clerke, of Little Berwicke, a Challice, one 
coape, one little bell. 

Thomas Stirry, hcire of Thomas Stirrye, late of Roshall, gent., 
deceasyd, standyth chargeable with a Challice belonging to the Country 
Paryshe 9 in St. Chaddes in Shrowsburye, delyveryd to his said father by 
Edward Betton, gent., and Richard Lancashere. 

Thomas Bromall holdeth a Tythe concealed, of vij. s., the yere, 
sometyme belonging to the paryshe of St. Alkomondes in Salop. 

Richard Lee, esquier, rcceyved xxj. peces of Coapes and vestimentes of 
Richarde Thornes, by vertue of a comission. 

Richard Thornes bathe one Challice with a cover of silver parcell gilte, 
wayeng xiij. oz., also vij. peces of coapes and vestimentes belonging to St. 
Maryes. Also he concealeth Obligacions of one, made of the Jewells 
of St. Maryes churche, and delyveryd by Obligacion to divers men of the 
Paryshe in severall sommes. 

William Alowe and Richarde Powell detayne obligacions of cxl. li., 
made of the Ornamentes and Jewells of the Churche of St. Chaddes, and 
delyveryd by severall Obligacions to divers men of the paryshe. 

Robert Irelond the elder and Roger Luter detayne the Inventorye of 
the churche goodes of St. Chaddes. 

s The scite of the abbey had been 9 This was probably Bicton, distant 

granted by Henry VIII. on July 22, 1546, about three miles on the road tu Oswestry, 

to Edward Watson, Esq., of Northampton- Edward VI. gave the tithes of Bictoo, 

shire, and Henry Herdson, a tanner of b'rankwell, and other places, lately be- 

London. On the following day they longing to the collegiate church of St. 

granted it to William Langley, of Salop, Chad's, towards the endowing of the Frei 

tailor, and it continued in his family till School, Shrewsbury. At the present time 

1702. Browne Willis says that they never the perpetual curacies of Bicton and of 

prospered after they had dug up tin- in- Frankwell are in the patronage of the 

ternn uts in the church. vicar of St. Chad's. 

•*7 1 olMCIXAl, DoCTMENTS. 

I ►( a mber, L571. 
Mr. Fanshewe. — I praye you rocoavc these notes above wrytten, and 
that iki limn putt in information for them, because I have them in sute, 
and that I maye Lave processe for them at suche tyme as 1 shall call for 


The foregoing documents arc preserved amongst the records, late part of 
the Miscellanea of the Queen's Remembrancer, now in the custody of the 
Master of the Rolls, and in the charge of Mr. Hunter at Carlton Ride. It 
it due tn Mr. Hunter that they have been brought into accessible form, and 
are available for historical inquiry. We are indebted to his kindness for 
calling our attention to the series of records connected with the Survey of 
Church (lends. They show the condition of parish churches shortly after 
the Reformation, whilst a considerable part of their ancient wealth in plate 
and vestments remained unalienated. The portion which Mr. Hunter has 
enabled us to lay before our leaders, will amply show the character of these 
documents and the valuable evidence which they supply, as here exemplified 
by the return- relating to that chief of English towns, in which the Institute 
has recently found so cordial a welcome. 

On April 2, 1552 (6 Edw. VI.), the king fell sick, as recorded in Ids 
Journal. <*n April 21, the following entry occurs. " It was agreed that 
Commissions should go out for to take certificate of the superfluous Church 

Plate to Mine iim\ and to see bow- it hath been einbc/.eled." 

In May, 1552, the issue of Commissions to persons of note in each 

countv, city, or town, appears to have been in progress. Their names are 
recorded on the Patent Roll, 6 Edw. VI. ; the list is given in the Seventh 
Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, appendix ii.. p. 308, 
with copies of two commissions found on the Patent Rolls, and an extract 
from one of the originals remaining in the Exchequer, dated May 16, 
6 Edw. VI. These instruments show the objects and powers of the com- 
missioners. A catalogue, topographically arranged, of the inventories has 
been subjoined by Mr. Hunter, who has given a supplement to this catalogue 
in the Ninth Report of the Deputy Keeper, appendix ii., p. 283, with 

copies of the commission for the city of Lond dated May I 6, ( i Edw. V I . ; 

traction to the commissioners, dated June 1", same year, and their 
l'lilb r (Church Hist., b. vii.i bad printed one of die commissions, 

from which an extract will be found in Collier; (Peel. Biflt part II.. b. i\., 

..) The Commissi in for Shrewsbury were Sir Robert Townsend, 

Sir Adam Mytton, John Corbett of Lee, the Bailiffs, and Richard I lord. 

The Commissioners proceeded in their survey during the remainder of the 
\. ar. After an interval oi eight months, a fresh oommia ton (dated Jan. 16, 
<; Edw, VI., [552 '■'•> issued to the comptroller of the household and other 
ive the returns, to ensure that they were dulj 1 at 
from all parts of the kingdom ; also with power to appoint deputies to 
carry away things deemed unnecei srj for orderly performance of the 
public • (| i linen and vestments, distribution was in some oa • to 

be made to the poor, after r» er plici and altar coverings suitable 

to each church ; part was directed to b< sold, 1 emed super- 

; the proceed of uch ales were to be delivered to the king's trea urer, 

the i to the ki 1 | f the jewel bouse in the Tower. 

contracted in the orij inal record are here printed in exit 

^roccetiings at tfje /Meetings of tlje Archaeological Institute. 

Mat 4, 1855. 
The Hon. Richard C. Neville, F.S.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. Charles Graves, D.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, 
delivered a discourse on the sculptured grave-slab, inscribed with Oghams 
on both its edges, found in a cemetery in the island of Bressay, Shetland, 
and exhibited by Dr. Charlton in the Museum of the Institute, at the meet- 
ing in Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Representations of this remarkable slab have been given in the Archreo- 
logia JEliana, vol. iv. p. 150. l The interpretation of the Oghams given by 
Dr. Graves shows that the slab is commemorative of the daughter of 
Nahdfdad, whom he supposes to have been the discoverer of Iceland, about 
the middle of the ninth century, and bears the name of his grandson, desig- 
nated as Benre, or the son of the Druid. This interesting memoir will be 
given hereafter. 

Sir James Ramsay, Bart., gave a notice of the remarkable discovery, in 
1854, of some large beads of blue porcelain, at a considerable depth, in a bog 
in the forest of Perthshire, on the estates of Sir James, who brought 
the beads for examination. They are seventeen in number, melon-shaped, 
and are coated with the peculiar bright blue glaze commonly seen on beads 
and other ancient objects amongst Egyptian antiquities. There were also 
two highly polished black beads, found in the same place and bearing much 
resemblance to similar reliques found in Egypt. Roman vestiges exist, as 
Sir James observed, in the part of Perthshire where this discovery took 
place ; and the supposition appears probable that the beads may actually 
be of Egyptian manufacture, brought to Scotland by some of the Roman 

Mr. Octavics Morgan gave a short account of the discovery of a 
remarkable mosaic pavement at Caerwent (Venta Silurum), in Monmouth- 
shire, in 1777. He produced a coloured representation of this tesselated 
floor, accurately taken at the time when it was found, and preserved at Tre- 
degar. The discovery occurred in planting an orchard within the walls of 
the Roman station, and the pavement lay about 2 feet below the surface. 
Mr. Lewis, to whom the site belonged, erected a building over it to ensure 
its preservation; but the pavement is now wholly destroyed, the roof having 
unfortunately become decayed about forty year- since and fallen in. The 
floor measured about 21 feet by 18 feet. The design consisted of circular 
compartments, about 3 feet in diameter, surrounded by a border of elegant 
decoration. No representation of this pavement appears to have been pub- 
lished, and Mr. Morgan considered it to be deserving of notice, as displaying 

1 See a notice of this slab iu" Notes and Queries," vol. xi., p. 285. 


certain elements of ornamental design which might he of Celtic character, 
and arc dissimilar to the ordinary Roman types. A short notice of the dis- 
covery was communicated by Mr. 11. Penruddock Wyndham to the Society 
of Antiquaries, and published in the Archaeologia, vol. vii. p. 410. The 
position of the pavement is indicated in Morrice b Survey of the 
station, given in Coxe's Monmouthshire, vol. i. p, 25, where it is described 
a- hastening fast to decay. Mr. Morgan observed, that he proposed, in the 
of the present year, to commence excavations at Caerwent and to 
examine the -tincture of which the remains had formed part. 

Mr. II. Barrod communicated the following particulars regarding a 
remarkable deposit of reliques of bronze found about a month previously at 
Ball, near rlalesworth, Suffolk. Numerous Roman remains have 
been found near the, where broken pottery of Roman fabrication occurs 
in abundance. The objects brought by Mr. Ilarrod for the inspection of 
the Society comprised a number of bronze rings, closely resembling in fashion 
and workmanship those found on Polden Hill, Somerset, and the large col- 
lection brought to light at Stanwick, Yorkshire, presented to the British 
Museum by the Duke of Northumberland. They are elaborately ornamented 
with stippled or punctured designs, and enriched with small portions of 
opaque enamel in cavities chased on the surface. They had been deposited 
in a singular box or vessel of bronze, which was much decayed. Mr. Barrod 
exhibited part of a thin bronze plate, about 6 inches in diameter, wrought 
with a cruciform ornament, and an animal (a lamb ?) in the centre of the 
Be produced also a Roman lamp of bronze with a crescent on its 
handle, ami a defaced coin, found close to the deposit almve described. Mr. 
Akerman had supposed it to be a coin of Antonine ; Mr. Neville, however, 
thought it might 1 t' Faustina, and he observed that a bronze lamp, orna- 
mented in like manner with a crescent, and found at Thornborough, Bucks, 
is now in his museum at Audley End. The bronze rings appear Buited for 
furniture or harness ; the largest measure about 3 by _' inches. They found in draining at a depth of ahout 2 feet. They have subsequently 
been purchased for the British Museum. 

A memoir, by Mr. W. S. Walford, was read, in explanation of a docu 
ment lately found amongst the Tower Records, being a petition to Edward 1 1. 
by Walter the Marberer of London. (Printed in this volume, p. 1 .">< .) 

Mr. Nelson, secretary of the Institute of British Architects, communi- 
a ie. lire of a singular discovery at St. Peter's Mancroft Church, 
Norwich, where, during restorations carried out in L852, the remains of 
p • had been found under the chancel Boor, having earthen jars 
imbedded in the side walls. Thesi I ware with a Blight glaze 

on the upper part, were laid horizontally ahout I feet apart, their mouths 
being Bush with the face of the wall ; they measure > s inches in height, 

diameter of the mouth ahout 6 inches. A detailed account had I n suli- 

mitted to the Institute of British Architects h\ Mr. S. W*. Tracy, under 
direction the restorations had been executed : and hia drawings illus- 
trative of this remarkable construction, the intention of which had not been 

i plai I, were brought bj Mr. Nelson, with one of the earthen 

for the inspection of the meeting. Mr. Nelson Btated that a similar 
imbedded in masonry had occurred at Fountains \bboy, 

the I'-Vel of the floor, in Q part of 1 1 1 e c 1 1 II lc 1 1 u 1 1 ere a sc lee 1 1 a I ipi II 1 1 . )| I 

: icted at the ea I end of the nave. One of these vo • il 
bad ■ • i d in l>\ the Earl de Grey for examination, and an 


account of the circumstances connected with the discovery has appeared in 
the Transactions of the Institute of British Architects. Vestiges of a 
similar passage under the chancel-floor, in the side-walls of which several 
one-handled jars, or pitchers, were found imbedded, had heen noticed during 
the repairs of St. Nicholas' church, Ipswich ; and a passage of like con- 
struction, hut without any such vessels in its walls, had occurred in the 
chancel at St. Peter's church, Sudbury. 

Mr. Evelyn P. Shirley, M.P., gave the following account of the crozier 
of the abbots of Fore, co. Westmeath, in the possession of Richard Nugent, 
Esq., son of Christopher Edmund Nugent, Esq., late of Farren-Connell, in the 
county of Cavan. The crozier, of the peculiar Irish form, was, through 
Mr. Nugent's kindness, exhibited by Mr. Shirley on this occasion. 

" The Abbey of Fore. Four, or Fourre, in Latin Favoria, in Irish, 
Fohhar, was founded for Regular Canons of St. Augustine about the begin- 
ning of the 7th century, by St. Fechin, who died a.d. 665, on the 20th of 
January, on which day his festival has been always observed. This 
monastery became famous as a seat of learning and religion for many ages, 
and, according to Usher, was called ' Baile-na-lcabhar,' or the ' Town of 
Books,' or of learning, from the great seminary established there. Ulti- 
mately it became a bishop's see ; in the twelfth century it was united to the 
diocese of Meath. In 1209, Walter de Lacy, Lord of Meath, refounded 
the Abbey of Fore for Benedictine monks, brought over by him from the 
abbey of St. Taurin, at Evreux in Normandy, and made it a cell to that, 
since which time this house has been called the Priory of St. Fechin and 
St. Taurin. William Nugent, the last prior of Fore, gave this crozier to 
his kinsman Oliver Nugent, of Enagh, third son of Christopher Nugent, 
Baron of Delvin, to whom the abbey of Fore was granted by Queen Eliza- 
beth, in 1588. From this William it has descended in a direct line to 
Richard Nugent, Esq., the present possessor." 

Sttttqutttc* airtr £CIorfc£ of <3rt evhtbttrtr. 

By Mr. Brackstoxe. — A remarkable axe-head of stone, found in Stainton 
Dale, near Scarborough, Yorkshire, in Januaiy last, by a farm servant who 
was employed in cutting a drain. It was sold by the finder to Mr. Long- 
bottom, a lapidary at Scarborough. The material of which it is formed 
appears to be a porphyritic greenstone, with white specks, probably of 
quartz, and bearing resemblance to some rocks occurring in North Wales. 
This stone axe measures 7| in. in length. It is perforated to receive a 
haft, and partakes of the characteristics both of hammer and axe, one end 
beiug obtusely pointed, the other is shaped to a sharp edge, cut very round, 
and measures 5 in. in breadth. Perforated stone axe-heads are rarely 
found in this country, and none appear to have been noticed of precisely 
the same type as that exhibited by Mr. Brackstone. Several examples of 
these ancient weapons are given by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. discovered in 
tumuli in Wilts. A remarkable specimen, found in South Wales, and now 
in the possession of Mr. G. Grant Francis, has been figured in this Journal, 
vol. iii., 11.67.-' The example, bearing most resemblance to that exhibited. 
is figured, Ulster Journal of Archeology, vol. iii. p. - 

2 Other examples of the perforated (t Antiquities of Worcestershire/' 2nd edit 
stone axe-head are figured in Mr. Allies 1 pi. 1, p. 150 : two found in the north of 

VOL. XII. ') 


By Mr. IIf.n'RT Latham. — A flint celt : a saucer, or patera, of dark 
ware, and a bottle of black ware, both apparently of Roman fabrication, 
found in digging eravelat Wiggonholt. Sussex, near the bank of the river 

By -Mr. R. Gr. F. Minty. — A bronze cedt, remarkable for its preservation 
and the ornamentation, of rare occurrence on objects of this class found in 
England, although comparatively common in Ireland. It was found at 
Liss, near Petersticld, Hants. In general form and dimensions it closely 
resembles that figured in Mr. Dunoyer's memoir on Celts, in this Journal, 
vol. iv., p. 328, pi. 1, fig. 31 ; but the ornament covering part of each face 
is less elaborate in the celt from Liss, and consists of small parallel lines, 
not engraved by a cutting tool, but apparently produced by a blunt chisel 
and the aid of a hammer. The sides are grooved diagonally, and slightly 
overlap the blade. There is no trace of any stop-ridge. Length G in. ; 
breadth of the cutting edge, nearly o\ in. 

Mr. Minty presented to the Institute a perfect specimen of the flanged 
tiles found at Froxfield, Hants, as described at the previous meeting (see 
p. 199, ante). They are of the kind properly used for roofing, but were 
found placed as the floor of a small Roman building, supposed to have been 
a bath ; and they measured about 17 in. by 131 at one end, and 11| at 
the other. A small part of the flange is cut away at both ends, to facili- 
tate the overlapping of the tiles, and near the upper margin of one of them 
is a perforation, for the purpose of pinning the tiles to the rafters. 

By Mr. \Yi:st\vood. — Representations of a sculptured fragment, in the 
possession of Mr. Staniforth, of Sheffield, which appears to have formed the 
shaft of a cross of the Xlth or Xllth century. It had been used as a 
" hardening trough" at a blacksmith's shop, one side having been chiselled 
out so as to convey the notion that it might have served as a stone coffin. 
This, however, Mr. Westwood is decidedly of opinion had not been the 
original intention; the part now standing above the surface of the ground 
(the lower end being deeply imbedded in the earth) measures 51 in. in 
height ; one side is 21 in. in width at the base, and 1 .V at top ; the other 
two sides being 11 in. wide. The widest face is sculptured with a foliated 
scroll ornament, like that on the cross at Eyam ; there is a figure of an 
archer kneeling introduced in the de ign. The narrower side-- also have 
foliated scrolls, but our presents an example of an interlaced riband pattern 
precisely like that on the narrow side of the cross at Eyam. 3 The sculp- 
tured fragment at Sheffield has been noticed in Rhodes' Teak Scenery. 
Mr. Westwood brought also, in illustration of the [rish crozicr exhibited by 
Mr. Shirley, representations of the bighlj ornamented reliques of the same 
d< cription, in the po i ion of the Duke ol Devonshire, supposed to have 
been used by the first bishop of Lismore, and exhibited by his grace's Kind 
permi -ion at the meeting of the In titute in March, L850. (Journal, 
vol. vii., p. 83.) Al-o, drawings of a pa toral staff belonging to Cardinal 

i i in Bishop Lyttelton'a liahed in 1882, al Copenhagen, by the 

tone hatchets, Archseo Society of Antiquariea <>i' the North ; 

i ii., |i. 118, pi. 8 ; and various Bind I., plates .' i ; or In vVoi aoe'i 

I i . cotland are figured by " Afbildinger," from thi Royal Museum 

Dr. Wilson, in hi w Pi Innals/' at Copenhagen, pp. 11, 12. 

pp. 135, 187. Thi type fonnd inSlainton Se< o repn entation of the orosa at 

D among I the an- Eyam in Mr, Bateman's " Antiquities of 

n intiq di Di rbj aire," p. 209, 

I HI thi " . I : | I ill." | >lll • 


:l'i 9 

Wiseman, purchased in London ; of that of the ahhots of Clonmacnoise, in 
the Museum of the Irish Academy ; of another in the same collection ; and 
of the head of an Irish crozier, now in the British Museum. Mr. West- 
wood remarked, thai from the manner in which one of the hosses of the 
staff belonging to Cardinal Wiseman was worn smooth, it is evident that 
these pastoral insignia in Ireland were not carried in the same manner as 
the bishop's crozier was usually borne. The Irish cambuca was held lower 
down, the upper part resting on the shoulder. 

By Mr. Wat. — Representations of three fibulce, of Roman workmanship, 
in the possession of the Rev. R. Gordon, 
of Elsfield. One of them, found at Pains- 
wick, Gloucestershire, is remarkable 
for the form and decoration in coloured 
enamels, fixed by fusion in shallow 
cavities on the surface, in similar manner 
as the mediaeval champlcvc enamels are 
executed. (See woodcuts, orig. size.) 
Examples of this description are com- 
paratively rare in this country. An 
enamelled fibula, in the form of a cock, 
enriched with red and green colour, was 
found in a Roman villa on Lancing Down, 
Sussex. (Figured in Gent. Mag., vol. 
C. ii., p. 17.) Another, in the form 
of a horse, with its rider, was found at 
Kirkby Thore, Westmorland, and is now 
in the Museum of Practical Geology in Jennyn-strect. It is figured in the 

Bronze fibulx, in the possession of the Hcv. R. Gordon. Original size. 

Archseologia, vol. xxxi., p. 2S4. The two other brooches in Mr. Gordon's 
collection are of bronze, of elegant form, and in unusual preservation. They 
were found at Druushill, near Elsrield, Oxfordshire. 


By the Rev. Walteb Sneyd. — A remarkable piece of open work, in horn, 
supposed to have- been used to decorate the binding of a hook. Date, 
XI lth century. It had heen obtained at Cologne, and is unique, possibly, 
as an example of highly enriched work in horn, at that early period. The 
ornament consists of foliage and flowers combined with a pattern occurring 
in borders of illuminations in MSS. of the Xlth and XI lth centuries. 

By .Mr. Alexander Nesbitt. — A rubbing from an incised slab, which is 
fixed against the wall in the south transept of the Cathedral of Carcassonne, 
in the south of France. It is without inscription, but is believed to be a 
rial of Simon de Montfort, the famous leader in the crusade against 
the Albigenses ; the armorial bearings on the surcoat, and the costume, 
appear fully to warrant its being ascribed to that remarkable person. He 
was killed on the 25th June, 1218, by a stone from a mangonel, while 
ing Toulouse, and his funeral obsequies were performed with much 
pomp at Carcassonne, but bis body was transported to the priory of Hautcs 
Bruyeres, near his ancestral castle of Montfort, and there interred. A 
Bculptured tomb bearing his effigy was, it appears, placed over bis remains 
in the burial-place of his family, where were to be seen the tombs of the 
famous Bertrade, and of Amaury, Simon's son and successor. These were 
destroyed, probably, in 1793, and no traces can now be found. The 
tradition regarding the slab at Carcassonne appears to be confirmed by 
the bearings upon the surcoat which will he seen to be alternately lions, 
ami crosses of the form called by heralds " crosses of Toulouse." The 
order of arrangement is now somewhat irregular, in part owing to the parts 
of the slab having heen defaced by the tread of feet, when (as no douht it 
once did) it formed a part of the pavement. The lion is the coat of the De 
Mont forts, usually given as "Gules, a lion rampant with a forked tail; 
argent, the crosses of the county of Toulouse," which had been granted to 
him by the pope, the Council of Lateran, and the King of France. 

By the Rev. E. Trollops. — A rubbing from an inscription on a coffin- 
Blab, lately f\wj; up in the churchyard at Doddington, near Faversham, 

Kent. The dimensions of the Blab, which i.- of Kentish rag, are — length, 

<i ft. (i in. ; width, at the head, 33 in., at the loot, 21 in. This rhyming 
quatrain forms six lino on the upper part of the slab, as follows : — 

>J< ici : 0181 : KG1 BS : DE : srui 1 

i ESTE PERE : [J0US : [RREZ : T 

ODZ a MESON : mi: : I OUEKT : in: 
: ORE : i ODS '. PR1E ! 

\'m:k : • :: : i.i: : maii; : MO 


whieh may he thus r< ndercd — 

Here lii A oea under this i (one : 
All go to the bou te where I am gone : 
I Either ba ti a, frl ar : 

Think of the poor dead maiden here. 

. ; nothing to indicate who was the damsel Agnes here interred. 

Mai in old French aometii ■' mother (mater, Roquefort in d.): 

i ■, , r, the word i probably the Bame which [a used repeated!) bj 

;. Hum ■ 

::ne, in France, 


i he 25, 1218. 

; -ih of the (isun: S feet -I inches.] 


Chaucer and the older writers of English romance — " May," A. Sax. Maeg, 
a virgin, a maiden. 

June 1, 1855. 

The Hon. Richard C. Neville, F.S.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. Jon.v Rogers, Canon of Exeter, communicated, through Mr. 
C. Tucker, the following notice of an inscribed Roman tablet, in imperfect 
condition, found in the wall of the church at St. Hilary, Cornwall : — ■ 

" On Good Friday, 1853. the church of St. Hilary was burnt down ; the 
fire having been caused by the corroded state of the pipe connected with the 
stove. In the course of the following year, on digging up the foundation, 
a slab of granite, about 7 ft. long, and 2 ft. broad, was found, with an 
inscription on the under side. It had been used as a foundation stone in 
the north wall of the chancel. The letters have been obliterated in many 
places by weathering ; it is therefore difficult, if not impossible, to restore 
the inscription with certainty. The letters which may be deciphered 
appear to be as follows : — 

N . . . P . . LS 
FLAT . . VS . . . 

PIO AVGD3 . . 

CAES .... 


. . ONSTANTI . . 


The first line is almost wholly obliterated, and the letters can only be traced 
with the finger by a person accustomed to decipher decayed inscriptions ; 
indeed, many of our granite inscriptions cannot be traced by the eve alone, 
the aid of the finger being indispensable. The last letters of the fourth 
and following lines are obliterated, and the initial C, line 7, is chipped away. 
The second character in the sixth line (U?), is very questionable. It may 
be observed that the letter A, in every instance, has no transverse stroke. 
An account of the discovery was given in the Cornwall Gazette of Nov. 25, 
1854, with an imperfect copy of the inscription." 

Mr. R. Falkxer, of Devizes, communicated a notice of some remains, 
assigned to the Roman period, and found near the remarkable boundary, 
known as the Wansdike, in Wiltshire. About two years since, a leaden 
coffin, supposed to be Roman, had been found at Roundway, in the same 
county. (Arch. Journal, vol. x. p. Gl.) A similar deposit has recently been 
brought to light at Headington Wick, midway between Devizes and Calne; 
its interest is increased by the proximity of the site of the discovery to the 
Wansdike, and to the Roman station Verlucio. In construction, this leaden 
cist was like that found at Roundway, being formed of sheet lead merely 
folded up and fused together, apparently, at the upper corners, without 
solder. The covering was decayed as was also the bottom of the coffin. 


but the sides were more perfect, and the stoutest part measured ahout 
in. in thickness. The coffin lay X. and S. about 1' feet under the 
surface, the head turned a few degrees towards the east, as had been 
noticed in the interment at Roundway. The lid, which was only placed 
loosely on the cist, and the margin bent down over it, had prevented any 
earth falling in ; the remains found within were portions of the cranium 
ancLof one of the vertebrae. I if the cist is not rectangular, as in the 

QC6 formerly noticed, but wider at the head, where it measures 17 inches 
in width, the angles being rounded, and it increases in breadth to 20 inches 
at the shoulders; at the feet it is only 11 inches. The depth of the cist is 
9 inches. Mr. Falkncr sent also a drawing of the lower portion of a cylix 
of dark ware without glaze, ornamented with a broad band of huge scales, 
and a line of impressed markings. (In form it resembled fig. -l.'i, Catalogue 
of the Museum of Economic Geology, p. 72.) It is probably of the Castor 
manufacture, the body red, the surface of a dark colour. It was found in 
B field called "Bowlers," at Ileadington Wick, at a spot where there are 
some indications of buildings having existed, possibly in Roman times. 

Mr. James Taxes gave the following observations on the Roman moulds 
used for making pottery with figures in relief, (commonly called " Samian') 
illustrated by a cast of one in plaster-of-Paris : — 

" Moulds for making pottery with figures in relief have been found near 
Wiesbaden, among other Roman remains, and are preserved in the museums 
at Wiesbaden and Bonn. There are some imperfect specimens of such 
moulds in the British Museum. There are likewise examples of these 
moulds in the Cabinet of Antiquities in the Imperial Library at Paris, and 
fragment-, are preservi d in the -Museum of tic-tile wares at Sevres. 5 

44 On the subject of the fabrication of richly ornamented howls of earthen- 
by Roman or Romano-British potters, I know no better account than 
the following, which occurs in Mr. Roach Smith's Catalogue of his own 
Museum, p. 2 1. 

" * Those (bowls) which are embossed have been formed in moulds, but in 
some cases the ornaments have been partly stamped subsequently. There 
is also a rare variety of thi- pottery of very superior execution, the orna- 
ments of which have been separately moulded and then applied to the vases. 
See An lajologia, vol. wvii.; Journal of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion, vol. iv.j and I 'oil. ictanea Antiqua, vol. i.' 

"The moulds found mar Wiesbaden appeared to me bo curious and 
ting, on account of the information which they give respecting the 
art of pottery a practised in ancient times, that I obtained a facsimile In 
plaster of that which i pre erved al Bonn. It i the Bame which is men- 
tioned at p. L37ofProfe or Overbeck's Catalogue of the Museum of Anti- 
quities in that city. In this mould we observe a representation of Beven 
semi-circular arches supported on columni . I ml. r each arch is the figure 
of a boj or a beep, and the figure of a bird appears in three of the Bpandrils 
bes. The border of the ve el above the arches is formed 
by a rep. tition of one of the usual ornaments derived from the Greek tonic 
architecture. On compari Sgun upon this will be per- 

ceived that they were all formed bj impre ing upon the sofl olaj typi oi 
tic boy, the bev p, the bird, and the architectural ornaments : for thej are 
mam!, tly repetitions of the same figure . and it is. a very interesting 

i Brangnlart] Tr il di Arts C&amiqui , tom< I. p. 428; Atlas, p). xxx 


circumstance that an original type for impressing the same ornament is 
preserved in the British Museum. 

" I hope I shall not be thought to have wandered too far from the imme- 
diate object of this communication, if I offer a conjecture on the source of 
the material used for making the beautiful bowls which were fashioned in 
these moulds. The substance of the so-called Samian ware is so fine and 
homogeneous, that the question has often been suggested, whence did the 
ancients obtain clay for making their pottery ? The solution of the ques- 
tion may, I think, be found by referring to the method now used in this 
country to obtain clay for the fine earthenware made in Staffordshire and 
Worcestershire. It is obtained from the decomposed granite of Cornwall. 
By agitating the granite in large vessels filled with water, which overflows 
at the top, the finer particles are carried off, and at length sink to the 
bottom of the water. The deposit is then dried, packed in barrels, and 
sent to the potteries for use. Let us suppose the ancients to have used a 
similar process with common red clay, or brick-earth. Bricks, tiles, and 
pipes would he made from it without further preparation. The very same 
earth, after going through the process I have mentioned, would furnish the 
material for the finest ornamental bowls and vases." 

Mr. E. W. Godwin communicated a detailed account of Dudley Castle, 
illustrated by plans and numerous drawings. 

The Hon. W. Fox Strangways brought before the Society a communica- 
tion addressed to him by M. Karl Bernhardi, of Cassel, relating to St. 
Boniface, and the other early missionaries from Britain, by whom Chris- 
tianity was introduced into Germany. St. Boniface was born at Crediton, 
Devonshire, about a.d. G80, and he received a commission from Pope 
Gregory II., in 719, to preach the faith in Germany. M. Bernhardi stated 
that he is engaged in a detailed investigation, with the hope of discovering, 
more especially at Fulda, materials in illustration of the history of that 
period. It is affirmed that much valuable matter still remains unpublished. 
He has also devoted much attention to the local dialects of Germany, of 
which he has produced a general scheme, in anticipation of a more com- 
plete work, in which he hopes for the concurrent aid of philologists in 
all parts of that country. He suggested the important assistance which 
might be derived from a similar work on the various provincial dialects of 
our own country. The Philological Society had formerly encouraged the 
hope that so desirable an undertaking might be carried out under their 

anttqutttrsi antr ©HarfeS at Irt evbtbttra-. 

By Mr. Brackstone. — An arrow or javelin head of flint, with barbs. An 
oblong implement of flint, highly polished, precisely similar to that exhibited 
at a previous meeting by Mr. Bernhard Smith, and figured in this Journal, 
vol. xi., p. 414. The dimensions are almost identical, and one face is in 
both instances rather less convex than the other. They may have served 
for flaying animals. The specimen in Mr. Brackstone's collection, as 
also the arrow-head, was found in July, 1848, on the farm of Mr. Pumphrey, 
at Pick Rudge, in the parish of Overton, Wilts, in grubbing up an old ash- 
tree on a piece of waste land. — An iron spear or javelin, of peculiar form, 
described as found in Blenheim Park, July, 1854. The entire length is 
18 in., of which the blade forms 5\ in., the remainder being a round stem 

VOL. XII. p p 


or shaft, about -Ac in. in diameter, terminating in a sort of tang for insertion 
into the haft. 

By the Rev. T. Ilrco. — A bronze statuette of young Hercules, with the 
skin of the Nemean lion thrown over his arm. Described as found at the 
junction of Cannon-street with St. Paul's Churchyard. 

By Professor Bi i iman. — Various Roman reliques, found during excava- 
st Cirencester, comprising implements and objects of bronze, iron, 
and hone, amongst which is a singular knife of iron, with the handle formed 
of jet, ami a bronze clasp knife, in form of an hare pursued by an hound. 
Also, a numerous collection of potters' marks on " Samian " ware, found 
at ( 'minium, and some marks on Roman tiles. The former comprised the 
following :— \vi;\ iim. — aksimm — noRILLI OFF — OINIY— CVOA . . IM (query ? 
Cucali maun) CINIIv.;r.Ni — GEMINI P — MACS .. . — ItAROIl — mvxtvlm — 
.l'vuti m. — qvinti — sA.MociNi — TITVRONIS of — viNPV.s (or Ptmpu* ?) and 
several imperfect marks. On a fragment, apparently of a flue-tile, are 
the letters — tppa, and on a flanged tile — arveri. 

By Mr. OcTATlUS Mokcan, M..P. — A oiatorium, or portable sun-dial, of 
the close of the sixteenth or earlier part of the seventeenth century. It is 
remarkable as comprising a sun-dial, night-dial, compass, perpetual 
calendar, a microscope or telescope, and a diminutive weathercock, serving 
to indicate what the weather should be when the wind is in a certain quarter. 
Several quarries of lead cast in moulds, and funned with ornamental pierced 
work ; they served for ventilation, being introduced in place of quarries of 
a a casement. They were obtained at Ely. 

By llr.W. .1. Beenhard Smith. — A dagger with a flamboyant blade. 
Date about the time of .lames I. 

Mr. EDWARD FREEMAN communicated, through the kind permission of 
John Vizard, Esq., of Dursley, a collection of documents belonging to that 
gentleman. We are indebted to Mr. W. S. Walford for the following 
abstracts : — 

1. Grant by William de Ferariis, Earl of Derby (undated, circa 1200). 

William de Ferariis, Marl of Derby, cave, -ranted, and continued to Henry 
Fitz-William of Spondon, for his homage and service, and to his assigns 
and their heirs, except religious houses, his mill of Spondon upon Derewent 1 

with the mill upon the tl\ of Chadesdon with the site-, and all their 

appurtenances and liberties, and with all their suit of grinding their corn, and 
with carriage of material to repair the mill and pool, and with the labor of 

his men of Spondon and Chadesden for making and repairing the mill and 

pool as they ought to do, and as in the time of his ancestors they were 

aceu tomed to do ; To hold of him and his hen-, in fee and inheritance, to 

lid Benryand his assigns and their heirs freelv and quiethj ; Render 

i 1 1 i_r for the ame pearly five marcc of silver, and three salmons, and three 

sticki of eels during Lent, for all service and exaction, Warranty of the 

premises, and the fishing in the aid pool and mill, again I all pei 

And that he and Ills heirs would find timber to make the said mill and pool, 

and to repair the iame, in his wood of Spondon or la bis forest of Duffield. 

al and confirmation the -aid Elenrv bad given him 20 marcs 

.. • • . Robert de Ferariis the Earls brother, Eerbert de 

1 Spondon and ( h.i'lli don an pari '■ Derwent, near Derby, east of thai town. 
;. i,i Hi.- river I • ' for clu am, i < ■ excluaaa 


Meklc, William do Redewar then steward, Jordan de Tok', William de 
Scant', Henry de Ferariis, and William de Codintun, Philip de Tok', and 
many others. 

Seal of white wax much hroken, pendent by a braided cord of white and 
green silk. Obv., a mounted knight : counter-seal, an antique intaglio with 

2. Grant by Henry III. of the custody of the Castle and County of North- 
ampton and other counties (16 Hen. III. 1232). 

Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England, <kc, granted and con- 
firmed to Stephen de Sedgrave the custody of the castle of Northampton, 
and of the counties of Northampton, Bedford, Bucks, Warwick, and 
Leicester ; To hold for his life ; and that he should have all tlie profit of 
those counties for the custody of the said castle and counties, and to main- 
tain himself in his service, so that the said Stephen should out of the said 
counties render to the King's Exchequer the ancient rents and increase 
which were accustomed to be rendered for the same in the time of King 
Henry, his grandfather ; Retaining in the King's hands 15 pounds yearly 
out of the manor of Thorp, extra Northampton, which the constables of the 
said castle were accustomed to receive out of the same manor since the war 
between King John and his Barons. Witnesses, Peter Bishop of Winton, 
and II. Bishop of Ely, H. de Burgh Earl of Kent, Justiciary of England 
and Ireland, R. Earl of Poitou and Cornwall the King's brother, R. Earl of 
Chester and Lincoln, R. Marshal Earl of Pembroke, Radulph Fitz Nichol, 
Godfrey de Craucumbe, Hugh Dispenser, Geoffrey his brother, Radulph 
Mar', William de Rughedone, Henry de Capella, and others. Given by the 
hand of the Venerable Father R. Bishop of Chichester, the Chancellor, at 
Woodstock, 28th day of July, in the 16th year of the reign of the King. 

Great seal appended, of which a considerable portion remains. 

3. Fragment of a grant, the upper portion being missing (10 Edw. II. 

John le Yonge granted and confirmed to Richard [le Yonge] and his 
heirs, [the same house and lands probably as in the next deed ; 3 ] To hold 
to the said Richard and his heirs ; Rendering yearly to the chief lords a 
red rose at the feast of the nativity of St. John the Baptist, for all secular 
services, exactions, and demands, except royal service and attendance at 
the view of frankpledge held on Hock-day : Warranty cf the premises by 
John le Yonge to the said Richard against all people. For which grant, 
confirmation, and warranty the said Richard had given a certain sum of 
silver. Witnesses, William de Kenegrave, Richard de Gardino, Laurence 
Cambrey, John de Boxstede, Nicholas Uppedoune, William le Chep- 
man, Robert le Fayre, John Drausper, Henry atte Mulne, Nicholas son 
of Philip Rolues, freemen (liberis), John de Lynham, clerk, and many 

Dated at " Okie Sobbury " [Gloucestershire], on Monday next after the 
feast of the Apostles Philip and James, in the 10th year of the reign of 
King Edward, son of King Edward. 

The seal, which was on a label, is missing. 

4. Grant and release (same year). 

John le Yonge of Okie Sobbury, son of John le Yonge of the same 
[place] gave, granted, and quitted claim to Kicbard le Yonge, son of John 

8 The greater part are the same, and most likely all. 


le Yonge and his brother, his right ami claim in a house called "La 
Nywehous," ami a pieoe of land for a yard (curtella) within the manor of 
OKle Sobbury : He also gave, granted, and quitted claim to the said Richard, 
his brother, his right and claim to 5 aerea of land within the said manor : 
And he also gave, granted, and quitted claim the reversion of an acre of 
laud called " Douneswelles aker," and also of an acre of meadow in " Ba- 
benhamea mede," which two acres Agatha la Yonge held tor her life ; 
To hold the same to the said Richard le Yonge, his heirs and assigns ; 
Rendering to the chief lords thereof yearly all services as appeared in 
charters of feoffment between John le Yonge the father, and the said Kiehard 
le Yonge/ Witnesses, William le Cheny, Thomas atte Leygrove, William 
de Kenegrave, Robert le Fayre, Richard de Gardino, John de Bozstede, 
ace le Cambrey, William le Chepman, John Drausper, Henry atte 
Mulne, Nicholas son of Philip Rolucs, Nicholas Uppedoune, John de 
Lynham, clerk, and many others. Dated at Okie Sobbury on Sunday next 
after the feast of the nativity of St. John the Baptist, in the 10th year of 
the reign of King Edward, son of King Edward. 

The seal, which was on a label, is missing. 

5. Lease (5 Bdw. III. 1331). 

Richard le Yonge, of Great Sobbury, granted and demised to Thomas 
ate Hulle and Matildis his wife three acres of arable land in the fields of 
Great Sobbury; To hold to the said Thomas ate Hulle and Matildis his 
wife for the term of the life of them or the longer liver of them, of the chief 
Lords of the fee, by the services therefore due and of right accustomed : 
Warranty against al! persons. Witnesses, Jordan Bisshop, John de Berkele, 
Laurence de Cambrey, Richard de Gardino, John le Fayre, Henry ate 
Mulle, Reginald do Stanford, and others. Dated at Great Sobbury on 
Monday next after the feast of the Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr 
in tin- 5th year of the reign of King Edward the third. 

The seal, which was on a label, IS missing. 

G. Confirmation (8 Edw. III. 1334). 

Richard le Yonge confirmed to Thomas ate Hulle and Matildis his wife 

.- of arable land in the fields ofOldSobbury ; To hold of him and his 
k ir- or a--iL r n-, to the said Thomas and Matildis so long as they or cither 
of them should live ; Rendering therefore yearly a red rose within the 

octave of St. John the Baptist for all services: Warranty against all 
persons. Dated at Great Sobbury on Friday in the feast oi St. John the 
Baptist in the 8th year of the reign of King Bdward the third. Witni 
Laurence Cambrei, Richard atte Orchard, John le Faire, Roger Cambrey, 
Robert Large, and oth< i 

'I he seal, which was on a label, is missing. 

7. Granl (21 Rich. 1 1. 1397). 

phen Anahle granted and confirmed t<» William 
atte Brugge the elder all her lands and tenements in the town of Chepyng 
Sobbury which she bad of the gift and feoffment of the -aid Stephen ber 
father ; To hold to the said William his heirs and assigns for ever, of the 

chief |.(,l(| Of the lee, l,\ t h e >- er V 1 ees 1 1| e le fn|'e d II e a lid Of right accustomed: 

nty against ail persons. Witnesses, John Godestone, Kiehard atte 
i I ■ \ iyre, Thomai Borewode, Henry Hunte, and others, 

' In the pi i called Indented and in two parts, and lh< ■ 

1 John !•• Yonge then an the charters hen reiern 

l'i obably ili^i .!• ed « ■ 


Dated at Chepyng Sobbury on Sunday next after tbe feast of St. Micbael 
tbe Archangel in the 21st year of the reign of King Richard the second. 

Circular seal broken, f inch diameter, on dark wax, suspended by a label. 
The device appears to have been an escutcheon, charged with a harry 
coat (?) 

Legend, .. . . Dff CHAAINSS G.... 

8. Lease (dated Dec. 21, 4th Henry V., 1416). 

Between Nicholas Peres, of Old Sobbury, of the one part, and Richard 
Adames and Edith his wife of the other part, witnesseth, that the said 
Nicholas had delivered, granted, and confirmed to the said Richard and 
Edith all his lands and tenements, except one chamber at his own pleasure 
to be selected, with free ingress and regress to (and from) the same ; To 
hold the same (except what is before excepted for the life of the said 
Nicholas), from the feast of St. Michael next after the date, for the term 
of the life of them [Richard and Edith] and the longer liver of them ; 
rendering therefore yearly to the said Nicholas for his life 33s. and 4c?. 
as there specified, and acquitting the said Nicholas "penes dominum Regem 
capitalcm dominum et quosque alios," ° of all services for the 3ame lands and 
tenements due, and of right accustomed. Restriction on committing waste 
by felling timber. Power for the said Nicholas to distrain in case the said 
rent should be arrear for a month, and if no sufficient distress to re-enter. 
The said Richard and Edith to find fuel (focale), and ten ewe sheep (oves 
matrices) annually for the said Nicholas. Power for the said Nicholas to 
take the timber. Warranty by him. Witnesses, Thomas Nelat, clerk, John 
Peres, Walter Notte, and others. Dated at Sobbury on Monday in the feast 
of St. Thomas the Apostle, in the 4th year of the reign of King Henry V. 

The seal, which was on a label, is missing. 

9. Grant (15 Henry VI., 1436.) 

Thomas Brugge, the younger, of Gloucester, and Margery his wife, 
gave, granted, aud confirmed to John Hayward, of Gloucester, " Gent," 
and John Ilareston, clerk, all their lands, and tenements, rents, services, 
and reversions in the town and borough of Chepingsobbury in the lordship 
(dominio) of Oldesobbury : To hold to the said John and John Hareston 
their heirs and assigns, of the chief lords of the fees, by the services 
therefore due and of right accustomed : Warranty against all persons. 
Witnesses, Thomas Godcstone, Robert Welle, Richard Juelle, Walter Lye, 
Thomas Vicaries, and many others. Dated at Chepingsobbury the 7th 
day of October, in the 15th year of the reign of king Henry VI. 

There were two seals on labels : the second is missing ; the other is 
on red wax, circular, $ inch diameter ; device, a stag's head caboshed 
with a sprig on each side. 

10. Lease (8 Edward IV., 1468). 

After reciting that John Brugge, late of Old Sobbury, by his Will, 
dated 13th January, 1466, gave to John Tylly and Joan, his wife, the 
daughter of said John Brugge, three burgages, 6 with the appurtenances 
in " Sobbury mercata," which Thomas Goughthen held, to hold to the said 
John and Joan their heirs and assigns, the said John Tylly aud Joan his 

5 " In regard to the lord tlie king, the " Tani erga Dominum Regem quam erga 

chief lord, and every one else;" for so I capitales doniinos." 

read ptnes, though this sense of it is new 6 Burgage is a tenement iu a borough, 
to me. Comp. Mad. Form. Aug., p. 145. 


wife, delivered, demised, and granted to Agnes, late wife of the said John 
Brugge, and mother of the Baid Joan, and to William Bolatre, the said 
t] ree bnrgi g< - with the appurtenances ; to bold to the said Agnes and 
William for the life of the Baid Agnes without impeachment of waste ; 
rendering for the same yearly one red rose at the feast of the nativity of 
St. John the Baptist, if demanded : of the chief lord and by all other 
Bervices due, and of right accustomed. Warranty against all persons. 
Witnesses, William Bolatre then chief bailiff of the borough of Sobbury, 
John Longeford Bub-hailiff, 'William Burnelle, Robert Koonie, Thomas 
Paynter, and others. Dated at Sobbury the LOth day of August in the 
>th year of the reign of king Edward IV. 

on a label: device obliterated ; never more than one. 

11. Grant by John, duke of Norfolk (5 July, 22 Hen. VI., 1144). 

John, duke of Norfolk, earl marshal, and of Nottingham, marshal of 
England, lord of Mowbray, Segrave, and Grower, gave, granted, and con- 
firmed to John, archbishop of Canterbury, Alianor his (the duke's i wife, 
and Humphry, earl of Stafford, his manor and lordship of Calaghedon with 
the appurtenances in the county of Warwick ;" to hold to them from the 
ita-t of the nativity of St. John the Baptist then last for the life of the 
said Alianor : Warranty against all persons. Jn testimony whereof, he had 
caused those letters to he made patent. Given under his seal in his castle 
of Framlingham, on the 5th day of July, in the 22nd year of the reign 
of king II' oi v V 1. 

Attached by a label is a circular seal. .°> J inches in diameter, on 

red wax much broken ; which bore a shield of the arms of Brotherton, 

aed with a helmet, on which was a chapeau and the Plantagenet 

crest, between two ostrich feathers,* and Hanking the shield on the dexter 

n escutcheon chequy for Warrenne : on the sinister had probably 

been another escutcheon with a lion rampant for Mowbray. A few letters 

of the legend, in old English minuscules, may be deciphered. This seal 

is \erv Bimilar to that engraved in Watson's History of the Earls Warren, 

vol. I., pi. iv., but it is not identical. That seal has a leather on the 

■ Bide only, placed behind an escutcheon chequy. On the sinister side 

i- an escutcheon with a lion rampant. Legend- bigil: k>h : iiowb : 

dvcis : norf : ■ o : nottino : dni : db : uowbr: begb : goweb : 

By the Rev. Dr. Oliver.- A document bearing the Beal of Edward 

•■nay, third Marl of Devon, who succeeded his grandfather Hugh in 

i:;77, and died in 111!*. An imperfect impression in red wax, of a 

remarkably fine seal. It beare the arms of Courtenay, the escutcheon 

Hi and surmounted by an belm and crest, the bush of ostrich 

feathi from a c net. (in either side of the helm is a wan 

with expanded wings; a small portion only of the legend remains. 

Diam. 2 inches. A I o the seal of Sir Matthew Gornay, in imperfect condition, 

mple remark abh bold in design; it I". i cutcheon placed 

aslant (paly of Bix) surmounted by a helm and crest, a blackamoor's 

aed. The legend broken away. The back-ground is filled up 

" Th( r< wa an embattled mansion, the do battle at Got Ford Green with the Duke 

i;,mii\ . ,-it of Hen ford 
i Covenb PI be I Sandford, 

the building I I iii o ■ ii., undi i i boi , M< 

ii n, thence fhomaa Mowbray Duke ol Norfolk, 
t ten da . t<> 


with foliage, as if representing a wood. A representation of this remark- 
able seal may be found accompanying the pedigree of the Gornays of 
Somerset, in the " Record of the House of Gournav." by Mr. Daniel 
Gurney, p. 591. The seals above described are appended to a document 
preserved amongst Sir Walter Carew's evidences at Tiverton Castle, and 
dated July 31,17 Rich. II., 1393. Also an oval seal set with apparently 
an antique intaglio, the head of Mercury, seen full face and of striking 
design. It is appended to a release by Baldewin de Wayford to Reginald 
de Moyun, amongst the Carew evidences, and dated at Compton Basset, 
Jan., 29 Hen. III., 1245. 

By Mr. Alexander Nesbitt. — A collection of casts in "fictile ivory," 
made from carvings in ivory of various dates, preserved in the Cabinet des 
Antiques in the Bibliotheque Imperiale, the museums of the Hotel de 
Cluny, of Nismes, and of Amiens, and the collections of Prince Soltikotf, 
M. Carrand, and M. Sauvageot, of Paris. The most remarkable of these 
were : — From the collection of Prince Soltikoff, a diptych of Orestes, consul 
of the East, a.d. 520, very closely resembling that of Clementiuus, in the 
Fejervary collection. 

From the^Bibliotheque, a diptych of Probus, Consul, a.d. 518. Coarse 
work, and in bone, but much like the above. Also a triptych of the best period 
of Byzantine art (12th century ?). In the centre, the Crucifixion with 
figures of St. Mary and St. John, and small figures of St. Helena and 
Constantine, and on the wings, half-length figures of saints. 

From the Hotel de Cluny, four tablets, each containing two subjects : 
among which are the Conversion of St. Paul, and the Martyrdoms of St. 
Lawrence and St. Denis. One side of a mirror-case with figures of lovers 
in pairs, some worshipping Cupid, who sits crowned and holding arrows in 
his hands ; another, of a less size, with nearly the same subjects somewhat 
differently treated. These mirror-cases belong to the earlier, the tablets 
apparently to the latter, part of the 14th century. 

From the collection of M. Sauvageot, one side of a very beautiful mirror- 
case, representing a gentleman and lady playing at chess, and two other 
persons looking on ; it very closely resembles the mirror-case belonging to 
the Hon. Robert Curzon, engraved in this Journal, vol. viii. Date, about 

From the collection of M. Carrand, a diptych, probably of the earlier part 
of the 5th century : on the one leaf, Adam naming the beasts ; on the other, 
subjects from the life of St. Paul. The " Flabellum de Touruus," of the 9th 
century, but parts of which have been supposed to have formed portions of 
book-covers of a much earlier date. A number of small figures in about half 
relief, of centaurs, tumblers, players on musical instruments, chiefly of 
a classical grotesque character, which form parts of a large box ; also a 
singular group of figures, some of them mounted, possibly a chess piece (12th 
century?). Three draught pieces in walrus ivory, one, a figure with 
long hair, bound and lying on the ground, and three figures armed with 
swords and kite-shaped shields standing over him ; on another, a hunter 
mounted on a hare and blowing a horn ; and on the third, Dalilah cutting 
off Samson's hair ; all three seem to belong to the 11th or 12th centuries. 
The hilt of a dagger with figures of mounted warriors, probably German 
work of the 14th century ; the two sides of a mirror-case, each with a 
combat of knights on horseback, the one with swords, and the other with 
lances ; one side of a mirror-case with a very curious representation of 


knightfl arming for a tournament ; also one side of a large mirror-case repre- 
senting the attack ami defence of the Castle of Love : at the top is Love 
himself, crowned and with wings, and ahout to discharge an arrow ; below 
him, ladies pelting the besiegers with roses, while at the bottom are knights 
encountering each other with Bwords, Arc. All these mirror-cases are of 
the 1 4th century : that with the preparation for the tournament is the latest 
in date, ami evidently of German work. 

i the Museum at Nismes, a group of two persons in half relief on a 
larger BCale, and of coarser execution than usually occurs in ivory ; it 
appears to have formed a part of a reredos orretable. Date, 15th century. 

Prom the Museum at Araiens,a tablet representing three subjects from the 
life of St. Eiemij one of them being the baptism of Clevis. Probably of the 
Lull century. 

By Mr. A. W. Franks. — An astrolabe of brass made by Ilumfrey Cole 
in l."»74. In the matrix is engraved " a.d. (blank) Ilcnr. Trine. Magn. 
] '.lit tan." There are projections of the sphere for four latitudes, all in 
ind. They are, 51, 30—52, 30 (Ludlow) 53, 40—55, 00 (Newcastle, 
or Carlisle), and one plate unengraved. The Alidad is ingeniously jointed 
bo as to do away with the usual pin. The case is of green velvet ornamented 
with silver plates with inscriptions ; on the centre of the cover is an oval 
plate with the prince's feathers in a coronet formed with crosses and fleur- 
de-lya alternately, and the letters II. P. From this it appears to have 
belonged to Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James I. On the plates of the 
are i ngraved the words, "Inter Omnes ; " and on bosses on the top of 
tse, " Scientia Virtus qve Autoritas — faelicitaa Illius crescat in eter- 
nuin." This interesting relique has been recently added to the valuable 
collection of astrolabes preserved in the British Museum. A set of Apostle 
spoons of English workmanship, made in the year 151 'J. They were in the 
Bernal collection, and are now the property of the Rev. Thomas Staniforth, 
of Storrs Hall, Windermere. 

Mr. Pranks brought also a document from the collections in possession of 
Mr. W. Maskell, being a certificate by a captive knight, Humfrey Nanfaunt, 
that money bad been paid towards his redemption, and for the purchase of 
the benefits of a Papal Indulgence. It is as follows : — 

Humfridue NanfaunI miles, captivus inter Turcos inimicoa Jhesu Christ!, 
et inter eosdem pro fide ejusdem Christi ad financiam immensam positus, 
dilectis in Christo Johanni Batcock e1 A-licie uzoriejus, ao Elene Batcock, 
Salutem. Sanctissimue in Christo pater et dominus noster, dominus Sixtus 
J'. [pa modernus, per mas litteras apostolicae quedam Bpecialia pro relevaoione 
I,,. ,, meorumque obsidum diria rinculia incarceratorum ereptione gloriose 
indulsit, continenoie Bequentia. Omnibus illis, Bibi ul prefertur caritatia 
intuitu mbvenientibue cum aliqua quantitate bonorum Buorum quorum- 
cunque, vere penitentibua el confe i . omnium peccatorum Buorum plenariam 
remiasionem auctoritate Bedia apostolice et presentium litterarum tenore 

< !( dimus, roto [< ro olomita it debitU dejure bi cundum eorum posse per 

i lis duntazat excepti . Eciam volumua et constituimus quod predict! 

, quociens opus fuerit, licencia suorum curatorum nbtenta et benigne 

^doneo confi on seculares vel reg ulares, qui, audi! ia 

, Pi ; ,:i , eo ■'" omnibu eorum peccatorum, exceptia pre- 

ere valeanti Ego que Humfridua NanfaunI miles, 

• (Tectum, fateor me voi tram rocipiai e olimo- 



Miimn, et hue vestro confessorc per vos auctoritato apostolica electo per 
presens scriptum certifico. Data anno domini millesima cccc" 10- lxx mo * octavo. 

A seal on paper over red wax, the paper passing round to, and covering 
also the hack of, the wax, where it remains almost square in form, is 
attached to a slip cut half-way along the hottom of the parchment. It 
bears an escutcheon, on which is a chevron ensigncd with a cross (?) between 
three human heads (? heads of children, enfans) looking sinister in hoods of 
mail, or helmets. 1 Of the legend the name nanfan only remains. 

By Mr. Aluert Way. — Impressions from a "palimpsest " brass escut- 
cdieon, found, in a very decayed condition, amongst rubbish in the church- 
yard at Eetcliworth, Surrey. It may have been part of a sepulchral 
memorial in that church, but no slab can at present be found to which it 
may have been attached. The two faces of this plate are here represented. 
The more ancient, possibly engraved about the commencement of the XVth 
century, presents a "merchant's mark," composed of the letter H., termi- 
nating at top in two streamers, which cross so as to resemble a W. (Com- 
pare marks in Norfolk Archaeology, vol. iii. pi. vii. fig. 26, pi. ix, fig. 21, 
pi. x. figs. 2, 28.) The up-stroke is traversed by a bar terminating in a 
cross at one end, and at the other in a symbol of frequent occurrence in 
these marks, which bears resemblance to the Arabic numeral 2. Mr. 
Ewing has given several examples in his collection of Norwich Merchants' 
Marks, in the Transactions of the Norfolk Archaeological Society, already 

cited. In default of precise information regarding the origin and import of 
these devices, the suggestion may not be undeserving of notice that 
numerals appear occasionally to be combined with the initials and capricious 
symbols of which they are composed. In many marks there occurs a 

1 Nanfun, of Trethewell, Cornwall, ex- 
tinct in the reign of Henry VII., bore, 
So. a chevron, cr/n. between three wings, 


arg. Another bearing was, a chevron 
between three gem-riuu's. 



symbol closely resembling tbe numeral -1. The cross-bar of a mark on a 
irold ring communicated to tbe Institute by .Mr. Sully, of Nottino-bam, 

!ul a 2, and at tbe otber tbe Arabic siphos or 
^_^-. traversed by tbe customary line across, in imitation, pro- 
bably, of the Greek Theta, for which tbe character seems 
to have been intended. 3 Otber examples occur amongst tbe 
nnmerons Merchants' .Marks obtained by Mr. Ready from 
seals in tbe Collegiate Treasuries at Cambridge. 9 A remark- 
able similarity appears between tbe capricious charges in 
Polish heraldry and tbe singular symbols known as Merchants' Marks. 
Ifenestrier baa figured many such Polish coats in his Art du Blason, 
(Pratique des Armoiries, p. 335.) The obverse of the escutcheon found 
al Betchworth presents the bearing of the Fitz-Adrians, who held the 
manor of Brockbam in the parish of Betchworth, under the Warrens. In 
the visitation of Surrey by Clarencieulx, t. Henry VIII. (Harl. MS. 1561, 
p. 3), the arms of Adryan, Lord of Brockbam, are given thus — Arg. two 
nebuly sa., a chief chequy or and ar. The chief was doubtless derived 
from tbe Warrens, whose feudal tenants, the Fitz-Adrians, or Adryans, 
appear to have been. The fashion of the escutcheon here represented, 
however, is of much later date than tbe time when tbe male line of the 
Adrians failed, according to tbe statement in Manning and Bray's History 
of Surrey, vol. ii. pp. 209, 211, namely, between L356 and 1378, when 
Thomas Frowick, who married the heiresBj succeeded them. The south 
Bide of the chancel at Betchworth bus belonged from time immemorial to 
the manor of Brockbam, and tbe plate may have been one of several coats 
affixed to Borne memorial of tbe Frowicks, there interred. 

By Mr. W.W. K. Wv.n.m:. M.P Several valuable MSS., formerly in 

the possession of Sir Kenelm Digby. They consist of a finely illuminated 
volume, bound in red velvet, with brass bosses : on the cover is this title. 
enclosed under a piece of born : — " Catons versis in Inglische and the 
stories of Alexander and of ye iij.kinges of Colon in latinge writyn on 
perchmint and illumnede." The " Liber Catonis" has five vignette illumi- 
nations: the " Historia Alexandri" has a page illumination of two com- 
partments, and twenty-four vignettes. On a fly-leaf at the beginning 
of tbe book is written, — 

happy till ye End : 
Procede therefore aa you b< in. 

■ ; I look of thy tnu Erende, 
So to thy father I have bin. JhOn Cutts. 

On the first page is writtten, — "Chi Semma virtu Reacoglie lama q d 
Thomas < raudy." 

A Folio MS., XVth century, on vellum, bound in red velvet. It contains 
the History of the Passion of our Lord, translated from Latin into French 
or, Docti in Theol. It hai thirty-four full pages of illumina- 
tions. On tli" title appears a king receiving a book, The arms of ESngland 
occur in the border, and in otber borders or initial letters are introduced the 
red dragon ; the white rose en toleil ; red and white rose en soleil ; demi- 
i uing below it ; red ro >-. and the portcullis. Also, the 
follow of arms: Beauforl ;—.!.. a double-headed eagle displayed 

m w . fht's Memoirs on the [mprc on maj be procured from 

Jonrnal Kir. El. ileady,2j St Botolph'sLane) Cam- 
Arch. Am., vol. IL, pp, 1, i brid 


or, over all a bcndlet sa; — Az. on a fessc gu, between three foxes or wolves 
org. as many roses a/eg. seeded or. And the mottoes — " cntre tenir dieu 
lc vcuille ;" " entre tenir, cntre tenir." Branches of red rose often occur 
in the borders. On a fly-leaf at the beginning is written, — " Jamys 
beamonntt." The following occur also on the fly-leaves : 

" Thys ya master Jhon farmer buke and all hys frendes." 

" Tins is Syr John ffermers boke of Esteneston, of the Gyfte of Thomas 
lord Waux." 

At the end of the book — " goode madame when yt you thys do fynde 
Forgett not me tho I come behynde. — Your louying nephew Thomas 

" Yo r humble sonc Henry Guldeford." 

" Yor humble cousin Will'ym Penizon." (?) 

" My lord I pray you of cherete remember me youer pouer wyff — 
Elizabeth " 

" George throckmorton." 

" Mychaell poiltene."' 

" By my Anne ffermor. — by rac Katherync fermor. — by me Mary ffarmar. 
— Katherync fermor." 

" James Stewarde the iij. sonne of Duke Mordor rebellyng against Kynge 
James in Scotland was chased into Ireland." 

Also, a monogram composed of the letters wavs. — " Lord Vaiis — En so 
me conficr — Vaus." 

Thomas, second baron Vaux of Harrowden, succeeded in 1523, and this 
beautiful volume appears to have been presented by him to Sir John Fermor, 
of Eston, Northamptonshire, who married Maud, one of his sisters. 

Mr. Wynne produced also Sir Kenelm Digby's Journal, during the period 
when he was admiral of the fleet in the Mediterranean in 1629 ; and a 
MS. account of the descents of the Digbys, the Percys and the Stanleys. 
This had sometimes been regarded as written by Ben Jonson. These 
valuable MSS. appear to have passed into Mr. Wynne's possession through 
the marriage of his great grandfather, Richard Williams, brother of Sir 
W. Williams Wynn, the third Bart., with the daughter and heiress of 
Richard Mostyn, of Penbedw, Denbighshire, who married the grand-daughter 
and coheiress of Sir Kenelm Digby. 

By Mr. Rolls. — A fine illuminated Service Book, an example of French 
art, XlVth century. It has the original stamped leather binding in perfect 
preservation, with an enamelled escutcheon on the clasp, doubtless the arms 
of the original possessor (three pair of shears and a label). The name of 
the binder is impressed upon the cover — " liumus (?) stundcrt me ligavit.'" 
This remarkable volume had been purchased some years since at Brussels. 
Mr. Rolls exhibited also several Italian medals, and a large medal of 
Louis XII., king of France, and his queen, Anne of Britanny. 

By Mr. Johnson'. — Two rapiers, of beautiful workmanship, also a dagger 
with a shell-shaped guard, found at Taormina in Sicily, in the Theatre. 
A spanner for a wheel-lock gun, and a steel mount or frame-work for a 
pouch ; both are elaborately chased, and choice examples of metal work. 
XVIth century. A morion of the same period, from Venice. A steel etui 
and a sheath for scissors, delicately engraved, similar in fashion to that 
figured in this Journal, vol ii., p. 392, and of the same date. 

4 Pulteney, Margaret, sister of Thomas Lord Vaux. named Francis Pulteney. 


By Mr. Octatius Morgan, M.P. — >A portrait of Seifried Pfinzing yon 
Eenfenfeld, delicately modelled in wax. Date, 1596. The Pfinzing family 
were citizens of Nuremberg. — A steel candlestick lor burning rufih-candles, 
from the Bernal Collection. — A sea nymph holding a shell, an example of 
the bright blue-glazed ware, supposed to have been manufactured at Nevers. 
— A singular object of Italian earthenware, possibly intended to serve as 
an inkstand. It bean an escutcheon of the arms of Lorraine and Medici. 

By .Mr. HAWKINS. — A steel key, of elaborate work, which appears, by 
the arms introduced amongst the chased ornaments, to have belonged to 
Charles Honore d'Albret, Due do Luynes. lie succeeded in 1688. 

nil photographs were presented to the Institute by Captain Oakes, 
representing subjects of Archaeological interest ; — two views of the recent 
di-euvcries at Chertsey Abbey, the interments in stone coffins, pavement 
tiles, and other remains there brought to light ; — views of Ely Cathedral, 
Whitby Abbey, the Priory gate at Kenilworth, and of Kenilworth Castle. 

Medieval Seals and Impressions from Seals. — By the Rev. J. ClUTTER- 
Bl "■ k. — -Impression from a small round seal lately found near Long \\ itten- 
ham, Berks. The device is that found on love-seals of the same age (XlVth 
century), namely two heads respectant, a branch between them. The 
legend usually reads * love me and I thee. In this instance the device 
is precisely the same as on one of these amatory seals, found at Lewes, 
of which an impression was received from Mr. Figg. It here, however, 
represents the Annunciation, the legend being aye maria. A matrix 
similar in all respects is in the Collection of the lion. R. Neville. 

By Mr. POLLARD. — A small silver seal found in 18US in the grounds of 
the Observatory at Oxford. The device is a Bquirrel, 5 with the inscription, 
i crake xoti.s. Date, XlVth century. A matrix bearing this device 
and inscription, found at Komsey, is figured Gent. Mag. vol. 95, ii. p. 498. 
An impression from a similar seal is represented in Oartwright'B Hundred 
of Brainier, p. 71 ; it is appended to a document dated 1 155. Impression 
from a brass matrix of a seal of the Cistercian Abbey of Hayles, Gloucester- 
shire, found in 1821, in a field called how Garth, near Langrick, on the 
. .'t a hoi t distance from Draz Abbey, in the neighbourhood of Selhv, 
Yorkshire. ' It represents a monk holding in his right hand an ampulla 
surmounted by a cross, and in the other hand a torch (?) This figure is 
ibed in the last edition of Dugdale's Monasticon (vol. v., p. 6 i 

holding a globe -urmounted hv a em . ami a seepliv; it is supposed to 

Richard, Bar) of Cornwall, king of the Romans, the founder of 
Hayles Abbey. It appears, however, more probable thai the globe is a 
■ I containing the relique of the borj blood of Hayles, given to the 
monastery by the founder in Ii'' 1 .'*, and described as "crucem auream cum 
pede de aumail." The in cription is as follows : — ~ii]iUu fiatiTiiit' 
Dtona0tft(l bratr mavir tir rjajjUS. This matrix was in the possession 
of the late Mr. Gleadow, of Hull. Date X Vih century. It has sometimes 
been regarded a the seal of Males Owen Abbey, Shropshire, and is figured 
h in Mr. Parmer Dukes' edition of Lloyd's Antiquities of Shropshire, 

'. A repre entati >fthi« teal is also given in Mr. Blaauw'i History of 

.. r, p. 313, srhere some notice of the relique may be found, 

The squirrel was a favourite device on sits on ;> bough, the inscription being 
thi XlVth and the XVth centuries. mm i fakj mi 
<»M mi, no , round at Dunwk'h the i quirrel ' Bee a notice oi the discover) ol this 

Qei '. c ' ' i p. '■ i.'' 

£3ottcc$ oC Archaeological Publications. 

REMAINS OF PAGAN SAXONDOM, principally from Tumuli in England. Drawn 
from the originals. Described and illustrated by John Yongk Akkrman, Fellow 
and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of London. London : J. llussell Smith. 
1852—5. 4to. 

It is not many years since archaeological pursuits were looked upon as 
a sort of innocent trifling, very fit to be indulged in by gentlemen with 
more money than wit, or clergymen not overburthened with rural duty. If 
they did no good, they did at least no harm, and they amused him that 
followed them, and those that laughed at him. Collections of curiosities, as 
they were called, were considered as a sort of inferior collection of articles 
of virtu, which only proved their owners not to possess the refined taste of 
cognoscenti in Greek or Etruscan remains. Slowly however, and by degrees, 
the truth became acknowledged, that these curiosities were historical 
records, dating from periods too, of which no other record was to be found ; 
and with the recognition of this truth, archaeology began to assume the pro- 
portions of a science. It was clear enough that we knew a good deal 
more about the Greeks when we read what Otfried Midler wrung from their 
urns and bas-reliefs, than when we continued on the beaten track of word- 
grinding with grim old Godfrey Herrmann. And so it was thought we might 
turn our own archaeological treasures to account, and see if they too had 
not a tale to tell, which was not written elsewhere. But from that moment 
it was also necessary to collect, in a very different manner from what had 
prevailed, and to look for answers to questions which heretofore no one had 
thought of putting. Dryasdust was, in fact, discovered to be a dull 
dog, who had fairly earned all the quizzing his aimless pains had brought 
upon him. If he was thanked at all, it was for having, by a useful but 
unconscious instinct, preserved here and there trifles from destruction, 
which more thinking men could now compare and combine, and use for 
definite objects. 

Comparison and combination — these were the two levers by which the 
inert mass of facts was to be moved. Induction was here also to claim its 
rights, and observations to take place of crude a priori conclusions. And 
so we have at last a sound footing, and can look back upon and count our 
gains. "What is perhaps more valuable still, we know by what process we 
can continue to advance. If we know that much remains to be done, we 
have at least learnt how to do it. We must compare and combine facts, 
real, definite, and not imaginary, facts : we must note resemblances and 
differences, and apply to archaeology something of the principle which guides 
us in comparative anatomy. 

It is this which gives their value to such books as Mr. Akerman's, and 
on this account we look upon his work as a boon to the English archaeo- 
logist. He brings together, from a great number of different quarters, 
objects whose full interest can only be duly appreciated when they are 


compared ami studied together, as they may be in his pages. They are 
executed mostly in the natural size, and with the natural colours ; are, as 
far as we have had tin' means of judging, scrupulously accurate in point of 
resemblance, to the originals ; and the selection is such, as not only to he 
of service in a scientific view, hut also to present a very interesting and 
ornamental representation of the household implements and jewellery of 
our Anglo-Saxon forefathers. The hook is not less a graceful adornment 
of a boudoir-table, than a work which the student will consult with advan- 
and satisfaction. It is natural that the objects drawn should he of a 
kind attractive from their form and the purpose they were intended to 
serve. A large proportion of them are articles of dress, mostly, in all pro- 
bability, female dress — necklaces, fibulse, and the like ; and these are pro- 
perly selected hecause in them we can best observe the state and progress 
of the arts, which are a key to the social condition of a people. Thus, in 
these plates we have figures of sixty-three circular or cruciform fibulse from 
nt parts of England, many of which display an astonishing familiarity 
with the secrets of the lapidary's and goldsmith's art, and which might 
advantageously he adopted as models for brooches at the present day. 
There are no less than eight representations of glass drinking vessels, one 
of which is of such peculiar quality and form, that a most competent autho- 
rity (Hot knowing that it was derived from a Saxon interment) pronounced 
it to be Venetian, and cinque cento. We have necklaces of gold and pre- 
cious stones, clasps and buckles of beautiful execution, and a variety of 
articles of the toilet, including several richrj ornamented hair-combs. One 
01 two plates are devoted to the representation of weapons, which arc on a 

The reader will easily judge, from this sketch, how much the work con- 
tain- both to instruct and interest. Every plate is accompanied with as 
much letterpress as suffices to give an accurate account of the locality 
wherein, and (as far as possible) the circumstances under which, the articles 
represented were found ; and this is obviously the most important part of 
the work ; for, without these details, the most exquisite of curiosities that 
Dryasdust or Jonathan Oldbuck ever locked up from his neighbours, is 
a curiosity, and nothing more : with them, it may help US to read a very 
interesting chapter in the unwritten history of men. 

Mr. Akerman ha- prefixed to his work a Bhorl introduction, written in a 

Very JUS! and -mi ml pint, ami which will lie lead w it li pleasure a ml i lit I re- 1 

even by the layman, with profil even bj the professed antiquary. He 
in it upon .Mine account of the forms and modes of mortuary deposit 
among the Anglo-Saxons, noticing the coincidences and distinctions 
red iii graves in different part of England. Thus be is led to Bpealt 
of inhumation and cremation ; of the depo it of arms and ornaments with 
the dead ; of the use of coffins, or of funeral urns. And, bearing in yiew 
the universal connection between funeral ceremonies and religion, he adds 
a few judiciou page on the Saxon mythology. 

We fear that there is not a large public demand for works of this nature, and 

in too many oases the pleasure of the labour mu I be its own reward. We 

cannot, however, conclude without expre ing a hope that ;i worl bo 

admirably executed a this may find a wider class of readers, and that its ml it even to those for whom its scientific character 

.1. \l. K I.M I' 

I i ill l;i M KOHi ' i ( 



BRICK AND MARBLE IN THE MIDDLE AGES; Notes of a Tour in the North 
of Italy. By George Edmund Street, Architect, F.S.A., Copiously Illustrated. 
London: John Murray. 18.55. 8vo. 

We feel sure that those of our readers who may not as yet have met 
with this elegant anil agreeable volume, will feel that a service has been 
done to them hy its having been brought under their notice, for although 
Mr. Street's examination of the architecture of Lombardy and the Venetian 
States, was undertaken with artistic and practical views, and not in order 
to carry out antiquarian or historical investigations, much information 
highly interesting to all architectural antiquaries will be found in it. 

We have the high authority of Professor Willis for the assertion that, the 
neglect of Italian Gothic architecture is an " undeserved neglect," and it 
will, we think, be readily seen, that in addition to the fact that the study 
of this variety of Gothic architecture is calculated, as be has so ably shown, 1 
to throw much light on the principles of Gothic architecture in general ; 
there are many reasons why it is deserving of more attention, both from 
architects and from archaeologists, than it has hitherto received: to the archi- 
tect it very frequently presents novel, ingenious, and beautiful combinations 
and details usually of most perfect execution, and sometimes of the greatest 
beauty, while to the archaeologist an accurate knowledge of the archi- 
tecture (that, as Sismondi has said, " of all the fine arts which bears the 
most immediately the impress of the character of its age ") of Italy in the 
13th and 14th centuries can never seem unimportant, especially when he 
remembers that at that time Italy was the most advanced of European 
nations in letters, in the fine arts, in the arts of manufacture and in com- 
merce ; that this was the period of Dante, of Giotto, and of the Pisani. 

Although Mr. Gaily Knight's splendid folios, Professor Willis's acute and 
systematic treatise, and Mr. Ruskin's publications, unequalled as they are in 
scrupulous fidelity of representation, have done much to place the means of 
acquiring such knowledge within the reach of the English reader, there is 
still ample room for more detailed information, and Mr. Street's work is 
welcome as supplying this so far as Lombardy and the Venetian States are 
concerned. In pursuing his object, which, as he informs us in his preface, 
is " mainly to show the peculiarities of the development of Pointed archi- 
tecture in Italy, and specially to show in what way the materials so com- 
monly used there, brick and marble, were introduced both in decoration 
and in construction," he has, in the well-chosen and admirably executed 
illustrations, more than 70 in number, which the volume contains, and in 
the intelligent and instructive comments and criticisms which accompany 
them, given us the means of making ourselves acquainted with many little- 
known, but very interesting buildings, and a great variety of beautiful 
detail. We have availed ourselves of the liberality of the publisher to place 
before our readers a few of the illustrations, and we have endeavoured so 
to select them as to give some idea of the variety and novelty of matter 
which the reader will find in the volume itself. 

The west front of the Church of St. Fermo Maggioro at Verona (see cut, 
Xo. I), which, according to Professor Willis, probably dates from about 
1 o 1.'!, is a very characteristic specimen of its period and country, parti- 
cularly as regards the alternate hands of " red brick and warm-coloured 
stone," and the hoods over the tombs affixed to it ; such, also, is the north 

1 In the Introduction to the " Remarks on the Architecture of the Middle Ages, 
especially of Italy," 1855. 

VOL. XII. u R 

II. NOKTli Til Mi>. rilE CATIIKDII \ I. A I 'I. I M'i.\.\ 



porch, on which Mr. Street bestows the qualified praise that it " is very 
fine of its kind." The disproportion between the slendcrness of the shafts 
and the mass they support, and the faulty construction which requires the 
aid of connecting bars of iron, are no doubt the defects which prevent so 
great an admirer of the Italian fashion of constantly using bearing-shafts 
from bestowing warmer commendation upon this, the ever-recurring form 
of porch in Italian churches. 

In this instance it will be seen, that although brick is pretty largely 
used, all the ornamental detail is executed in stone or marble. In the north 
transept of the Cathedral of Cremona (see cut, No. II), we have an example 
in which nothing but brick is used, either for walling or for decoration, 
excepting in the doorway and its porch. Mr. Street comments upon this 
and the south transept as follows : " The rest of the interior of the duomo 
is all of brick, and it boasts of two transept-fronts, which are certainly 
most remarkable and magnificent in their detail, though most unreal and 
preposterous as wholes ; they are, both of them, vast sham fronts, like the 
west front, in that they entirely conceal the structure of the church behind 
them, and pierced with numbers of windows which from the very first must 
have been built but to be blocked up. These fronts have absolutely nothing 
to do with the buildings against which they are placed, and in themselves, 
irrespective of this very grave fault, are, I think, positively ugly in their 
outline and mass. And yet there is a breadth and a grandeur of scale 
about them which goes far to redeem their faults, and a beauty about much 
of their detail which I cannot but admire extremely. Both transepts are 
almost entirely built of brick, and very similar in their general idea, but 
whilst only the round arch is used in the south transept, nothing but the 
pointed arch is used in the northern." ..." The date of the work is, in all 
probability, somewhere about the middle of the 14th century." ..." The 
tracery of the rose windows is all finished in brick." 

The windows are instructive examples of the treatment of the material 
for such purposes (see cuts, Nos. III. and V.), and other very beautiful 
examples are afforded by the windows in the campanile of St. Andrea, 
Mantua (see cuts, Nos. IV. and VI.). 

In the cities of Upper Italy, the town-halls (Broletto or Palazzo Publico) 

II. Brick wind 


Brick, window, Church of S. And 

M mtuu. 

* *fc m r .7.v pi vu tin. &? 

... r 

(View of the Southern cud. 


form a class of edifices of the greatest interest, both in an historical and an 
architectural point of view. The Italian school of Gothic architecture 
appears perhaps to greater advantage in these buildings (peculiarly pic* 
turesque and grand, as Professor Willis has termed them) than in the 

churches ; the uses for which they were constructed allowed, or even sug- 
gested, a simplicity of composition admitting of that breadth of etl'ect which 
Mr. Street has well observed, seems to have heen the great aim of the 
Italian architects. Lofty, open arches on the ground, and over them 
windows of size proportionate to the Large hall which occupies the upper 
Story, with a projecting balcony, or Kinghiera. in the centre, arc the 
features, which with a tower, to contain the bell which summoned the 
citizens to debate or to arms, are common to nearly all these structures. 
Every traveller in Italy must recollect the fine effect of the mass of shade 
in the open lower story, contrasting with the sun-lit wall above. The 
Broletto at Monza (see cut, No. VII.) is a very picturesque and interesting 
example nf these buildings, and has a peculiarly fine ringhiera. 

The Palace of the Jurisconsults at Cremona allbrds an instance of nearly 
the same composition, somewhat differently treated. Mr. Street remarks 
upon it : " There is a simplicity and truthfulness of construction about this 
little building which make it especially pleasing after the unreal treatment 
of the great transept fronts of the Duomo. " 

The Ducal Palace at Mantua presents another variety of the same com- 
position, most bl autifully executed in brick. The fine windows of the 
upper story arc, however, injured by the common Italian defect, an e.xce- ive 
Blenderness of the shaft which divides the lights. 

Our limits compel us to confine ourselves to thus merely indicating what 
the volume contains, but we think that we have fully proved the assertion 
with which we commenced. As archaeologists, we could have wished that 
Mr. Street's architectural taste were somewhat more catholic, and that he 
had been disposed to give more information upon buildings anterior or 
posterior to the L3th and 11 th centuries. To his limitation of his field we 
must probably attribute the absence of any notice of two methods of 
employing burnt clay for architectural decoration, which occur in Lom- 
bardy, viz.. the- use of discs or basins of painted and glazed earth, as in 

mpanile of the cathedral, and -eviral of the churches at I'avia, and 

that of terra cotta, not merely turned out of a mould, hut carefully modelled 

Up by hand, as in parts of the Ospedale Maggiore a! Milan. Somewhat 

more of historical investigation a- to the dates of the buildings noticed 

would .eld greatly to the value id' the work, for although BUCh researches do 

rm a part of the author's plan, his objecl being, as we have before 
said, artistic rather than antiquarian, we cannot hut regret that tiny did 
not do erver could doubtless do much to rectify 

or reconcile erroneous or doubtful dates. Wo hope th estions will 

ttention when be prepares to rive u . a we trust lie will one day 
do. an an-., iint of the architecture of Central Italy, the district which, in 
tie- opinion of many competent observer , contains the best examples of 
that Italian tyle which correspond with our Decorated. 

We cannot conclude without expressing that commendation of Mi'. 
mirable woodcut i ti hich they bo richlj desei ve ; their combination 

tincl ami intelligent rendering of detail, ami of j 1 general effect, 

; • ; i if evei been equalled, ami certainlj nev< r bui pa i d. 


Archaeological intelligence 

Mr. THORPE lias announced the intention of publishing (by subscription) 
the " History of England under the Norman Kings " ; or, to the accession 
of the house of Plantagenet, with an epitome of the early History of 
Normandy ; translated, with considerable additions, from the German 
work by Dr. J. M. Lappenberg. It will form one vol. Svo., uniform with 
Lappenbcrg's " History of England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings," trans- 
lated by Mr. Thorpe. Dr. Pauli is engaged in preparing the continuation 
of Lappenbcrg's work, and he has already brought the history down to the 
death of Richard II. Subscribers to Mr. Thorpe's forthcoming work are 
requested to send their names to Messrs. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion-court, 

A reprint of the most important work on the history and antiquities of 
Ireland, the "Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters," has been an- 
nounced by Messrs. Ho;lges and Smith, at a considerable reduction in price. 
The Annals, forming seven volumes 4to., were published in 1850, at four- 
teen guineas, and it is proposed, if four hundred copies are subscribed for, 
to re-issue the work at the price of twelve shillings per volume, within 
fourteen months, payment to be made when the entire work is finished. 
The readers of this Journal are well aware of the archaeological value of the 
Annals, and of the valuable notes by which the translation is accompanied. 
Frequent reference has been made at the meetings of the Institute to the 
work, the most authentic source of information regarding the architectural 
monuments, the remarkable examples of early art, the personal as well as 
general history of the sister kingdom, hitherto involved in such obscurity. 
The Annals extend from the earliest historic period to the year 1616. 
The valuable evidence which they alone supply in ascertaining the date and 
origin of the Dunvegan Cup, the Cross of Cong, the Lismore Crosier, and 
those productions of a remarkable class of early art, in metal and in 
sculptured stone, must be fresh in our recollection. Those who are disposed 
to encourage so spirited an undertaking in the cause of archaeology, should 
forward their names as subscribers to Messrs. Hodges and Smith, 104, 
Graf ton-street, Dublin. 

The value of photography, as an auxiliary to archaeological purposes, 
has been repeatedly urged upon our notice. A striking evidence of the 
advantages to be derived from this mode of illustration, has recently been 
brought before our society by one of its earliest and best friends, Mr. Charles 
J. Palmer, the historian of Great Yarmouth, in the delicate reproduction of 
the charter granted by King John to that town, in 1210. This admirable 
example of photographic skill was provided, under Mr. Palmer's direction, 
to accompany the " Repertory of Deeds and Documents relating to Great 
Yarmouth, printed by order of the Town Council," of which he has kindly 
presented a copy to the Library of the Institute. In connexion with the 
service thus rendered to antiquarian science, as shown by Dr. Diamond, 
Mr. riiilip Dclamotte and others skilled in the photographic processes, Ave 
may invite attention to a Memoir read by the Rev. F. A. Marshall, of 
Peterborough, at a recent archaeological meeting in that city. It sets forth 
the importance of the art in its application to preserving pictorial records 
of National Monuments, and is accompanied by useful practical suggestions. 


This Memoir has recently been published by Messrs. Hering, 137j Regent- 

The Journal of the late Rev. Bryan Faussett, during the formation of his 
highly valuable collections which now enrich the museum of Mr. Mayer, at 
Liverpool, will shortly he delivered to the subscribers. Mr. C. ROACH 
Smith has added copious notes and an introduction to this instructive 
record, which will bo accompanied by twenty plates and several hundred 
; its, under Mr. Fairholt's direction. The impression is limited, and 
subscribers' names should be sent without delay to Mr. Roach Smith, who 
announces also, in immediate preparation, a quarto volume on " The Roman 
Antiquities of London,"' copiously illustrated. The issue will be limited to 
subscribers, to whom the price will not exceed two guineas. The volume 
will comprise architectural and sculptured remains, inscriptions, wall 
paintings, Ac, with the more remarkable reliques, procured through Mr. 
Roach Smith's unwearied exertions, in his own museum. Since the earnest 
desire of archaeologists in England, that such collections should be preserved 
in some National depository for public advantage and instruction, will again, 
it is feared, be frustrated, the proposed publication claims the cordial 
encouragement of all who appreciate the interest of our National Antiquities. 

A " History of the Isle of Wight, from the earliest period to the present 
time," haa been announced as in preparation by Mr. llillicr, whose excava- 
tion-, made by permission of the Hon. AY. A. 'Court Holmes, and sir John 
Simeon, I 'art. , have realised such remarkable results. The Bret portion of 
ork, which will form one volume 4to. (by subscription), will he shortly 
in readiness. 

Mr. Henry Harrod, F.S.A., Hon. See. of the Norfolk and Norwich 
Archaeological Society, whose indefatigable researches have contributed 
much to illustrate the History and Antiquities of Bast Anglia, has 
announced for immediate publication (by subscription) " The Castles and 
Convents of Norfolk," in one vol. Svo, with numerous plates and illuBtra- 
SubBcribers' name- are to be addressed to Mr. Muskett, bookseller, 
Norwich. Large paper one guinea; small paper fifteen shillings. 

The Arundel Society has recently made arrangements of the greate I 
importance for the promotion of the Knowledge of Art, in bringing before 
the public tl in " fictile ivory," due to the zeal and taste 

of Mr. Alexander Nesbitt, aided by Mr. Pranks and Mr. Westwood. 
By the kindness of the former, the exquisite examples of sculpture in ivory, 
from all accessible collections in this country or on the continent, have, from 
time to time, been displayed at the nil I the Institute, and more 

especially in the temporary museum formed at the Cambridge meeting, 
lue of these remarkable illustrations of the History 
of Ait called forth the gracious commendations of II. I!. II. the Prince 
Albert. The series there di played comprised marly 200 examples, to 
which many additions have been made. 'I he Arundel Society now offer to 
their memboi i and to the public o cla titled selection of casts, from the 
i to the sixteenth century, or any class separately. An excellent 
catalogue has been supplied by Mr. Oldfield. These beautiful productions 

may bi ■ | n at 2 I . N< H Bond Street. 

II. Royal lli-i.n. - tie Prinoi Ami: Im bei n pleat ed to granl his 
patronage to the Annual Meeting of the In titute, for the ensuing year, to 

he held m I ■;. with the cordial BBCOUl BJ 'tie nt of the I. old PrOVOSl 

and local nutlnu 

2Tf)e Archaeological journal. 

DECEMBER, 1855. 


The results attained from careful excavations in ancient 
cemeteries, have at length assumed so definite a form as to 
be susceptible of scientific classification. The substitution of 
observation for theory, of induction for a, priori reasoning, 
has tended to throw light upon a darkness almost primeval, 
and to bring order into what, for centuries, had been little 
more than a mass of confusion. Comparison of data, 
capable of being tested by known and ascertained facts of 
history, now enables us to bring them within fixed limits 
of space and time ; to assign various phenomena to various 
periods, and to reason with some security upon the races to 
which such phenomena are to be referred. And as one 
group after another has been carefully and accurately limited 
and ascertained, it has been eliminated from the mass 
which could be the object of indefinite speculation, narrow- 
ing ever more and more the circle within which uncer- 
tainty can prevail. 

It is impossible not to see, that graves of a certain pecu- 
liar character, opened in various places, in Kent, in Grlou- 
cestershire, in the Isle of Wight, belong to one another ; 
that is, to one race of men. and one period of time. It is 
equally impossible to separate them from certain interments 
found in Normandy, and in valleys of the Rhine and Danube. 
Unless we set out with assuming all the races of mankind 
to have buried their dead in the same manner at all periods 
of the world's existence ; or, that all the races of mankind 
have, at some period or other. passed through precisely the 
same forms and modes of doing this : we cannot escape 

vol.. XII. s s 


from the conclusion, thai the close resemblance in the cases 
referred to, imphes a near connection between the peoples 
whose remains we are investigating, and a nearly contem 
poraneous practice. 

The discovi ry of coins of known rulers in all these places. 
further gives us an approximate date for the period ; and 
the history of the European races, teaches which of these, 
given time, were to be found in given districts. A coin 
of Justinian found in a Kentish grave, shows that the 
deposit cannot he earlier than the year of Christ, 527 : that 
the coin is uot an original, but a copy and much worn, 
further makes it probable that even this date is much too 
. Tin- same reasoning places some of the graves at 
Selzen also in the Vhli century; while a coin of Charle- 
magne, in the valley of the Eaulne, brings down one inter- 
menl there at least as late as the beginning of the [Xth 

At the same time, it must not be forgotten, that the occur- 
e of these coins, which fixes the earliest possible date of 
an interment, does nol limit the period in the opposite direc- 
tion. They may have been, and indeed most likely were 
sited al periods la tor than the earliesl years of the empe- 
rors thai struck them ; constanl experience teaches us thai 
coins even of different centuries occur in one grave : it is 
clear that the latest alone can deride the date, and even that 
only negatively. The intermenl may ho later, cannot he 
earlier than tic striking of the coin. All that has been said. 
applies mi doubt, in perfect strictness only to ihr one inter- 
in which 3UCh e"iiis have actually been found, and to 

no others. Bui where others, similar to it in every detail, 
are opened on the Bame spot, and presenl throughoul the 
-.•line appearances, i\ is impossible nol to conclude thai they 
are uearly contemporaneous, and the remains of people who 
had our constanl mode of disposing of their dead. The 
burthen oi proof certainly lies with him who would deny 
[j i in fad more probable thai graves nearly iden- 
tical in details, and placed on the same spot, should he those 

of one race, than that accident should have broughl t ither 

having precisely the same funeral dispositions in 

pot. We therefore naturally class together the contents 

w hich occupj i he ame ground, and present the 

i nd wo as -i' ii them tot he same period, 


allowing, of course, as much time as can, according to cir- 
cumstances, be calculated to have been requisite for the accu- 
mulation of the interments observed. And here history may 
possibly supply the means of fixing the limits within which 
even this accumulation must be restricted. One interment at 
Londinieres is unquestionably later in date than the foun- 
dation of the Carolvingian empire ; that is, than the year 
of Christ, 800. 13ut at that time, and from it, for a century 
downwards, the only people who could be settled at Londi- 
nieres were Franks ; we therefore reasonably conclude the 
cemetery there, in which a grave is found to contain a coin 
of Charlemagne, to be a Prankish cemetery. Again, as the 
Franks could not be found at Londinieres before the year 
4o'0, we must place the gradual accumulation of the dead 
in that cemetery between the dates so ascertained. It is 
clear that the only error here could be that of placing both 
the beginning and end of the period too high ; we have 
ascertained, in truth, only the date before which no Frankish 
interment could take place, and the one Frankish interment, 
which is defined by a coin of Charlemagne, did not take place. 
The coin of Charlemagne may have been deposited long- 
after that emperor's death : the Franks may not have m 
a settlement in Londinieres till long after the time of Clovis: 
the events could be in neither case earlier. 

In this manner we are justified in assuming that the inter- 
ments which occur under precisely similar circumstances in 
the neighbourhood of Londinieres, at Parfondcval, En ver- 
meil, Douvrend, belong to the same race and period, viz. : the 
Franks at the time approximated to. Again, when our 
date is limited by the era of Justinian, as it is at Selzen, we 
enquire, what race could occupy the valleys of the Middle 
Rhine at that period 1 and our conclusion is, that it could 
only be a Frankish population. A grave in Kent, limited 
by ;i coin of the same emperor, could only have received 
[he body of an Anglo-Saxon. 

Again, when we proceed to compare the interments in 
these various districts with one another, we are Led to further 
conclusions. We find so striking a resemblance in details, 
in graves from Kent, from Normandy, and the Rhine, that 
we are irresistibly compelled t<> see in all these, only the 
records of strictly contemporaneous races, \<'i of Mich as 
had adopted one nearly uniform mode of disposing of their 


dead. When we find them using the same, or very similar 
weapons, the same, or very similar ornaments and domestic 
utensils, we arc confirmed in our conclusion, that we have 
before us the remains of different branches of one great 
namely, the Teutonic, about a certain defined period, 
namely between the Vth and Xth centuries of our era. 
For the present then we will call the interments of this 
character, the Teutonic or Germanic group, and classify it 
by tli>' occurrence of large iron spears, iron umbos of shields. 
double-edged iron broad-swords, without hilts, guards, or 
pommels ; large single-edged cutlasses, knives of different 
. and iron javelin-heads ; drinking vessels of glass and 
wooden buckets sel with bronze ; finally brooches and 
fibulae, cruciform and circular, buckles and clasps, the whole 
ornamented with precious metals and stones, or pastes 
and niello of elaborate patterns ; head.- of glass and ame- 
thysts, and a few rare ornaments of silver. But above all, 
we distinguish it by the absence of cremation. In all these 
interments, the corpse has been deposited, with or without 
arms and ornaments, lying stretched out or in a cowering 
ire, in a coffin or without a coffin as the case may he, 
hui always i This group comprises, in short, "The 

I Inburnt < rermans of the age of Cron." 

But another class of cemeteries has also been observed, 
whose characteristic peculiarity is, the interment in urns of 
various patterns, of human bones calcined and reduced t<» 
ashes by the action of fire. Accurate comparison has shown 
that in spite of this one great difference, there are points of 
mblance between the interments of this and the fore- 
going group. The ornaments which accompany the urns 
are found to be not dissimilar to those deposited with the 
unburnt skeletons; the remains of weapons are rare, and 
this is accounted for by the fire by which the bodies them- 
have been consumed; bul when they do occur, even 
in fr im\ are found to correspond with thoseofthe 

firs! group. 

The question now arises, Can we proceed with these, as 
we did wiih ihe foi : can we arrranee them also 

her, and have we any .-'■cure starting points in history 
or chronology to direel u .' The answer must he in the 
affirmative. We arc nol entirely withoul them, bul the} 
arc nol o obvious and eas\ to eizc as those thai we had 


previously to deal with, and require rather more intricate 
combination to become perfectly intelligible and satisfactory. 

The Anglo-Saxon is only one of three races who are 
known, from history, to have, at different times, held sway 
in this island, and to any one of which, these remains might 
prima facie be attributed. But the claim of the Romans 
vanishes at once, because we are amply supplied with the 
means of comparing these interments with those of Romans, 
here and abroad, and they are found at once to differ in 
almost all essential conditions. Of the Kelts we know ex- 
tremely little, but still that little does not correspond with 
what we observe in the interments under review. Anglo- 
Saxons alone remain. 

Now if we set out with the tentative presumption, that 
these urn-burials belong also to that great Teutonic stock 
which occupied the west of Europe, and ruled for centuries 
in this island, we may reasonably expect to find analogous 
phenomena in the other lands where branches of the same 
stock were also, from generation to generation, masters of 
the soil. Positive history teaches us, that the Anglo-Saxons 
emigrated into this country from the northern districts of 
Germany. If, then, these are Anglo-Saxon burials, it is 
not absurd to expect similar burials in the lands from which 
the Anglo-Saxons came. 

But here we are met by a difficulty in limine. Although 
for more than three centuries urns have been sought for and 
dug up in the north of Germany, it is only within a very lew 
years that they have been properly preserved and describe. 1. 
They were noticed, indeed, even in the XVth century, and 
the explanation of them sorely puzzled the heads of the natu- 
ralists of that day. On the whole, the popular theory was, 
that they were natural productions, pullulations of the earth 
like bulbous roots ; and a confirmation of this was found in 
the asserted fact, that they mostly made their appearance in 
the month of May. 1 Grave authors, especially clergymen, 
discussed this point in sermons from their pulpits; for among 
other corollaries, it had been deduced that as the pots could 
be good for no Christian use, they must be production- of 

1 This is by no means improbable. Tin- whose western slopes such cemeteries are 

loosening of the earth during the winter usually found. They do so here and there 

anil early spring, may easily have caused till this vt-rv time. 
slight land-slips in the sandy hills on 


the devil : very probably the remains of a dim tradition of 
their original use, strengthened by the superstitious views 
entertained of them by the peasantry, and which are not at 
all extinct even at this day. 

The spontaneous theory certainly received a rude Bhock, 
when it was remarked that even if clay pots could pullulate, 
the bronze earrings and burnt bones they contained could 
not : and one far-seeing naturalist fancied he had solved all 
difficulties by suggesting that they might have been brought 
by a whirlwind from India or Africa, and deposited in 
I i.-ni v ; which he proved by showing that whirlwinds 
often did transfer portable things from one place to another. 
Meanwhile, the truth had become pretty clear to someof the 
country pasl >rs, and by degrees the fact was recognised, that 
these were in reality the mortuary urns of older race-. But 
works like the " Antiquitaeten ttemarques" of Rhodes, and 
Herrmann's w " Maslographia, ,J while they cleared away an im- 
mense deal of error, heaped tin- subject over with an immense 
of superfluous, and in this case, mischievous erudition. 
Mortuary urns became the property of the learned, and were 
treated of with an ample allowance of the pedantry which 
was then fashionable. The misfortune was that hooks were 
multiplied, containing a vast deal of Greek and Hebrew, 
Coptic, and Samaritan, which had nothing to do with the 
matter; but in which the great object which we seek, an 

accurate description of the articles found, was not thought of 
any moment. In general, in these hooks the rude woodcuts 
of urns and their contents are as little capable of giving us 
a true conception of their form and nature, as the vague and 

derated language which those woodcuts were intended 
to illustrate. Worst of all, it was rarely thought necessary 
to give an accurate account of the where and /joz# anything 
had been found : in fact, these inveterate curiosity-hunters 
kepi the locality of their mini as much as possible from the 
knowledge of their rivals. However, for some years a better 
appreciation of the matter has prevailed, and the archaeolo- 

of Germany have gone about their work in a careful, 
■ • an i Lory manner, A rid hence, although 

retted thai a g I deal of w hal w as recorded 

while the means of observation were plentifully supplied i 
iioi to bo implicitly relied upon, I think we have a sufficient 
amouul of i rut i worl h \ e\ idence for our purj i 


The mortuary urns discovered in Norfolk, Suffolk, Cam- 
bridge, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Sussex, and other 
counties, with bronze ornaments and the remains of iron 
implements, are of a very marked and peculiar character, 
which cannot well be mistaken, or confounded with that of 
other urns, discovered without such adjuncts. Urns of pre- 
cisely similar form, and with exactly the same peculiarities, 
have been discovered in Jutland and parts of Friesland, on 
the borders of the Elbe, in Westphalia, in Thuringia, in parts 
of Saxony, in the duchies of Bremen and Verden, the county 
of Hoya, and other districts on the Weser : in short, in many 
parts of Germany east of the Rhine, west of the Upper Elbe 
and Saale, and north of the Main. They have, therefore, 
been found in countries which were occupied by the fore- 
fathers of the Anglo-Saxons. The latest of these discoveries, 
is that made in the course of last year at Stade on the Elbe, 
in the kingdom of Hanover, and as this is well known to 
myself in most of its details, I will describe some of the 
points of resemblance between it and the results of English 
researches. The urns are mostly of a dark brown or dull 
black clay, rudely executed, and never turned on the lathe : 
the foot itself being seldom quite flat, and here and there 
ornamented with a cross. They are often distinguished by a 
number of bulges in the sides, which have been, for the most 
part, produced by pressure of the clay from within. Some 
are nearly globular, with a slight rim for a neck, and dis- 
proportionately small opening : others are ornamented with 
one or more raised rims or fillets round the neck ; and these 
fillets are often marked with oblique lines, rudely scratched, 
or dots, apparently made with the tip of the finger. Others 
have knobs applied to different parts of the neck and the 
belly. The occurrence of handles is extremely rare.'- The 
general form of ornament consists in circular lines round the 
neck, drawn very irregularly with the finger or a stick, and 
triangular figures below the shoulder, in the openings of 
which above and below are stars of dots (generally six 
disposed round a central one) made by the tip of the finger. 
And sometimes they are stamped with small circular or 
rhomboidal patterns, produced with the end of a stick, in 

- Among eighty urns from Stade in the vessel, with the usual ornaments of tri- 
Museum at, Hanover, only one has a angular lines and stars of dote. 
handle. It is a small pitcher-shaped 


which a rude cross or star lias been cut. The custom 
common elsewhere of covering these urns with saucer-shaped 

Is or bowls of clay, does not prevail here, but many of the 
urns have covers of their own, carefully fitting into the neck, 
and ornamented on the top with what seem rude figures oi 
birds and animals. Any one who will take the trouble to 
compare the figures in Mr. Neville's Saxon obsequies with 

this description, will see at « e the striking resemblance 

borne by his urns to those ai Stade. The same applies to 
those in the British Museum, from Eye in Suffolk, and from 

ix, to those in the Antiquities of Derbyshire, and to 
others in the Archaeological Journals and Archaeologia. The 
following description, by Professor Henslow, of urns found 
near Derbyshire, almost exactly represents the form of those 
found at Stade : — " They are all wrought by hand without the 
ii-' of the lithe, out of a dark-coloured clay, frequently 
mixed with fragments of felspar ; they are vory slightly 
baked, though some have been so far so as to have acquired 
a reddish tinge. The majority are dark brown, passing 
either to black or a dark green tint. Many are ornamented 
with a few lines or scratches arranged in different patterns ; 
and some are more highly embellished by the addition of 
stamped patterns, such as might readily Ik- formed by 
not eh in-- the cud of a stick, or twisting a small piece of metal 
into a spiral or zig-zag pattern. Several of the urns have 
projecting knobs or bosses. Most of th se bosses have been 
formed by merely pressing out the sides of the urn from 
within, whilst it was in a -oft state; but in some cases they 
were found of a -olid lump of clay, which has been stuck on 
the surface of the urn." 

[f we continue our comparison, and examine the articles 
found with these urn-, wo shall find an equally striking 

an nt between the German .-Mid the English interments. 
In both we find the remains oi sels and beads, which 

d to the arii-, ii of a strong lire. In both 
occur combs of ivory or horn, which are also not yery 
unusual in gra\ es of the "unburnl group. In both wo find 
small bear and tweezers, with earpicks attached; orna- 
mented discs of bone, and :i multiplicity of bronze buckles, 
remains of fibulas and clasps, ornamented with the same or 
lilar p.'in ; Tic identity of if' e interments 
cannot i hen I t hink. be denied. 


But if we arc inclined in England to attribute them to the 

Anglo-Saxons, much more must we attribute them in 
Germany to the race from which the Anglo-Saxons came. 
Roman thc} r cannot be in Germany, for they are found where 
Romans never came. Slavonic they probably are not, for 
they are found in countries where the Slaves never had 
lasting settlements ; and bear no resemblance whatever to 
what is commonly found in lands where the Slaves were 
settled from the commencement of our historical period. 
Keltic they are not, for there is no record of Kelts in north 
Germany at all ; and what little we do know of Keltic art. 
has nothing in common with these forms. But if they are 
none of these, they are German ; and if they are German, 
so are the similar ones in England : in other words we have 
here a second group, namely, that of " The Burnt Germans 
of the age of Iron." And two classes of interments are 
shown to belong to the Anglo-Saxons : one in which crema- 
tion was, one in which it was not practised : assuredly a 
difference of such importance that we are bound to use all 
our efforts to account for it. 

There seem to me but two ways in which this can be 
done, and only two hypotheses by which the facts observed 
can be co-ordinated. We may assume a difference of custom 
among different races, or the same race at different periods. 
We may suppose Jutes, and Angles, and Saxons, and half a 
score more subdivisions of the Germanic race, to have had 
throughout modes of interment, essentially differing upon this 
one point. The criterion will be, if Ave find certain customs in- 
variably prevailing in certain districts, which can be shown to 
have been invariably occupied by some one or more of these 
particular subdivisions of races. If we cannot do this, our 
hypothesis will be insufficient, and the whole superstructure 
will break down. Or we may assume an identity of custom in 
the race, varied only, first in progress of time, and next by 
causes internal or external, which can be assigned. On this 
assumption it must be proved or made probable that all the 
races in question had originally one and the same custom ; 
that they all relinquished it at the same or at different times ; 
and that sufficient reasons can be assigned, either derived 
from the nature of the custom itself, or from causes external 
to its nature, to account satisfactorily for such a change. 

vol,. XII. t x 


Practically stated, the matter resolves itself into the two 
following propositions : — 

I. Differenl tribes of Germans, all being pagans, 3 respect- 
ively adopted and kept up the one form of burial to the 
exclusion of the other. 

II. All ill'' different tribes of Germans, adopted first one 
and then the other form, in progress of time, and in con- 
sequence of internal <>r external influences. 

W'lini we have decided upon these two points, a third 
question, uot vet involved in the premises, will still remain 
to In- considered. It may, namely, be asserted that no such 
accurate distinction exists as has here hern assumed in order 
to place tin- case fairly for argument ; but that the various 
forms are so often found so intermingled, that we must pro- 
nounce all decisions obtained by the way now attempted to 
In' pursued, uugatory. T shall take this question, also, in its 
proper place, and that will be when 1 have disposed of the 
nd thesis above Btated. 

I. If it could bo Bhown that the Jutes of Kont, the [sle of 
Wight, and Hampshire, were tin' only -Into- in England, and 
that their peculiar mode of burial, as found in the graves of 
Kent, was invariable ; ii" it could bo shown that the Angles 
of Mercia, Northumbria, and East Anglia, had an equally 
invariable custom differing from the Kentish ; if it could be 

shown that the Saxons in Sussex, WeSSOX, and Essex, and so 

forth, had another, we should still have to show that the popu- 
lations on the continent, from whom respectively these so- 
called differenl tribes or races came, had from the first the 
3ame customs as their descendants perpetuated in England. 
None of these things can be done. I have started for the 
present with the admission of Beda's division of the Germanic 
occupiers of Britain, into Jutes, Angles, and Saxons, although 
I have no doubt of its being merely traditional, and totally 
irreconcilable with the way in which the occupation 
gradually took place ; | take the liberty of referring to the 
introductory chapter "I the "Saxons in England." Beds 

rting tii' ■• words dead thai ore washed therefore heathen 1 

mi.' mi ii to amplify the discus Though tome ■ •! the error which e: 

limed much too ho til) thai pi [tecting English interments "I early 

1 rial " nli arm and ornament date has, in fact, thi unption for 

un«{ -i . »i 1 1 1- 1 I reserve the dii cu lion ol it 

[ can be for anotbi r occasion wishing hen to con 

ii.. truth. Washing tl"- Rn< mj • n trictlj to the terms in which 

\i. .-ill the the question of cremation has been put. 


spoke only in the eighth century, more than 280 years after 
the events lie described, and of parts of England with which 
he was personally unacquainted. And he took care to 
qualify what he said with an "ut fcrunt." 1 am not disposed 
to lay great stress upon the historical value of a tradition 
nearly three hundred years old, recorded before the eighth 
century, and introduced merely incidentally by an ecclesias- 
tical historian; but I am nevertheless prepared to admit that 
some greater influx of Germans than usual, upon the eastern 
and southern coasts of England, took place about the middle 
of the fifth century of our era, and attracted the attention of 
contemporary authors, as for instance Prosper Tyro : and 
following these, I am content to believe that a considerable 
troop, principally, perhaps, of Jutes or Frisians did then land 
in Kent, probably also in the Isle of Wight, and subsequently 
thence in the present hundreds of East and West ]\Iene, in 
1 lampshire. I must, however, on other grounds, claim other 
] tarts of England for the same population. The earliest 
Kentish charters, which are unfortunately much later than 
we could wish, present remarkable resemblances of dialect 
to the Saxon, known to us from many good and earlier 
authorities as Northumbrian; and no doubt both of these 
show peculiarities which especially belong to the Frisian in 
its earliest known form, but which do differ a good deal from 
the oldest forms of Saxon. Tradition placed the scene of 
Hengest's first great victory at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, 
and assigned the foundation of the kingdom of Northumbria 
to his son and nephew. It is therefore very probable that 
the people whom Hengest represents, viz., the Jutes or 
Frisians from Jutland, and the still more southerly parts of 
the Elbe countries, did occupy the eastern coast of England 
from Kent upwards, through Essex. Suffolk, Norfolk, 4 Lincoln- 
shire, and so on northward, stretching perhaps in their ships 
to the Isle of Wight and across the Solent to the opposite 
coast. Now in the parts of England beyond the limits 

4 Nothing can possibly lie more Frisic spend hours with it* head under water 

than the towers of the Norfolk churches trying to drag stones out of a canal, a real 

along the coast, — real fortresses :>s they Frisian will build dikes even it' you drain 

were in time .it' need. But the great cha- his laud for ever. The Saxon retreats 

racteristic of Frisian blood is d keing out before the sea ; the Frisian Mints it out 

the sea. The Saxons did nothing ol the without budging from his place, and braves 

kind. The Frisians did it wherever they all dangers. Let any one who doubts look 

came. Like a Newfoundland dog of good al the dikes in Holland, in Kent, and in 

race, that will, for no reason on earth, Lincolnshire. 


ned i" the Jutes by Beda'a very insufficient classification, 

ad abundance of burials which differ entirely from those 
prevalent in Kent; we find cremation and urn-burial, in 
a much greater proportion than among the men of Kent and 
in the [sle of Wight 

The custom of Cent and the [sle of Wight itself is. how- 
ever, not at all proved to have been exclusively and con- 
sistently that of inhumation with arms and ornaments, but 
without cremation. Even could it be Bhown that no other 
form had ever been yet discovered in either place, it would 
still be necessary to Bhow that none such ever could here- 
after be discovered; in other words, that those portions of 
England had been already bo carefully investigated, so 
thoroughly ransacked, that it was impossible for anything 
new to I"' found there. My own experience of the way in 
which most extensive graveyards, filled with remains of cre- 
mation and urns, have been unexpectedly discovered, makes 
me hesitate extremely as to the fact that the capabilities of 
Kent and the [sle of Wight, in this respect, aiv finally and 
entirely known. Moreover, 1 learn from the Archaeologia, 
\cl. \.\\.. that a large barrow which was opened at a place 
called [ffinswood, in the first-named county, did actually 
contain five urns filled with evidences of cremation ; from 
the description there given, these urns did uot belong at .'ill 
i" the kind usually called British: while they did bear. a 

irkable resemblance to Bome forms uot rery uncommon 
in the museums of North Germany ; the tact that they stood 
mouth downwards, proving nothing one way or the other, 
inasmuch as il le not at .-ill unusual in Germany. > s till more 
striking is the case of Sittingbourne, in the same county. 
From an account given in the "Collectanea Antiqua," vol. L, 

■ rident that the cemetery discovered al that place con- 
tained two distincl and Beparate portions, one filled \n i 1 1 i 
skeletons deposited in the usual way, with swords, spears, 
knives, and Bhield I of iron, with jewelled fibula?, 

brooches, and other common ornaments; the other filled 
with urna of the Saxon class, in which were the calcined 
ill ashes of the dead. Mr. Vallance'is words sho'w 
what ort of urns were found. He says, " Before I learnt 
anything of these remain , everal fragments of urns of 
■••il i" some of a l< ad colour, ome of a red, i he lai " r 

i coarse black cart li, mixed w it h sand and shells. 


surrounded with ashes and calcined matter, had been dug 
up. Some were ornamented with headings of four or more 
lines, some with a zigzag pattern, some with horizontal 
circular mouldings about the brim, some plain, some twisted. 
The coarse specimens are very little burnt ; and the other 
ornaments are done by the hand without the lathe." I could 
find parallels to every one of these cases from my own 
drawings of urns found in Germany. A single glance at the 
plan which accompanies the interesting paper from which I 
quote, suffices to show that these were not urns deposited 
with skeletons, but apart from them, and in a separate por- 
tion of the burial ground. 

]\ T or less does the Isle of Wight supply evidences of cre- 
mation in a cemetery, which must be attributed to the 
Germanic race. On Brightstone and Bowcombe Downs, 
.Mr. llillier opened thirteen graves, two only of wdiich, that 
lay somewhat isolated, contained unburnt skeletons, (of 
wdiich the skulls were wanting, a fact of not uncommon 
occurrence), while the rest yielded burnt bones and ashes. 
In one of these was an iron dagger, and a coin of Con- 
stantine (the younger ?). In another, an urn of a character 
that bears not the slightest resemblance to those called 
British ; but, on the contrary, a very striking one to the 
Saxon urns of other localities. So that here, in a place 
wdiich all admit to be Jutish, we have a different sort of 
interment from that observed, but not even known to be 
prevalent, still less exclusively used, in Jutish Kent. 

Still less can it be shown that the converse holds in other 
l'i its of England, which, under Beda's classification, must 
have received a different population, Saxon or Angle. For 
though numerous instances of cremation have been found in 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, 
Warwickshire, which supply us with the best examples of 
Saxon urns, yet burial without cremation has been found 

s Journal of Arch. Assoc, for March, on the ground selected, though it he itself 

I am afraid that I ought to apolo- only a quagmire. 1 will plainly state my 

. all Saxon scholars tor taking so conviction, that a competent knowledge of 

much notice of this most shallow fancy, the races of modern Europe, and their 

or of a theory which sets out with priii- relation to those named in our old autho- 

ciples bo entirely at variance with ail rities, is a necessary, however much 

that we know of the earliest occupation of neglected, qualification, to Bpeak on these 

Britain by German tribes. Bui it is the subjects. Without it, in my opinion, no 

fashion to reason this way; and it is well, one ought to venture a word ahout these 

therefore, to put an end to the nonsense primeval burials. 


i too, and in very sufficient proportions. In the cemetery 
of little Wilbraham (Ea8t A.ngle) Mr. Neville calculated 
somewhere about L20 mortuary urns to 188 skeletons. 6 
Sussex also, which is reckoned of course to the Saxon race, 
(SfrS Seaxan, South Saxons) supplied Dr. Mantel! with urns ot 

3ame character as those of Norfolk and Stade. Church- 
over, in Warwickshire, had a cemetery filled with skeletons, 
accompanied by precisely the same circumstances as those of 
Kent, and at least one urn of decidedly Saxon character ; 
bul the population of Warwickshire was Middle Angle. 
Thus far the grounds for the first thesis appear to fail. Much 
more do they so, when we enquire into the condition of the 
question on the continent of Europe, in the Lands from which 
the populations of which we have spoken originally came. 
In all these localities we find a greal preponderance of crema- 
tion : in a few, both modes practised, but in a great majority 
of instances cremation only. Tins is. in one point of view, a 
difference from the English custom, but it is one that can 
be easily and naturally accounted for, and is the result of 
certain tacts which are recorded in positive history. Still it 
is, "ii the other side, decisive; if the Jutes always buried 
their dead, from the first without cremation, where are the 
dead bodii 3 of the Jutes upon the continent I In Jutland 
itself, urns with cremation arc as common as interments 
without it, or more common. And no one will pretend that 
even these interments very closely resemble those of Kent 
or of tli<' Franks. They are, in fact, mostly the remains of 
Danes, who, in much later times, wandered into the Jutish 
peninsula ; even as no doubt some of the urn-burials arc 
in. 1 those of Germanic, but Slavonic heathens, who, till a 
very late period, occupied the riverain districts of the lower 
Elbe. Much less can burials like those in Kent be Bhown to 

: in the Friesish districts, or in an\ of those occupied till 
the ninth century by the Saxons. In these countries thou- 
sands of urns of the iron age have been found; I doubt 
whether in all fifty skeletons have, and even of these I may 
have i" give an account on some other occasion, which will 
diminish their importance, as far as this question is concerned. 
In 1 lii also the ground of the li\ pothesis break down alto- 
,1 compelled to conclude 1 ha! 1 he first pro - 

, bj thi l Ion. Rn C. N«\ ille, [>p I 1,26 


position, viz., " That different Germanic tribes, being pagans, 
respectively kept up the one form of burial, to the exclusion of 
the other," is not supported by facts, and falls to the ground. 

II. We are now driven to enquire whether the second pro- 
position has better evidence in its favour, and whether, if 
affirmed, it suffices to account for all the circumstances. I 
believe cremation to have been originally the universal rite 
of all Teutonic races, — as well as most others in the north of 
Europe, — and of by far the greatest number I can prove it to 
have so been. 7 This proof, from history and tradition, had 
better be reserved for a separate enquiry, in which it will be 
shown that Goth, and Scandinavian, Herulian, Thuringian, 
Frank and Saxon, Alamann and Baiowarian all did alike at first 
in this respect. For the present, the reader must be content 
with the assertion, that the general expression of Tacitus is 
true of the whole Germanic race, and that all its subdi- 
visions, without exception, at one time practised this rite. 
The reasons for it, which lie deep in the national heathendom, 
will hereafter also be investigated. 

If, however, the first part of this argument be admitted, 
the second will be so also. Every day's experience is its 
proof: of all the races that did once burn their dead, there 
is not one that does so now, except under circumstances 
which are supposed to justify extreme and exceptional 
measures. 8 The only question here that can interest us, is 
the cause which induced one or all of these populations to 
give up a custom universal, and founded on deep national 
feelings. As far as I know, there are only two such 
causes possible, one a physical, one a moral cause. In the 
case we are investigating, the physical cause is, the dif- 
ficulty of obtaining means to practise the rite, which by 
gradually leading to its abandonment, as certainly leads to 
its desecration. In one or two countries, where wood was 
not abundant, where the cost of the funeral pile was too 
gnat for the means of a majority of the population, crema- 
tion vanished earlier than Paganism : as usual mammon had 

" This proof can only be given by a of thousands of their own and the French 

long citation of passages from the most soldiers and horsea We ought to have 

various authors. 1 wish to reserve it for done the same iii tlic Crimea; but, for 

a particular work, devoted to this most burning, as will be Been, one must have 

interesting Bubject, but not entirely con- wood, and where you have not enough to 

fined to the practice of the Teutonic races. warm and house yourself, you will hardly 

s The Russians, in 1812, burnt hundreds waste it on your (lead. 


got the better of all national and religious feeling; and 
burning having once vanished as a rite, became degraded as 
a principle. No sooner did the people cease to burn, not 
only its heroes, but its own children in Scandinavia, than it 
began to burn it- malefactors. The want of wood alone — so 
deeply felt in Iceland that a father once sacrificed his own 
son to Thdrr to get timber from the god for a house and 
throne — weaned the heathen from his ancient custom. 
Be reserved cremation for trolls, witches, magicians, and 
such, as having hern buried, rose again and walked to the 
horror and amasement of men. 9 It is to this that 1 attri- 
bute the somewhat early relinquishment of cremation as a 
funeral rite in Denmark especially, where wood is very rare 
and expensive, and somewhat later in Sweden and Norway, 
where the store lasted a little longer. But Scandinavia 
alone furnishes us with any certain intelligence concerning 
the relinquishment of cremation during a period of pure 
inism. No doubt Scandinavia remained Pagan, long 
after other European states were Christian, and might be 
-apposed to have taken a useful example from its neigh- 
bours. Perhaps this is so, considering the nature of popular 
tradition ; hut still, when we find in the twelfth century burning 
thrown hack literally into the era of the gods, and inhuma- 
tion carried beyond the hounds of all ascertained history, we 
must confess that a change took place very early among our 
Norse fori fathers in this respect. 

There is only one other race of Teutonic blood, of which 
any question can be made, as to their relinquishing cremation 
before they adopted Christianity. This is the Prankish : and 
I must confess I labour here under want of definite materials 
to form a judgment. If the interment of Childeric, recorded 
by Chifflet, be in all points accurately described,— if this be 
the Childeric, father of Clo vis, and nol < me of the very many 
later Merwingian princes of the name, calling themselves 
kings ea nobilitatej if the Salic law in its oldest manu- 

lence <>i tl o be fore kingly, called himself a king, whether 

where. Thi church burnt he had a kingdom '"• not, Tournay 

ia i, but burnt them alive a might very well be an appanage of any 

'l.. '..,! eman who bad Salic hou* The wholi affair n ta upon 

I !., bury, though a pagan (till, the authenticity "I •■' ling dvbia ftdei. 

op »n \, i > diffi r< ul I tut ii" plao lii "" ii" i'"-''i from 

ground r*ir< the .-ill holy broki Cambi Ofc ■* it doei 

ii ih. r, fore could nol bi 

bodj born tnd then of a w or ol lh< c [ui ring familj 


script form be older than the conversion of Clovis, — why 
then the Franks must have found very little wood in the 
cultivated plains of Belgium ! Or being brought into 
near contact with Christians, and with the Romano-Gallic 
priesthood, they may, following a common habit, have 
tdopted forms and ceremonies which were impressed upon 
them as all-important, instead of others in whose efficacy 
they had perhaps already begun to doubt, and which, to say 
i lie; least of it, were dear. The Church almost always came 
at the right moment, and there was plenty of it in the 
Gallo-Roman provinces, when Clovis thought them worth 
taking and likely to be taken. 

The next, or moral cause, is of much greater moment to 
us. The want of wood cannot explain the giving up an old 
religious rite, universally, and nearly at once, by large 
bodies of men. In fact, want of wood — a very merely 
material consideration — should not have been mentioned at 
all, if I did not firmly believe that in the vast mass of the 
vulgar, by which I mean the selfish in all ages, the reli- 
gious idea is absolutely bounded by the circumstance of 
gain and loss ; and that, if it was cheaper, we should find a 
vast majority of people, very glad to burn their dead at the 
present moment. 

In Asia, there are people who do not defile fire with 
the work of burning matter, — corpses : these throw their 
dead anywhere, except into the flames. Some commit them 
to a sacred river ; some expose them to the atmosphere. 
There have been people that gave them to wild beasts, 
and the wild beasts that eat their dead were sacred. But 
with the exception of the Scandinavians, who having once 
given up their custom of burning, may possibly have intro- 
duced strange variations in the disposal of the dead (many 
of which I find hinted at by Arnkiel and others, but cannot 
in any reasonable way trace), I know of no Teutonic people 
among whom any particular religious sect arose, or could well 
have arisen without our knowing it, whose doctrines would 
lead to the abandonment of the ancient rite of cremation. 
Among the men of our race, I find no trace of sacred rivers, 
which it was pious to people with carcases, or of holy wolves 
whom it was good to feed with the flesh of the departed. I 
find, in short, in Europe, only a heathendom, which as long 
as it could developc itself undisturbed, committed its dead to 

VOL. xn. c u 


a sanctifying fire, and a Christendom which partly on other 
grounds of its own, but chiefly because cremation was lien thru, 
insisted upon the relinquishment of cremation. The religious 
idea itself which lay in heathendom was necessarily in 
those days the ground of Christian hostility to it, and nothing 
was bo had in the eves of the highest thinkers, the most 
earnest apostles of the new faith, as what was good and 
generous in that of the old. The had parts they could have 
held cheap; these would have died of themselves. The 
noble parts, which had a life and vitality of their own. they 
must combat or use. And this we know them to have done ; 
although they seem, in a worthy impatience, to have lost 
sight of the truth, that paganism was an introduction to 
Christianity, its antecedent, but not necessarily its antagonist : 
and attached more importance to mere forms than was 
necessary, or even on their own principle of amalgamation, 
desirable. However, history assures us that one great point 
to which they devoted their attention, was the substitution of 
inhumation for cremation ; and that, as in later days, tran- 
substantiation ;\ -uh>idiary question — became the test of 
Catholic and Protestant, bo here, burying with or burying 
without burning was made the sign of distinction between 
two different faiths. WTierever Christianity set foot, cre- 
mation was to cease. The thing itself was, no doubt, of as 
little moment in the one case as the other: politics were most 
concerned, and religion used as a mask or engine. 

My readers will all be well aware with what extreme and 
justifiable caution the missionary clergy dealt with all dan- 
gerous heathen doctrines and practices. They never men- 
tioned them, if they could Only help ii in any public 
document. What their letters to one another may have 
contained, what their conversations with one another may 
have turned upon, we do noi know. But they took yery 
good care to Bay nothing officially about anything which they 
wished to have forgotten. In the law of Kent, called 
. K>"-, ii„ riii'-. -the first Christian king, there is not a word 
about the heathendom to be eradicated, or the Christianity 
established, except, indeed, the position the bishop and 
• were to hold in the new Christian polity. And ii Is 
not nil late periods that the actual heathendom of the 
Anglo-Saxons is at all mentioned as 3ubject of legislation : and 
are rarely genuine Germanic rites, being nine times in 


ten, absurdities of the Romanizing clerics, who "were happy 
to transfer to Saxon pages the trash they had found in their 
own Italian or Eastern models. 

It is not therefore out of the laws in general, that we get 
our information as to the steps taken to put heathendom out 
of countenance. In all the mass of English legislation, there is 
not one word about cremation in any law : and I am struck with 
amazement when I read in Beowulf so many passages which 
have reference to it as a rite, and a noble one, applied to the 
funerals of heroes and kings. Still the absence of all men- 
tion of it does not disprove its existence, any more than the 
same ground would disprove the prevalence of other super- 
stitious observances, which are first distinctly alluded to 
some centuries later. This can only show, that in the time 
of Cunt, the circumstances of the case were so changed that 
there was no further scruple about the distinct prohibition 
of certain forms of heathendom by name. There was in 
fact among the Anglo-Saxons, at the time of their conver- 
sion, no such predominant power in the state, as to allow of 
interference with the national customs and faith by autho- 
rity. Whatever was to be done must be accomplished by 
persuasion and example. The utmost an Anglo-Saxon king 
could have ventured would be to give the missionary a safe- 
conduct and command respect for his person, as a king's 
officer or messenger, a right which was essentially inherent 
in the crown. If the King dispatched a Missus, his person 
would assuredly be respected, whatever might be the success 
of his message ; and this I have some reason to think was 
the mode adopted. We know that it did graduall} r produce 
its fruits in the conversion of the heathen, though hardly in 
so short a period, or by such thousands at once, as the 
legends of the time would persuade us. A conqueror 
like Cnut could proceed somewhat more strongly to work 
and bring a very different authority to bear upon a popula- 
tion long accustomed to obedience, and in truth lung profess- 
ing Christianity. What in ./ESelberht or Rsedwald would 
have been a dangerous attack upon the national faith and 
freedom, was in Cnut only a proper solicitude tor the purity 
of the religion which the nation had long adopted, lint the 
case was very different with Charlemagne in his dealings 
with the Saxons <>n the continent the Old Saxons, as Beda 
for distinction calls them. These had for nearly thirty years 


waged a war against the Franks under the princes of his house, 
and with more success than the purely Prankish annals 
willingly admit. From these annalists we learn over and over 
again that the Saxons were most attached to their heathen- 
dom— paganissima gens — and Charlemagne who, unluckily 
for his historians, during t_ 1 1 * ■ whole time was in firm league 
with the pagan Slavic tribes of the Elbe, the Polabi, Obo- 
triti, and the like, is always celebrated as a champion of 
Christ, a hero of light warring against darkness. At length 
the Franks prevailed, and Charlemagne adopted the policy of 
removing from the Saxon land and dispersing throughout 
his Prankish territories all the heads of houses with their 
families, who remained after the great struggle. A strict, 
calculation shows, that about thirty thousand householders 
wi re thus expatriated. Their country — the present duchies 
of Bremen and Verden, and the principality of Liineburg, 
as well as the lands beyond the Elbe, were given by him to 
his heathen allies of Slavic blood. But against the heathen- 
dom of the Saxons, who were now to be a part of the 
Prankish population, severe regulations were issued: while 
theft and murder, and other crimes which we look upon as 
entirely subversive of society, could still be atoned for by the 
customary compensations, two or three essentially heathen 
practices were made liable to the punishment of death : 

because heathendom was the bond which held the Saxons 

together, and nourished that national feeling which had for 
30 many years rendered them dangerous to the Franks. 
Aiiion-- these practices was cremation of the dead, which 
is distinctly stated to he the heathen custom:— "Si quis 
corpus defuncti hominis secundum ritum paganorum 
flamma consumi feceril a ejus ad cinerem redierit, 

capite punietur." 8 The custom then of the pagan Saxons. 
other pagan races in Northern Europe, was to 
burn the (had : that of the Christians to bury them. 3 Now, 

w< could b< |" rf< ctly i ure "I it genu 

\ pol for M/i moi . n< "Pro it Sa noni a cum jura 

1 mento quod infra annum cum auia, quot> 

burned, thi • hi ma quo! nondum baptizati, bsptiBmum 

i I i-;i. tlii u j ... 1 1 t . . . quod pa aniaa Buaa volunl 

. ihow how dimitfe re, qu >ia humiuum < i 

en connected beatiorum, ci horaiuum mortuo- 

i doubt, I" i nin, i i iln inationea 

, po te fact ol . hi i .; ij ,. iuqui ut." I 'erl ■ 

rould i- inun in tile purpose, il 


when we couple with this passage, the fact already stated, 
that all the tribes of Germany during their period of Pagan- 
ism, did practise the same rite, and all did gradually relin- 
quish it, we shall, I think, be justified in concluding that 
their reason for doing this was the adoption voluntarily or 
enforcedly of Christianity ; and consequently that it is Chris- 
tianity which makes the distinction between the two modes 
of interment observed ; in other words the " Burnt Germans 
of the age of Iron " were Pagans. The numberless details of 
heathen life, to my mind, are strong confirmation of this 
conclusion. Burial was the custom of the earliest Christians 
for one particular reason : 4 it had always been the practice 
of the Jews, and following it the Saviour — a Jew, ac- 
cording to the flesh — had been buried : so had his oldest 
disciples and apostles. So that it is impossible for a moment 
to imagine any Christian adopting any other rite, especially 
one practised by the Pagan persecutors ; and there is besides 
reason to believe, not only that eastern ideas about the 
nature of matter, which afterwards developed themselves in 
Gnostical and Manichean heresies, early mingled with 
Christianity ; but also that superstitious notions respecting 
the resurrection from the dead in the body, were not with- 
out influence upon this point. On the other hand the 
heathen believed his gods to have instituted the rite of 
burning, nay, themselves to have mounted the funeral pile. 
From the ascent of the smoke he drew auguries as to the 
future condition of the friend that had departed. Fire too 
was the purifier, the medium of communication with the 
gods, one at least of the holy elements. A striking instance 
occurs to me of an interment 5 in which fire seems to have 
been introduced almost by stealth, although the bodies had 
evidently not been exposed to the full power of a pile. 
Some years ago at Elze, near Hildesheim. a barrow was re- 
moved. Upon its basis there were found six holes, or kists, 
as they are sometimes called. Five of these were nearly 
filled with ashes of wood, and over each a skeleton lav at 
full length upon its back. The sixth hole was not so occu- 

4 There were also two more. Funeral licita — was compelled to bide itself. But 

]>iles were expensive, and the earliest burning conld hardly have been managed 

Christians were poor men. The funeral in private. With burial there was no 

rites <>t Christians could not have been difficulty, as the catacombs show, 

performed publicly, while Christianity — ■ MSS. Reports in the possession of the 

not yet being a tolerated religion, religio Historical Society i>t' Hanover. 


pied, but close by it Btood a small urn and a spindle-stone, 
the only implement of any kind discovered in the barrow. 
The base was enclosed with a circle of stones. It has been 
conjectured that this is an interment of a transition state, of 
Christians who had oot yet entirely relinquished their 
pagandom ; or of pagans, who though dread of the law 
prevented them from raising a pile to consume the bodies 
entirely, had devised a plan of burning at least a part of 
the flesh, by means of fires lighted beneath the dead, and fed 
with heath, sedge and ferns, whose flame would not be seen far 
off. In like manner the Abbe Coehet found several skeletons 
at Parfondeval lying upon a stratum of ashes and charcoal. 6 
I have said that there might be a third question : 
viz., whether our experience is such as to justify our attri- 
buting an exclusive practice to one time or race at all : in 
other words, whether cremation and inhumation may not 
have been practised together, [n time, no doubt they might; 
and this is all that our discovery of urns with ashes and 
skeletons in the same cemeteries will warrant our saying. 
But contemporaneous or not, on the same spot or not, the 
urn-burials arc Pagan; the burials withoul cremation, in 
England, —are Christian, [f there be any equivocation in the 
matter, il b'es the other way : a few half-converted Chris- 
tians may for a while have clung to the rite of burning ; 
but I do not believe any Pagan Saxon to have buried withoul 
it. The rite of burning was heathen, and could only be given 
up when heathendom itself was shaken to its foundations, as 
ii happened in Scandinavia. I can explain the first case, by 
the very imperfect organization of the clergy in the first years 
of the conversion. They did uot live in the country among 
the people themselves, bul went their rounds, from place to 
place, as missionaries, residing cenobitically under the pro- 
tection of the lungs, upon their rills or estates, and sometimes 
in the towns, where any such existed. As far as A.nglo- 
ii history teaches us, nearly a hundred years elapsed 
between theadvenl of A.ugustine and the regular establish - 
iiient of anything like parish churches. > s " that I find no 
great difficulty in the supposition that here and there a 
i Christian may nave been dispatched on Ins long 
jourm . mwe paganorum, simply because no Christian priest 
happened to be by to prevent it. Moreovor, during noarly 

La Normatid 


two-thirds of a century after the conversion, apostacy was 
not at all an uncommon occurrence ; and no doubt one of its 
very first evidences would be a return to the rite of crema- 
tion. But apart from these considerations, the deposit of 
Christian and pagan remains, upon the same spot, does not 
appear at all surprising. We must only be content to abstract 
a little from our prevalent notions about churchyards. I 
have myself little doubt, that when a village was duly and 
formally settled, a certain portion of the mark, or boundary- 
land, was set apart to receive the dead. It is possible that 
it may have been designated merely by the erection of certain 
tumuli, or the placing of huge stones. For not only have I 
opened fifty tumuli, from 4 to 6 feet high, perfectly circular, 
and standing upon perfectly level ground, one after the 
other, and found absolutely nothing in them; but the deposit 
of numerous urns in one barrow, and generally in irregular 
stages, and with irregular intervals, proves pretty clearly, not 
that the tumulus w r as thrown up over the urns, but that holes 
were dug in the tumulus, and the urns therein deposited, as 
occasion required. The barrow was there, in fact, before the 
burial ; as was necessarily the case when the slope of a 
natural hill was selected for the purpose. And one reason 
for paving the surface of the burial-ground, much as our 
streets are paved — a thing often observed in Germany — may 
have been to preserve the earlier deposits from disturbance, 
by marking exactly how far the ground w r as already occu- 
pied. Moreover, it seems that on this supposition w T e can 
best account for the occurrence, wdiich is not unusual, — of 
I >anows entirely without deposits. They are simply such as 
have not been used. 

Now, if such burial-grounds existed long before what we 
call churchyards w T erc permitted to be established, which in 
this country was in the middle of the eighth century, and while 
these remained extremely rare (for even towards the end of 
the tenth, there were churches without churchyards), I can 
readily imagine Christians still resorting with their dead to 
the did locality. Indeed, they may often have been Christian 
enough to bury their dead, and yet heathen enough to wish 
them buried in places of ancient sanctity, and near the bones 
of their family and friends. And. after all, it is very possible 
that in England the new churchyards were expressly and 
intentionally placed upon the sites of the old cemeteries. 


There were many reasons why they should,no one why they 
should not be so. It must never be forgotten that one of the 
first principles impressed upon the Roman missionaries to 
Britain, was to take advantage, wherever they could, of the 
reliyio loci. Gregory distinctly orders Augustine not to 

■oy the heathen temples, bul tochristen them and devote 
them to the service of God. It' this could be done, 1 see no 
earthly difficulty in tin 1 supposition that they may have con-* 
secrated the ancient burial-grounds, too, as places which the 
people were accustomed to. The words of Gregory, in his 
to Mellitus, arc as follows : 7 he is to give this message 
to Augustine. "Quia fana idolorum destrui in eadem gente 
minime debeant ; sed ipsa quae in eis sunt idola destruantur ; 
aqua benedicta fiat, in eisdem fanis aspergatur, altaria con- 
struantur, reliquiae ponantur; quia si fana eadem bene con- 
Btructa sunt,necesse est at a cultu daemonum in obsequia veri 
Dei debeant commutari, ut dum gens ipsa eadem fana sua 
non \id«'t destrui, de corde errorem deponat, el Deum verum 
cognoscens et adorans, ad loca quae consuevit, familiarius 
concurrat. Et quia boves solenj in sacrificiis daemonum 
multos occidere, debet eis etiam hac de re aliqua solemnitas 
comminutari ; ut die dedicationis vel natalitii sanctorum mar- 
tyrum, quorum illic reliquiae ponuntur, tabernacula sibi circa 

Hi ecclesias quae ex fanis commutatae sunt, de ramis 
arborum faciant, et religiosis con\ i\ Lis Bolemnitatem celebrent, 

diabolo jam animalia immolent, sed ad laudem Dei inesu 

animalia occidant, or donatori omnium dr Batietate sua. 
gratias referant ; ut dum eis aliqua exterius gaudia reservantur 
ad interiors gaudia consentire facilius valiant. "' That 
Christians did resort to the old heathen ha rial places is pa tout. 
from another of Charlemagne's regulations: "Jubemus ut 
corpora Christianorum Saxanorum ad cimiteria ecclesi® defe- 
rantur et non ad tumulos paganorum." 

So thai the occurrence of both modes in one cemetery has 
nothing at all to disturb us, or to threw doubt upon the one 
conclusion to which all other considerations lead; namelyj 
that the skeletons are those of Christians, the urns, with 
l ' ti A nd in this \oiv enact ment lies the 
ination of the fact that skeletons are 30 very rare upon 
the continent, in those parts from whence our forefathers 
carao. A lonj a they remained heathen, and in their own 

B i.o. :. i r. rl . in.. \S 


ancient settlements, they burnt their dead. As soon as 
Christianity was forced upon them, they were also removed 
from their old seats, and were ordered to carry their dead to 
the churchyards. This was a certain way of weaning them 
from the proscribed customs : but it is also the reason why 
we do not find their interments scattered about in the fields, 
as we do in England, where no such compulsory regulation 
was in force, or could be. We know that the first thing 
Charlemagne did was to found churches, such as they were, 
in the conquered lands, even though he did give them to 
Pagans, and we have seen that he compelled the Saxons to 
carry their dead to the churchyards, which it is not at all 
necessary to consider in the close neighbourhood of the 
church. In fact, even to this day, the German churchyard 
always lies away from the village, and generally at a very 
considerable distance from the church. All that the Frank 
Emperor desired, was to wean his neophytes from the old 
custom, with which he had nothing to do, and break them 
into a new one, imposed by his authority, and of which he 
would be the source and the head. Nor is it quite certain 
that the provisions of the law made at Paderborn, in 785, 
rif'cr absolutely to the Saxons remaining in their old seats, 
and not to those deported by the conqueror to the western 
side of the Wcser, a point not hitherto considered as it ought 
to have been. It is also to be borne in mind, that laws 
made by central authority are broken when that authority 
is not in such power on the spot as to enforce itself, if they 
are in opposition to the national feeling. Charlemagne may 
have given directions in general, the application of which was 
left to his counts in the counties administered by them. But 
this only shows what he w T ished to do, not by any means 
what he succeeded in getting done. Since the days of William 
the Conqueror we have had laws against theft, and have 
hanged a pretty good number of thieves, and yet men steal 
even to this day. Still they must do it secretly, or be 
hanged. And so I suppose heathendom was carried on. In 
a vast number of burials where interment is the rule, there 
are signs of cremation, as at Elze and Parfondeval ; the body 
was not reduced to ashes, but it was singed. It was dangerous 
to make Mich a lire as would consume it: by a little manage- 
ment, the advantages of Christian and heather burial might 
be united. I believe that we may thus best account for the 

VOL. XI!. v v 


few remains of charcoal (sometimes exceedingly minute) 
which arc often found in tumuli, where skeletons arc depo- 
sited entire. A little fire was probably considered sntHcient 
to Bymbolise the ancient rite ; and it' any doubt remained on 
the mind of a new convert, he took care to be on the sate 
side, and compounded for a little paganism to make all sure 
in both quarters. The priest might give him holy water to 
frighten away the devil ; 8 the other holy element — fire — he 
provided for himself as well as he could. 

Before I close this paper 1 wish to call attention to a few 
facts strongly illustrative of what I have said. An extremely 
interesting and, from its further consequences, important 
comparison may be established between a certain set of 
interments in north and smith Grermany, the analogy of 
which to the cases already touched upon is clear, and instruc- 
tive; I refer on the one hand to the excavations made at 
Sinsheim, and described by Dr. Wilhelmi ; and on the other 
to the researches of Lieut. Cenl. Count .Minister, on the banks 
of the river Weser, in the duchy of Verden, and my own on 
the banks of the rivers Qmenau and Wipperau, in the prin- 
cipality of Liineburg. I need scarcely say. that the last- 
named localities lie in the tar north of Germany, in the 
country which was par excellence inhabited by the conti- 
nental Saxons. The position of the first-named place may. 
however, be less well known. It lies in the grand-duchy of 
Baden, not very far from Zahringen, and somewhal to the 
south and east of Heidelberg. It is, therefore, within the 
limes Romanics, otherwise in the country where we must 
naturally look for Mamanic, not Francic or Saxon popula- 
tions. In Liineburg and Verden, cremation was universal 
and exclusive, and although, I believe, thai Counl Minister, 
Baron v. BSstorff, M. Hagen, and myself, must have opened 
ai leasl three thousand interments, I can only call to mind 
two of skeletons, recorded by BSstorff. Minister and myself 
never saw a trace of anything of the kind, nor could I. by 
tli«' most diligent enquiries, prosecuted for seven months 
overs great expanse of country, learn that anything similar 
had been found. Count Mtinster never hints even having 
ever mot with unburnt bodies, although his earnest and most 

Durandua'i explanation, doI Bpelunco, In qua, in quibusdam locii 

i Coehel quota It very ponitur aqua !"■ licta, el pruina cum 

foi • • urni whieb are thure ; aqua benedicta, ne dmnonea qui 

■ ;),' bead and feci oi multum cam timent, ad corpu accedant. 

D - ' : ; ■ > 1 1 1 1 1 1 1- iii Ration ■ i i >. off \ ii .. ■ 


accurate researches extend over a period of twenty-five 
years ! At Sinsheim, on the contrary, fourteen barrows 
contained upwards of seventy interments, and no one sure 
case of cremation ; one uncertain heap of calcined bones, 
without urn or accompanying implement, was stated to 
consist of human bones, but even if this were so, bore no 
resemblance to a regular urn-burial. The bodies here were 
all deposited after the Kentish and Frankish manner, in 
shallow graves, dug in the natural soil from one to three feet 
deep ; they were accompanied by swords, knives, spears, 
and javelins, of iron ; buckles and fibulas, hooks and rings, 
of the same metal ; by pins, neck, ear, finger, arm and ankle 
rings, fibuke, fine chains, rivets and knobs, buckle plates and 
thin plates of bronze ; by fragments of precious stones and 
a great variety of beads of coloured glass. These articles 
could all be observed in situ, and the account given by 
Wilhclmi, which bears the strongest internal evidence of 
scrupulous accuracy, is valuable from teaching the exact use 
of many things found elsewhere in urns, and about which 
doubts have been entertained. Now it is very remarkable, 
that every single thing found by Wilhelmi, except the 
weapons, is perfectly identical with the contents of the urns 
found on the Weser and Ilmenau, and as we have not found 
any weapons there at all, beyond one or two bronze daggers 
or spear-heads, we may leave them out of the question 
entirely. There is not much pottery at Sinsheim, which is 
to be regretted : the few vases which stood at the feet or 
heads of the skeletons having been almost all destroyed: but 
two considerable portions were saved of urns, and one small 
one entire. These bear a great resemblance to urns found 
at Molzen, Ripdorf, Nicnburg and Wolpe. Nothing, perhaps, 
is more thoroughly characteristic than the hooks and rings 
of iron, which served in lieu of buckles to connect the ends 
of a strap or belt, which passed over the shoulder, and may 
have served to carry the sw r ord. These were found in a great 
number of urns by Estorff, Minister and myself; they were 
also found upon the skeletons at Sinsheim, where buckles 
were not numerous, any more than they are in our urns. I 
know of, perhaps, one hundred such hooks and rings, at 
Hanover, Liineburg and Uelzen, and none elsewhere. 

The fibuke at Sinsheim. whether of bronze or iron, bear 
no resemblance cither to the cruciform fibuke. or the round 


brooches of Kent, the [sle of Wight, Wilbraham, Pairford or 
Londinieres or Selzen, NTordendorf and Fridolfingen. But 
they are bo perfectly identical with those found in the north 
German urns, thai many of them might be mistaken for the 
produce of the same workshop. Even our peculiarity which 
had struck me from its rarity in Liineburg, namely, the finish- 
ing the fibulae with an ornamental bead of glass, or a rosette 
ornament of ivory, recurred at Sinsheim more than once. 

The ear-rings attached to the skeletons wore of that peculiar 
form of which Count Miinster, Baron Estorff, and myself have 
collected some hundreds ; they consist of a single fine bronze 
wire, twisted in a spiral, so as to form a circular pendant 
about the size of a shilling. We have found them eight or 
ten at a time in the urns of north Germany. 

The neck, arm, and foot rings, of hollow bronze, as well as 
the armlets of solid bronze are in form, size, and ornamenta- 
tion, identical with those of Liineburg. Especially note- 
worthy are one or two hollow rings of iron ; of these, whose 
fabrication it is most difficult to understand, there are three 
in the Hanoverian Museum, taken from urns, one by Count 
Miinster, two by me. 

I would further add, as a most important piece of evidence, 
that small pieces of red sandstone,^ hichare extremely common 
in the graves of Mecklenburg, were found in all the Sinsheim 
barrows; in both cases they have been deposited intentionally: 
and what is perhaps still more significant, a flint dagger or 
stone kell was found in nearly every barrow, together with 
keletons, armed as they are with iron, and ornamented 
with bronze. Hut from the mosl important cemetery thai I 
ransacked, viz. that of Molzen, which contained more than 
two hundred urns of the Iron age, and of qo other. I also 
took a beautiful Hint dagger, and a well-made hammer oi 
hornblende. In the cemetery at Ripdorf, from which I took 
ixty urns entire, I also found one dagger of flint 
and ;i profusion of flint chips, of the Bort we call knives, 
some placed within, some round, the urns; and this when! 
there is no flint to be found for miles around. Count Miinster 
found an axe bead of stone, with a bronze pin, together in 
one tumulus .'it Nfienburg under similar circumstances. It 
may also be observed thai whereas in the Sinsheim barrows 
the I eli ton were all found (with a single exception) on the 
ouili the wi i or the outh wc i idi of the base, bo in the 


barrows opened by me, the urns were invariably upon those 
sides, hardly by any chance in the east or north, which was 
generally occupied by a heap of stones mingled with char- 
coal, probably denoting the Ustrina. We have here then, a 
striking instance of two Germanic interments, differing in the 
sole point of cremation, every other conceivable point being 
identical in both. 

Still I confess, that it is to me a strange and difficult 
matter to account for. The populations of Baden and Liine- 
burg cannot be supposed to have belonged to one tribe ; the 
distance between the Liineburg-heath and Sinsheim is too 
great for fashion to have produced a similarity of customs. 
The Sinsheim fashion bears no resemblance to that of Ober- 
flacht ; the ornaments found at Selzen are wanting there. 
The weapons found at Sinsheim differ very materially from 
those of the Selzen graves, the Frankish interments described 
by the Abbe Cochet, and the various Saxon interments 
opened in various parts of England. The spear with its 
hollow socket, rarely reaches one foot in length, and the 
socket is exceedingly short (rarely more than two to three 
inches long) differing most materially in this respect from 
the Saxon and Frankish weapon, but strongly resembling the 
bronze spear-heads of north Germany. The swords, more- 
over, all had sheaths of bronze. 

I do not know whether it would be allowable to conclude 
these inhabitants of Sinsheim to be Luneburgers, transplanted 
from their natural homes, either by the policy of the Frankish 
Emperor, or the earlier astuteness of a Roman one to serve 
as outposts upon the frontier of his empire. I cannot even 
decide upon the date to which these interments are to be 
referred, from the total absence of everything tending in the 
least to give a clue to this vital question. But in the equally 
complete absence of any definite signs of paganism, — for the 
covering up the bodies with ashes and charcoal, which was 
noticed in some graves, may be explained by a desire to 
] »reserve them the longer, or if not, may be accounted for, as 
I have done it with regard to the barrow at Elze ; and the 
fact that here and there fires had been lighted upon the base 
of the barrow, does not prove anything, — I am compelled 
to abide by my general result, and to believe, that be they 
what they might, the denizens of the Sinsheim barrows were 
Christian, were not deposited secundum Jliliuu Paganorum. 

1!V Tin: REV BDM1 \l> 7BNABLE8, M.A. 

Having now brought down the history of the fabrick of 
the Church of Great St. Mary's to a period when it was 
completed substantially as we now see it — modern altera- 
tions excepted — I proceed to fulfil my purpose of employing 
the documentary evidence afforded by its annals in illustra- 
tion of the religious history of the Church and University 
during the eventful XVIth and XVllth centuries. 

In the ante-Reformation period, the parish hooks do no! 
supply any matter of special interest to distinguish them 
from the other parochial records of a similar character with 
which we are now so familiar. We have the usual items of 
disbursements for the services and furniture of the church — 
[ncense, Candles, Banners, and tin' like: with the yearly 
charge of setting up, watching, and taking down the Easter 
Bepulchre, 2 and copious lists of the Jewels, Plate, Vestments, 
and Relics, with which this church was richly provided, 3 as 
well as notices of the Font, the Holy-water Stoups, the 
Organ, 4 &c, which, though not withoul interest, must not 
detain us from the more important entries that follow. 

The &rs1 sign of the dawning Reformation occurs in 1538, 
when, ae Strype inform "the Holy Bible was first 

divulged and expo ed to common sale, and appointed to be 
bad in every parish church."' Accordingly, in this year 
the Bible was purchased at the expense of the parish, for 
4*. 'c/., the cosl being thrown over two years. 6 This was 
i edition, published by Whitchurch and Grafton, at 

1 ( lontinued from 
For man j John Capper per- pley atte Orgayns 1 "tooneKell 

in- to amende thi i 
i" Ridea mc for bis d 9 1527, "• pair of orgaj na ' 

i. indi II for ill- - 
1 , which contain much 2 d ;" for .•■ quart ol iwetl wyne to th< 

* * * ■ »» t. i t, are to bo f i und i labor r 1 ." 

1 - (vol. i- ..i. and Bow l mi i- Eool. Hist. 

i. |>. Ml. 
' i' U 'i I,-:. i.. i Ice f< rth( I P i: • halff Die b 

I ■• , Hoi da; for to lo. ijV 


Hamburgh, under the name of Matthew's Bible, which, in 
the following year, 1540, gave place, by royal injunction, to 
that published under Cranmer's patronage, commonly known 
as "the Great Bible." 7 The cost of this was 18s., one- 
third more than the price at which the king had ordered 
that it should be supplied " well bound and clasped." 5 

The Papal Supremacy, as is well-known, was formally 
abrogated by Act of Parliament in 1534. Two years later, 
in 1536", the University of Cambridge required an oath from 
all who were admitted to any degree, renouncing the autho- 
rity of the see of Home, and, as the natural consequence we 
find in 15 11, fourpence paid "to the glasyer for takyng 
downe of the Bysshoppe of Roomes Hede." In the same 
year, the alienation of the plate and vestments belonging to 
the church, which continued for the next ten years, had its 
commencement in the sale of " a monstre silver and giltc 
ponderyng 66 unces, after As. the unce," and some few other 
articles, " be the consent of moste p te of ye parocliioners." 
This practice of embezzling and making away with the 
church goods, reached such a height in the following reign, 
that it was found necessary for an Order of Council to be 
issued, April 30, 1548, forbidding the parishioners to 
" sell, give, or otherwise alienate an} r bells, or other orna- 
ment or jewels belonging unto the parish church, upon pain 
of his highness' displeasure." 9 This order, however, was 
not very effectual in putting a stop to this course of sacri- 
legious rapine, as may be seen from the following entries, 
which are merely examples of many others : — 

1550. Sold to Doctor Blyethe, a pyllow covered w* velvet ami gold, and 
19 flowers of gold v s . 

Item, sold 2 pillows to Mr. Smythc, one of sattync of Bryg, and one of 
tyssew viij s viij' 1 . 

Item, 2 Valiants of the Sepulchre xi s . 

Item, sold the clothe y l went ov' y e Quyr in Lent, and 3 paynted clothes 
y* was of the Sepulchre vj s . 

To remedy this evil, we read in the journal of Edward VI., 
April 21, 1552, that "it was agreed that commissioners 
slu mid go out for to take certificates of the superfluous 
church plate to mine use, and to sec how it hath been 
embezzled." Accordingly, in May, 1552, commissions began 

• I'. B. 1540, " half y« eret byble, ix 8 ." 9 Strype*s Cranmer.ii. 90. 

s Strype, Mem. Cranmer. i. 101. 


to be issued to chief persons in each city or town, empower- 
ing them to examine into and make returns of the amount 
of property still remaining in the churches. And at this time 
the following entry occurs in St. Mary's Church books. 

It. payd for the wryghtyng of the invyntory of o r chyrche goods & 
jewella to delyver to the kynga majestieB commyssyners, wij '. 

Item, for mete and drjnke for then! that mett together for y e waying 
df v r chyrche plate, and for waynge y e ether goods of y c chyrche, to put 
y m toy l invyntory according to y kyng's commandment, vj 9 . 

It is in the year, 1550, thai we meet with the first notice 
of Divine Bervice in English, for which, " at the fyrst tyme " 
of its celebration, "two Prymers " were bought, costing L6s. 
The obedience of the churchwardens to the royal mandates 
appears to have been somewhat tardy, in this and other 
particulars, for they now for the first time purchased "a 
booke of omylys," '2 books of the servys for the commu- 
nyon," and two copies "of the Paraffrys of Erasmus," all of 
which had been published and ordered to be publicly used 
three years before, in 1 5 I 7. 1 

In November, L550, an order was issued Cor the entire 
removal of all altars, and a letter of the council sent to the 
bishops directing them to see to its immediate execution. The 
altars in St. Mary's were live in number, besides the High 
Altar; — viz.. that of St. Mary the Virgin, the Holy Trinity. 
St. Andrew, St. Laurence, and Doomsday. These were now 
all pulled down, and the slabs sold for nine shillings, while 
m vn shillings more was paid for "pavyng the chapells wer 

the ahars st le, and stoping holies in the walles." The 

images too wore now all removed, 3 and Sd. paid "for 
makyng of the wall were Seynl George stoode in the 
chyrche," while the mural paintings were concealed under 
the shroud of whitewash in which the church is still con- 
strained to do penai ; the monotony being at thai time 

partially broken by texts of Scripture, for writing winch. 
;/. :;s. id. was paid. 8 

On the 28th of February, in this year, Bucer, who had been 

1 By ill" injunctions of Edward VI., resort unto the same, and read." Card 

and "Hi. r w< II, I locum. Ann, i. .i. 
arch-red rithin twelve months "Mandatnin ad amovends 

on, to provide the delendas iraa in< . ' Edward VI." Card 

i ius, in En [li h, upon well, I locum. Ann. l. 88 

up in ome ' P. B. 1550. "It. paj ' for w j thj 

. xmvei within the laid church Chyrch, xx** iuj d " 

thai the) nave can of, whereas their "II payd for wrj lityngi oi y Chyrcli 

ootni liou I) (vail with a iptun n, iiij iij iiij 


invited to fill the Divinity Chair in this University, died, and 
two days after was buried in the chanoel of St. Mary's, "the 
vice-chancellor, doctors, graduates, and scholars, with the 
mayor and townsmen (in all, three thousand persons), 
attending his funeral. After the accustomed prayers, a 
sermon w r as preached by Dr. Matthew Parker, afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and an oration made by Dr. 
Walter Haddon, Public Orator. On the following day, the 
University and Town again assembled at St. Mary's, where 
more than 400 persons received the Eucharist ; after which, 
Dr. Redmayne, Master of Trinity, preached. Last of all, 
the learned men of the University made their epitaphs in 
his praise, laying them on his grave/' In consequence of 
the great concourse of people on this occasion, there seems 
to have been no small confusion in the church, insomuch 
that it was found necessary to repair the seats which had 
been then broken dowm. 

It. for Nails to mend the Seats in the Chyrche when M r - Doctor Barsur 

was buryed, ij d - 
It. for a Borde to mend Doctor Meers Seat, iij <1 - 
1552. It. paid to M r - Mayer for the Bybull that was strayned 10 of 

July, 3 s - 4* 

In 1553 was published the first revised edition of our 
Common Prayer Book, usually called the Second Book of 
King Edward VI., which was immediately adopted in St. 
Mary's, as we see by the following entry : — ■ 

It. for y e copye of y c servys in Englyss set out by note, iij s - iiij. 
It. for iij Salter bokes in yngleeyse to sing or say y e salines of y e 
servys, vij s - 

These are among the last entries in King Edward's reign, 
for on July 6, in this year, he died, and was succeeded by his 
sister Mary, of whose devotion to the doctrines of the Roman 
Church, and its effect on the religion of the country, the 
parish books supply interesting evidence, e.g. : — 4 

It. for a fayre mess boke and legent .... xiiij 3 . 

for oyl and creme . . . . . iiij d - 

for wachyng y c Sepulker ..... vj d - 

for crepyn to y e crosse on Good Friday and ester daye . xj J - 

4 The following items are interestm.: ;r- P d to Sir Holland for 6 wekes 

Bhowing the income of a parish priest wagya al 3*' a weke, L8* - 
three centuries ago. I' to Sir Holland for 7 wekes 

1553. l' d to Sir Holland for a wekes from the fyrsl weke in Lent till Low 
service, 3 s- Sonday at 3" V u 

■' Chrism. 

VOL. XII. V v 


The Rood, which had been injured and defaced, is again 
repaired, and we find — 

p d for paynting of y e Rode ...... G s - 8 c1 - 

for 7 yards of Canvass for the Rode . . 4 s - 8 d - 

p' 1 to Carpenters for makyng the Frame for y e Rode . 2 s - 

for 5 Candyll Stykks for the Rode . . . 8 (1 - 

Payd to Barnes for mendyng over the Rode and over the 

Altar in the Chapell, and for washing oute the Scriptures 4 s - 4 l1 - 

In the month of January, 1556-7, Cardinal Pole, as 
be from the See of Home, appointed a commission to 
risit the University, with the view of the more complete 
re-establishment of the Roman Catholic faith ; one of the 
first acts of which was to interdict the church of St. Mary, 
on account of the interment of Bucer, as well as that of St. 
Michael, in which Paul Fagius had been buried. On the 
12th of January, we read in Meres' Diary, 6 "the Heddes 
met in the scholes where and by whom it was concluded 
that for as myche as Buceb had byn an arche heretycke teach- 
by his life time many detestable heresies and errors. 
sute should be made unto the Visitors by th' University that 
he myghl 1"' taken up and ordered according to the law. and 
lykewyes P. Faghjs." There was no difficulty made in 
grantinga petition so agreeable to the wishes of the visitors; 
and after different formalities gone through in citing, hear- 
in.:- witnesses, &c, they were publicly condemned on the 26th 
in St. Mary's church, where the Vice-Chancellor, the Uni- 
versity, and the Mayor were gathered together, the visitors 
being present 7 "in a lytle skaffolde made for them 
within the quere." Then the Vice-Chancellor coming 
" before them without the quere door" made the third cita- 
tion, and the Bishop of Chester (Cuthberl Scott) pronounced 
sentence on Bucer and Fagius as heretics, commanding 
their exhumation. 

This was carried into effecl on the 6th of February, and 
on Sunday, the 7th. the Church was reconciled by the afore- 
said Bishop, as is recorded in Meres' Diary. '"On Sunday 
myslyinge rayne. ft. at \ii my L. of Chester came to S. 
M;ii\ a and almosl half an houre before to hallow the churche, 
and hallowed a greal tubbe full of water and put therein 
Bait, tnd wyne, and weni onse round abowte withowi 

Cambi I tocumente, p ■ [bid, 


the churche and thryec within, the M r of Xts College, M rs 
PercyveU and Collingwood were his Chaplens and wayted in 
gray Amyses, antl that don Parson Collingwood sayde Masse, 
and that don my seyde Lorde preched, wherunto was set my 
L. of Lynkolne and D. Coll, the Datary tarying at home 
and my L. of Chychester being syck." This reconciliation of 
the church is thus recorded in the Parish Books : 

Item, payd for new halloweing or reconcylyng of our chyrche beyug 
Interdycted for the buryall of M. Bucer, and the charg therunto 
belongeing, frtinkcnsens, and swete perfumes for the sacrament 
and herbes, <fcc., viij d - ob. 

The following day the Eucharist was carried by the Uni- 
versity and Corporation in solemn procession round the town 
to St. Mary's church, where, for the first time since the 
interdict, "masse was songe by the Vic. with deacon and 
subdeacon in p'iksong and organs." 

Queen Mary breathed her last on November 17, 1558, 
her cousin and counsellor, Cardinal Pole, the Chancellor of 
our University dying a few hours after her. He was suc- 
ceeded by Elizabeth's favourite statesman, Sir W. Cecil, 
afterwards Lord Burghlcy, under whose government the 
University began speedily to reassume the character it had 
had in the time of Edward VI. Of the changes imme- 
diately set on foot, we find, as usual, interesting evidence in 
St. Maiy's Parish books. The altars which had been restored 
were forthwith removed by order of the visitors, 8 a commu- 
nion table substituted in the room of the High Altar, the 
last resting-place of the foreign reformer once more decently 
covered, and English Service Books provided to supply the 
place of those destroyed in the preceding reign. 9 

Archbishop Parker was a determined enemy to lloodlofts, 
which he endeavoured to destroy throughout the whole of 
his province ; as appears from an inquiry in his Visitation 
Articles, in 1569, 1 " whether the roode lofte be pulled downe 

a Anions these we find Matthew Parker, It. payd for talcyu downe the taber- 

afterwarda Archbishop of Canterbury ; nacle, I0 d- 

Cecil ; May, Dean of St. Paul's : Home, Payd to W" Pryme for carrying 

Bishop of Winchester; and Pilkington, of formes and a table for the visetoors, 4' 1 - 
Bishop of Durham. Item for two cuinimmvuii books. 10 s -, 

9 It. payd for takyng down the altars, for 8 psalters, IS'; a byble bosed, \u < - 4 d -, 

2»- U' 1 - a paraphrasis 12*-, the homelyes 13 d -, 

It. payd for the eoinmnnyon table, ti s - register booke 10 d " 

It. to Lenge and Barnes for pavyng Item, for a table to set over the alter, 

of the Quere and covering Bucers grave, and the calender to the same, 20*' 
22 8, l Cardwell, Docum. Ann. vol. i. [>. 322. 


according to the order prescribed." The loft in St. Mary's 
was pulled down by his orders in 1562, 2 as is recorded by 
Strype in his life of the Archbishop. From the parish 
records we find " a booke " (probably a copy of Archbishop 
Parker's Injunctions), was sent down to them, for which they 
had to pay "iij'V in obedience to which they hired " Good- 
man Dowsey and one W m ' Jenner " to pull down the gor- 
geous structure, the erection of which has been recorded 
above; while divers " carpyndores were employed to mend 
"y c seatts," and also "to tacke down" the Rood beam, or 
" pisse y* y c Roode stood on." 

As we advance in Queen Elizabeth's reign, we find record 
of the sale of Church books, the candlesticks of the Rood- 
loft, and of " an Image of our Lacly," removed from "the blew 
velvet altar-cloth by the commando of the archdeacon. " :5 The 
windows, also, from which "monuments of superstition" had 
already been removed in the reigns of her father and brother, 
were still further defaced, and plain glass substituted for the 
"images" with which they had been adorned. 1 

AVe are now drawing near the period when "those eye- 
sores and heartsores," as they have been termed by one of 
their most determined enemies, whose loss the church and 
country lias recently led to deplore, 5 — close and appro- 
priated pews, were beginning to find their way into our 
churches. The civic functionaries seem to have been among 
the leaders here, as in many places, in fencing in their 
dignity by those wooden walls, of which the records of the 
time afford several amusing notices. 

The following is from " Wickstedes Thesaurus," preserved 
among the few but valuable MSS. of Downing College, 
bequeathed by the laborious Bowtell : — 

"In L 607, the Judges being in Cambridge," (Lord. Coke 

Strype's Parker, book i. c. i. 1569 For repaireing the glasse and 

I'. I', i ived of M" Cuth- putting owte y' Imygas, vij»' 

bert. Stationi r, i" 1, all the books in N° 9, For ij fete of new glass i" 1 1 1 < ■ 

small and great, 10 wyndows, xi j 1 - 

It. of M' Howell for 15 toppes "t To William Pryme for wassh- 

of latten u ed for the roode ing oute images oute "I ( 1 ><■ glasse win- 

lofte, and the lampe, weying nil .'>o ; ' with dow< 

2 candli itil of latten for the altar at ' Archdeacon Hare, Primary Charge. 

!-"■ ';•'• '■ If the Jemalls o. e. bing< 

It. of one William, i singing man, the in the following entrj may i"' taken asa 

ol our Ladye which was taken of proof of the existence of doors, the alder 

thi LI a relvet alter clothe by the com- men had ^ 1 1 n t them eh in om< year 

mande of the Archdeacon, 6 1 ' before ilii*. P. B. 1574. "It. payd for 

i ite Imagi mending the Jemalls i" the Beaf when 

in thi wind ■ ■■ the aldermen doe sytt, iij d,M 


and Judge Daniell) "and coming to S. Maries Ch. to the 
sermon, upon Sonda} r in the forenoon, and cominge to sitt in 
the Maior his seate, -where he then did sitte, the Maior 
offered them very kindly to sitt in y e seatte under ht/m, unto 
w ch the L' 1 Coke a litle sta} r ecl, as seeminge his place was 
supreme above the Maior, but in th'end, both the Justices 
did sitt in the same seate, under y e Maior, and M r - Justice 
Danyell ate his goeing away contended the Maior for his 
corrage therein, allowyng y* to be right in hym." 

A few years later, in 1610, in consequence of the plague 
raging in the town, the aldermen were unable to give their 
usual public supper on St. Bartholomew's day, on which it 
was ordered that the cost should be devoted to the erection 
of a new pew for their accommodation. The Vice-Chancellor 
Clement Corbet, Master of Trinity Hall, interposed his 
authority to forbid the erection, which was in consequence 
delayed, and the pew was not built till 1613. 7 

The } T ear which was signalised by this decision on the 
part of the civic functionaries saw the erection of a gallery 
for the accommodation of the dignitaries of the University — 
the prototype of that hideous deformity, which tends more 
than anything else to rob the interior of St. Mary's of its 
ecclesiastical character. The parish books give us the fol- 
low in g entry : — 

" 1010, 21st March. The Dockters gallerie was sett up, uppon which 
daye Mr. Docktcr Dewporte, V. C, did give his word and faithful promise, 
that at the next congregation at the Scooles it should he decreed that noe 
Scoller under the degree of a Mr. of Arts or Batchellor of Lawe should not 
presume to sitt in any seatt in S. Maries churche in searvice or sermond 
tymes. 8 The ffirste of July, 1610, Mr. D r - Dewporte w th Doctors did ffirste 
sitt there ; against that daye the Pulpitt was rassed, and Mr. Dr. Richardson 
of Christe Collidge, preached." 

7 " 1G10. The town was visited by the 8 The following order, from Bedell 

Plague, and in consequence of the danger Ingram's Book, (MSS. Gough, Camb. 46, 

of contagion, the Mayor and Bailliifs p. 37) shows that it was deemed no great 

resolved that the supper which was accus- hardship for the junior members of the 

tomed to be made at their charge on congregation to stand at sermon time. 

St. Bartholomew's day, should not take "Januarii 13°, 1586. h'm it is lyke- 

place, but that the money they were wise ordered that no Bachiler or Scholer 

bound to expend on it should be laid out shall p'sume to sitt by aine M r of Arte in 

in erecting a new seat iu S. Marys for aine church at Sermons or aine lecture in 

their accommodation. the Scholes or before the fourmes before 

" 1612. This year the aldermans seats the pullpitt in St. Maries church or upon 

building, but the Vice Chancellor stayed the seatea before M' .Maior or seates in 

them. the quire nor stande upon the seates 

"1613. It. Aldermans seats set up." fourmes stalles and deskes in the comon 

Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, hi. 40. Bcholes at aine scholasticall exercise : nor 

Baker's MSS., xxxvii. 226. shall in aine scholastical acte or reading. 


Tli mce of this gallery was not a long one. It 

deformed the church only sis years, being taken down in 
L616, during the Vice-Chancellorship of Dr. Hill, of Cathe- 
rine Ball. In 1618 tli'' I'M pulpit was sold to the same 
•• Mr. Dr. Richardson," who had preached the first sermon in 
it after its being elevated to allow the Doctors, then for the 
first time snugly ensconced in their new gallery, to see and 
hear with convenience ; and en Sunday, Aug. 3<>. "the newe 
Pulpitt," which was a gift of Mv. Atkins, alderman of Lynn 
in-- "sett up, Mr. Bellcanke, 1 of Pembroke Hall. 
shed the first sermond in it."' At the same time the 
pews were- getting higher, and more numerous, so that in 
we find thr entry, " P d< for the seatts and pewes 
ing, and mending on the south syde of the church, w 
the parish consented should be done, and because they were 
formerly done the churchwardens were presented 
.v xix" viij. oh.*' 

We now enter upon a most stormy period, when the 
tempest which had been gathering ever since the commence- 
ment of the century, was preparing to break forth with that 
puctive fury which for a time overwhelmed both the 
throne and the altars of this land. At this time Archbishop 
Laud, moved no doubt by the continual representations 
made to him, of the disaffection to ecclesiastical and civil 
government, so rapidly and fatally spreading, and the noto- 
rious disregard of all church order, and open irreverence in 
the churches and chapels of the University, signified his 
intention of visiting Cambridge metropolitically. His right 
ie tliis jurisdiction was keenly contested by the Yice- 
Chancellor and heads of the University, until .-it Length 
it was mutually agri ed that the di cision of the matter should 
he referred to the Kin-. Charles, by the advice of the 

to '' Town Book. Baker's MSS. wwii. 

|.-t l) I, ■ hop Wren's Autograph MS. 

w '< by order of th< ■ logui ol Pembroke Hall Library, 

cholea cion of the p 31. " Qui (D Atkins) < tentus 

i the bedells Vmoris Venerationis que sute magnificum 

\ .,i iii. offenders in me testimonium jampridem (in novo illo 

■ \ i i ; i ball / ' /■'. .'/. pulpito) Bonis life i 

• and being nol lij i nis que | i ■ ; etiam el priva- 

:i the inn in isto Pembrochianarum Musarum 
! in. ii adfectumque i uura 

|- pari i profiteri " 

. I). I'niiM , ' Dr. Balcanqual, Fello« "l Pembroke. 


Privy Council, determined in favour of the Archbishop's 
claim, but the storm of rebellion so rapidly thickened, and 
matters of so much more serious importance begun to press 
so heavily on Laud, that he was never able to carry out his 
intention. However, in anticipation of his proposed Visit- 
ation, a detailed account of the more special disorders in the 
University was forwarded to him, Sept. 23, 1636, drawn up 
probably by Cosin, or Sterne, Master of Jesus, which affords, 
among other similar matters, a sad though curious picture of 
the state of St. Mary's. 

Speciall Disorders in y c Church and Chappelh. 

S 1 - Mary's Church at every great Commencement is made a Theater 
ami tliC Prevaricatours Stage, wherein lie Acts and setts forth his prophane 
and scurrilous jests besides diverse other abuses and disorders then suffered 
in that place. All the year after a parte of it is made a Lumber House for 
v Materials of y c Scaffolds, for Bookbinders dry Fats, for aumerie Cup- 
boards, and such like implements, which they know not readily where else 
to put. The West windows are half blinded up with a Cobler's and a 
Bookbinder's Shop. 2 At the East end are Incroachments made by diverse 
Houses, and the Vestry is lately unleaded (they say) with purpose to let 
it ruine or to pull it down. 3 The Seats many of them are lately cooped 
up high with wainscot. 

The Service Pulpit is sett up in the midst, a good distance below the 
Chauncell, and looks full to the Belfrie, so that all Service, second Service 
and all, (if any be) is there and performed that way. 

The Service there (which is done by Trim Coll.) is commonly posted 
over and cut short at y e pleasure of him that is sent thither to read it. 

When the University comes in for the Sermon the chancell (the higher 
part of it) is filled with boyes and Townsmen, and otherwhiles (thereafter 4 
as the Preacher is) with Townswomen also, all in a rude heap betwixt v e 
Doctors and y e Altar. In y e Bodie of the ch. Men Women and Scholers 
thrust together promiscuously, but in y c place onely before y e Pulpit, 
they call ?/' Cock Pitt, and which they leave somewhat free for masters to 
sitt in. The rest of y e churche is taken up by the Townsmen of y c 
Parrishe and y r families, w rh is one reason among others y* many Scholers 

- These shops, which were the property they have granted leave, on condition he 

of Trinity College, Bad existed as far back pays V- per annum to the Church." In 

as 1587. P. B. 18 Eliz. •' Whereas Loggan's view of the church, the shops 

Trinity College has di mised to Thomas are to be Been nestling wider its shade. 

Bradshaw their Two Shops at tfa W. end Cole speaks of them as existing in 1745, 

of St. Marys Church for 19 years, which " to the disgrace of Trinity College." 

are to be builded an< w by the said Thorn :i The pn sent restry was purchased of 

who did goe about to stop op the windows, the parish by the University, in 1663 for 

and mad.- his frame in the Church Wall £50, and was afterwards wainscotted by 

to the prejudice of the same, without the them at a cost of £Z0 more. Baker's 

COnBent of the Church Ward, us and was MSS. xl. 60. 

therefore by tbem discharged from build- ' i. ,. according, 
in^ there, now on his earni b1 requ 


pretend for not coming to this churche. Tradesmen and prentices will be 
covered when the Oniversitv is hare. 5 

Upon dayes when the Litany is there solemnly to he sung- by y c 
Universitie we have not above '■*> or I Masters in their habit that come to 
assist at that Service in y e Quire, y 8 rest keep their places, below for the 
Sermon, To which Sermon every Day we come most of us D rs> and all, 
without any other habit butt the Ilatt and the Gowne. 

Before our Sermons the forme of bidding prayers appointed by the 
Injunctions and the Canon is not only neglected but by most men also 
mainly opposed and misliked. Instead whereof we have such private 
fancies and Beveral prayers of every man's own making (and sometimes 
sudden conceiving too) vented among us that besides \' absurdities of y e 
language directed to Gun himself our young Schollers are thereby taught 
to prefer the private spirit before y e publick, and their own invented and 
unaproved Prayers before all the Liturgie of y c Church. Awhile since one 
of them praying for y e Queene added very abruptly, "And why do the 
people Imagine a vain thing, Lord, thou knowest there is but one Religion, 
cue Baptisme, one Lord. How can there then be two Faiths." After 
praying for Helkiah the High Priest and Shaphan the Treasurour, and 
Azakiah the King's Squire <fec. presently he added " And whoever Lord 
shall mistrust providence yet let not y e great Men upon whose amies Kings 
do leane contemn Elisha's Sermons," which being questioned by some of 
was defended by Other some for a most Godly Religious and Learned 
Prayer. To such liberty are we come fur want of being confined to a 
strict forme. 

Although Laud's proposed Visitation was never actually 
held, the expectation of it seems not to have been without 
eflfeel upon the arrangements of St. Mary's, and not only in 
the removal of the Doctors' Gallery, 6 Imt in the erection of a 
new Font and Chancel Screen, and the decoration of the 
Chancel, we see traces of an improved tone of feeling in eccle- 
siasl tea] matters. 

The Font, which was the gift of one Mr. F. Martin, is a 
large and not inelegant specimen of the cinque-cento style 
then prevailing, worthy of a more appropriate and conspicu- 

. :, it may Beem to us, to ' in Archbishop Laud's annual accounl 

the hi ii al lermon time was a of his province to the king, \ i>. L639, he 

privileei of blasters of Arts, and other complain thai "in i o( the chancels 

iiperii i I' 1 the (2nd trol i of of the churches in Cambridge, there .-ire 

l JS. we find a paper entitled comi over high, and unfitting 

rectifyed in the Uni thai place in divers respects," and says 

"of which one of ''I think il an admonition would amend 

the articlet orders K tl Uors ol them il wen well given. Bui if thai 

. i : ,, .. ivi place i" prevail not, the High Commissioner may 

\ betters, and thai thej do nol presume order il il your Majesty bo please." To 

I // ,' ,1/ Sermon , ■»• other which the King wrote i" the margin 

public iever ; except such W C. R. It must notbee. VTou are in the 

| bj the Statutes, via. right; roriffaire meanes will not, power 

|( I,. 11 and ll< in apparent mu t redri o it." 

..f Knighl Rooi a Goad, V.C, I 


ous position than the obscure corner in which it is now 
immured. 7 The chancel screen, we learn from Dr. Dilling- 
ham's Diary, 8 was set up in 1640, the Vice-Chancellor being 
Dr. John Cosin, afterwards Bishop of Durham, then Master of 
Peter House, and at the same time the side chapels were 
also divided from the aisles by parcloses. A few years 
before, the chancel had been wainscoted and " adorned with 
spire- work," stalls on either side, affording accommodation for 
the heads of houses and Doctors. 

This improvement, however, was very short-lived, for here 
the notices of church reparation end, and those of church 
desecration begin. For in 1641, the year after the erection 
of Cosin's screen, there came an order from the Parliament 
" to remove the communion table from the east end of all 
collegiate churches or chapels in the University," in con- 
formity with which mandate we find in the parish accounts 
under this year, " Paid for taking down the communion rails 
and levelling the chancel, 2l. 7s."° That this ordinance was not 
complied with without resistance from the leading churchmen 
of the University, the following passage from the " Articles 
against Scandalous Ministers," is a proof. 

1 " Articles against D r - Cheney Rowe, Parson of Orwell, and Fell, of 
Trin. before the Committee for Scandalous Ministers sitting in Trin. Coll. 
Jan. 14, 1644." 

" Stephen Fortune of Cambridge Haberdasher sworn sayth, ' that at 
such time as the Ordinance of Parliament for takyng away Rayles and 
Steps in churches, came forth, this Deponent being ch. warden and about 
to execute that ordinance by taking away the Stepps and Rales in G 1, S. 
Maries church in Cambridge, D 1 '- Row came to the church to this Deponent, 
and thretened this Deponent, that if he went fowrard with y e worke, he 
would proceed against him, wheruppon this Deponent did desist until! he 
had further order from the Parliament." 

7 P. B. " Of M r * F. Martin 8 ub towards " Canterburies Doom " will show that thio 
a new Font to be built according to direc- altar had been for some time a mark (or 
tions from M r - D r - Porter. jealous eyes. It is from the evidence 

1632. To G. Tompson for the makeing of Wallis (the well-known Professor of 

the hint, 2 lib - Geometry at Oxford) on Archbishop 

Item. A barrel of Lint seed oyl to Laud's trial. " That in the I'niversitie 

painte the fonte, the porch and Churehc Church of S'- Maries there was an altar 

doors, 14 s - 4 d . railed in to which the Doctors, Schollers 

Item. To David Blisse for paynting and others usually bowed. That these 

y e fonte and finding colors, l" b ' Altars, Crucifixes, Candlesticks, Tapers 

In Cole's time the Font stood in its and Bowing to Altars continued till after 

canonical place, on the north side of the this Parliament, and were brought in 

west entrance, and was decorated with since the Archbishops time by mean- of 

gilding. Byshop Wren, Doctor Cosens, D" Martin 

8 Baker MSS. xv. 129. and othersall Canterburies great favorites." 

9 The following passage from Prynne's 1 MSS. Baker, x\xi. 3BO. 
VOL. XII. 7 - 7. 


The year 1643 was signalised by the visit to Cambridge 
of Oliver Cromwell and the notorious iconoclast Will Dowsing, 
under whose superintendence terrible havoc was made of the 
churches and their ornaments. 2 Dowsing's Diary, which 
records his deeds of destruction with such remarkable 
minuteness, has no entry under the head of "Great Maryes ; " 
liii we learu from the parish books and other contemporary 
documents, that the church did not pass through the storm 
unscathed. The chancel screen was defaced, the painted 
windows broken, the cross removed from the steeple and 
chancel, the Prayer Book torn to pieces by the soldiers in 
tip' presence of Cromwell himself, and many other acts of 
wanton sacrilege committed. 

The events of this time are thus briefly enumerated by 
Dr. Dillingham : 3 — 

Jan. 1G4.J. M r * Crumwell come to Towne. 

D r# Cosine Screeno at S. Maries defaced. 
29. The Clarke set y' 7 1 Psalm to be sung before the Sermon in 
y' afternoone. 
Feb r - The Pyramis at S. Maries over the Doctors Seats quite 
pulled down. 
March 1. About -li.lOll Soldiers in Cambridge. 

4. This day Surplisses were left in all Colleges in Cambridge. 

And in the Querela Cantabrigiensis, we find the following 
piteous lamentations arc poured forth : — 

" And that Religion might fare no better than Learning, in the University 
church (tor perhaps it may be Idolatry now to call it Saint Maries) in the 
ace of the then General] our Common lVayer-book was tome before 
our faces, notwithstanding our Protection From the House of Peeres for the 
free use of it, some (now great one) .1/. Cromwell, encouraging them 
in it, and openly rebuking the University Clerk who complained of it 
before bis soldiers." ' 

And again — 

" Ami now to tell how they have prophaned and abused our several 

Chapelles, though our pens flowed as fast with vinegar and gall, as our eyes 
do with teai'-, \>-t were it impossible sufficiently to be expressed ; when as 
multitudes of enraged soldiers (lei loose to reforms) have turn down all 
carved worke, nol respecting the very monuments of the dead : Ami have 
ruin'd a beautiful carved structure in the Universitie church (though indeed 

P B, 1643 i- " For defacing and re> M Item to theworl in when they were 

,10 il" levelling the chaneell, I ■• 

"Item, I" the overseer "I window , ''Item Fox taking downe the clothe in 

6* )!■'• the '-Ik. a.-, il and the borde,2'- 6*' 

i >• I :<k .1. , ',■• };■' • It. t t i for Parchment and writing the 

. i ■ ton , l " J' 1- covenant, •'!■■" 

M liens Parte ingdownol the cross of Dierj uttupvi 

the • teeple and chaneell, 1 6 I Q C. p. 11. 


that was not done without direction from a great one, M. Cromwell, as 
appeared after upon our complaint made to him) which stoode us in a great 
summe of money and had not one jot of Imagery or statue worke ahout it. 
And when that Reverend man the Vice Chancellor, D. Ward, told them 
mildly That they might be better employed, they returned him such language 
as we are ashamed here to expresse." 5 

We pass on a few years and all is again changed. On 
the 11th of May, 1G60, Charles II. was proclaimed king in 
various places in the town of Cambridge, and we imme- 
diately find the men, who, a short time previously, were 
keeping a day of thanksgiving, on the 30th of January, 6 for 
the victory of Dunbar, putting down " the Rebel's Anns," 
and setting up those of the king, and purchasing hassocks, 
or "Communion Crickets" for the parishioners to kneel 
on at the time of the reception of the Eucharist, while the 
venal bells were celebrating with their joyful peals, the 
downfall of the rulers whose victories they had been called 
so often to proclaim. 

From this period, the annals of St. Mary's cease to be of 
much interest. The parochial records supply but brief 
notices, and those only show how fast the guardians of the 
sacred edifice were travelling the downward road, and in- 
juring and disfiguring its noble proportions. 

Towards the close of the century, various minor alterations 
were made. In 1675, we find the University "new laying" 
the roof of the chancel, and in 1697, the parish granted them 
permission to erect an organ ; a noble instrument, the work, 
like that of Trinity, of the famous Father Smith. 7 But it was 

5 Q. C. p. 17. built for the new church of St. Jame9, 

6 The 30th of January was set apart Piccadilly, consecrated in 1684 ? Till 
by order of the Parliament as a day of the times of the Commonwealth, a. d. 1643, 
thanksgiving for the success of the arms (when Dr. Dillingham notes it as a thing 
of the Commonwealth by sea and by land, worthy of mention, that on " Jan. 29, the 
especially the condition of the Castle of clarke set y e 74th Psalm to be sung before 
Edinburgh, and the defeat of the Scotch y e sermon in the afternoone ; ") the Uni- 
forces in the west of Scotland, by Lambert. versity service would appear to have 
( Parliam, Hist, of England, xix. 4.31.) The been uuaccompanied with Psalmody. After 
victory at Dunbar is thus noticed in the the Restoration it was put down, a. d. 1C73, 
parish accounts. " For reading y e boke of during the vice-chancellorship of Dr. W. 
narracion of victory over y* Scots, 6' s- " Wells, President of Queens (Baker, xlii. 
1 650. " To Persy vail Sekole, the clarke, for 1 4ft), and was revived on the erection of the 
the ringers, by an order from the maier on new organ in 1697, when we find syn- 
30 Jan. being a day of thanksgiving. 2*' " dicks appointed "for the organ at St. 

'' The organ was of course demolished. Mary's, and Psalms to be sung there," 

in 1643. Till the erection of the new one by whom a collection of Psalms to be sung 

in 1697, the University had the loan of a before sermon was authorised. The old 

small instrument, on occasions, from St. custom of sitting during the Psalm, and ris- 

Miehael's Church. The new organ is said, ing at the Gloria I 'atri was retained by the 

in the parish accounts, to have been '' pur- undergraduates till the last fifteen years, 
chased of St. James." Was it originally 


in the beginning of the XYIIIth century, that a considerable 
legacy from Mr. Worts." led to the most important changes 
in the internal arrangements of the church, in the erection of 
the galleries for the Undergraduates and Bachelors, and the 
new paving of the nave. The date of the legacy was 17' 1 !). 
but it was not till 17:!.") that the parish, after many hearings 
and an appeal to the Bishop's Court, gave it- consent to 
their erection. 9 At the same time, the University " craved 
permission to erect a pulpit in the pit," (as the centre aisle, 
occupied by the Masters of Arts, is irreverently designated,) 
" where the rostrum now stands ; also that this square in the 

or body of the church, called the pit, may be raised 
with a new floor, boarded ; and that no body hereafter be 
there buried/ 3 This request was acceded to by the parish, 
but with the stipulation "that the University do give the 
said parish the sum of 1501. toward- erecting new pews in 
the Baid parish church for the use of the said parishioners." 1 
The University would seem to have made little difficulty 
about accepting these humiliating terms, and having gained 
the consent of the parish, set about encumbering the ma- 
jestic ulterior of this noble building with a huge mass of 
woodwork, marring its proportions and hiding its beauty ; 
this, after an existence of a hundred and twenty years, is, 
we may now hope, doomed to a Bpeedy and unlamented 
destruction. The faculty for the erection of the galleries is 

I .Juno 21, L735. One of the consequences of these 
deplorable alterations was. that the interiorwas so darkened, 
thai iii 1766 it was deemed expedient to rob the aisle win- 

«* Per donat' Gal Worts Septum A.M. <>i y tfi University on condition thai y 

eonditnm, Acad' Caneeltor' M:>_-i-.t i-' .v University do give the s d Parish the sum 

Scholar 1 dengnatnm, el per Lieentiam "i G150 towards erecting New P< 

Ecclesiastic' abalienatum et dicatum." the - : Parish Ch. for the use "t j B* 

1 ole, i\. 27. Pariahiom 1 

.••or late rears ti"' Pari li The Pari&hi rshaveal nil timet re- 

:!.- of opposition t" j ! I with gn at jealousy the enforce* 

University ; 1st in relation to 1 . men! of the just claim oi the University 

and iii« n about their altering the Pil or to have a definite part of the church eel 

square place railed in for y Masters "i aparl for their especial use. In 1689 we 

• ■.' ili.- University was at .-ill the And M an attempt made bi D C snV.G 

1.1 deprive the parish of the mid Isle or 

.1,. ,. i-.-.i mi ■ I Alley," but they resolved not i>> submit 

in;.' >.f \ r Parishioners "i y* Parish "f to such usurpation, but i" defend their 

in ••■ Town .•! Carobr. 1 ■ - l- 1 1 1 ^ snd privileges, at the eommoa 

> n ■, .,1 \ -ui. ( huroh " of the ] b." In the peril li 

, I |';n-i»|i Ixi 'I lor y' i-opjicy of Ml 

1 nivei ity order, wherein the I niversite claymeth 

1 Pulpit in iii. Pit where the th( 1 e of the ehuroh, and y pari honors 

■ to floor nevi r would condi I to it I 

1 ■ 


dows of the rich super-mullioned tracery, represented in 
Loggan's print, and substitute the meagre intersecting mul- 
lions we see at present ; which certainly have the merit of 
admitting more light. 2 

Ten years after the commencement of these changes, 
I 74. j, Cole gives the following sketch of the interior of >St. 
Mary's : — 3 

■' There are 4 beautiful and lofty Pillars which separate the Nave fr' y e 
side Isles. The Modern Pulpit and Desk of fine carved Work done by 
M r * Essex 4 which cost y e University . . . (sic) ab l 6 years ago, stands 
at y e Entrance into y e Pitt, with a Pair of Stairs in it, y e Back to y e 
Organ, and fronting y e Vice-Chancellor. The Pitt was done about y e same 
Time and y e old Stones \v ch lay in y e old Pit were then taken up, and laid 
in various parts of y c Church, and y e modern Pit floored and raised a step 
higher than the Chancel." 

The old curiously carved pulpit, which as we have seen, 
was erected in 1618, "stood against the South Pillar ; but 
when y e Galleries were erected by the benefaction of M r 
Worts to y e University round y e Church against the Pillars, 
and over y e two side Isles, it was necessary to remove it 
or y e Preacher must have been overlooked." 

He goes on to describe the arrangements of the Chancel, 
in which we see a better feeling prevailing, and which were, 

2 Cole ix. 26. 4 Essex was very much employed in 

3 We obtain an amusing glimpse of the Cambridge about this time, but, unfortu- 
state of the interior of S. Mary's, in 1714, nately, his works are for the most part in 
from the Music Speech of Roger £«/"/, the insipid Italian ta-te, then so fatally 
Master of Pembroke, recited at the public prevailing. The New Combination Room 
Commencement, then, to the disgrace of at Trinity, was one of his works, as well 
the University, held in this church. The as the Cycloidal Bridge in the grounds. 
Ladies, it appears, had on previous oc- He, too, was guilty of destroj ing the 
casions of this kind, been accommodated picturesque gables of Neville's Court, re- 
in a temporary gallery built for that presented in Loggan's view, substituting 
purpose ; but the Vice-Chancellor this the flat unbroken parapet which seemed 
time refused them any such convenience, so beautiful in the eyes of that dreary 
and was determined cogere cancellis i.e., uniformity-loving age. (See Cole's MSS. 
to shut them up in the chancel. The vol. xxxviii.) His works in the Pointed 
speech opens — style, though weak and meagre, .-how 
" 1 'he humble petition of the Ladies who greater appreciation of its character than 

are ready to be eaten up with spleen, was general at that time. The Reredos 

To think they are to be locked up in in King's Chapel, and the former Organ 
the Chancel, where they can neither Screen at Ely, are among the best ex- 
see nor be Bet n, amples. The open parapet of the central 

But must sit in the dumps, by them- tower of Lincoln Cathedra] also deserves 

tselves, all Btew'd, and pent up, favourable mention. He »;is employed 

And can only peep through the Lattice, in the repairs of Ely Cathedral, and 

like so many chickens in a coop : advised the chapter to pull down the 

Whereas last Commencement the Ladies Galilee and S. W. transept, as being 

had a gallery provided near enough " neither useful nor ornamental," and so 

To see the Heads sleep, and the Fellow "not worth preserving." MSS. Essex. 

Commoners take snuff." Brit. Mus. ii. 261. 
Taylor mul Long's .'/" 

London : J. Nichols, 1819. 


in all essential points, the same as in the days of Cosin. 
The " beautiful and lofty Screen^witb a Canopy and Spire 
Work" still remained " under y° Nol>le laruv Aivh," sepa- 
rating the Chancel and Nave, while stalls were arranged 
along the sides of the Chancel, in two rows, for about half 
its length, •" in which sett only y e Heads of Colleges, Doctors 
of all Faculties, Noblemen, Professors, and Bodies." "The 
Vice-Chancellor sets in y I Stall on y S. Side under y° 
Screen, and y" Heads of Colleges according to their seniority 
in y CTniversity by him on the same side. The Noblemen, 
Bishops, and other Doctors and Professors in y Stalls on the 
X. Side according to their Dignity and Creation." The 
Eastern portion was divided oft" by a "door across from the 
Stalls, and wainscoted all round very high, with handsome 
Wainscote and a Canopy adorned with Spire work, and 
1633 s in various Places to shew its Date." 

Such, little more than a century ago. was the arrange- 
ment of the Chance] of St. .Mary's. Would that it had never 
been altered. Bui galleries for the undergraduates having 
been once admitted, the fatal precedent was soon followed. 
and one was Bet up for the Heads of the University. 

•It has been talked of lately/' says Cole, "to alter the 
Form of y u Chancell and make it more comodious for y" 
Doctors, by raising if stalls our above another, for at present 
they thai sit on y lower Range of Stalls on either side are 
perfectly hid." 

[f the alteration had been no more than that indicated by 
Cole, there would have been little fault to find with it. But, 
on pursuing the history contained in his amusing pages a 
little farther, we find him recording the erection of that 
monstrous piece of deformity, which cannol be allowed much 
longer to encumber our University Church, and render it, in 
the words of Archdeacon Hare, "an example of the world 
i urned topsy t urvey." 6 

Writing in 1757 Cole -ays, " By the advice and contrivance 
oi my worthy friend James Burrough, late one of v Esquier 

I'. B, Trinitj College laid of hoaxes and professors turn their backs 

i. ut ui. mil SI 2 in beautifying the chancel ' on the Lobd'i Table; where the pulpil 

' Charge, 1840, p , ■■ I ofortu- stand* the central object on which every 

nately," says hi bridgi man eye is to bi fixed j and where every thing 

in motioned in any betokens, what is in fact the case, that the 

be may choosi i" indulge in, by whole congregation are ■■> sembled solely 

the »'i . don arrangement in to hear the preacher. Surerj a l Diversity 

ben the chancel I church ought uoi to offer such an examph 

from view by thi sal in which the heads of the verkdirU i 


Bedels, and now Master of Gonville and Caius College, the 
Chancel is quite altered, and y c Church appears to much 
less advantage than it used to look : for the Stalls and fine 
Screen are taken down in the Chancell, and a Gallery built 
with an arched top of Wainscot, highly ornamented indeed 
with Mosaic carving, but very absurd in y e Design : both as 
the Doctors who sit there are generally old men, sometimes 
goutified, and not well able to get up stairs, and also are 
made to turn their Backs on y e Altar, iv ch is not so decent 
especially in an University. The old Wainscote is pulled 
down w ch went all round y c chancel, and a new one but 
lower is added, w ch also runs behind y c Altar Piece, w ch is 
Plain Wainscote, it is railed in on 3 black steps ; there are 
also sort of Stalls or Benches placed round under y e Walls 
and under the said gallery, w ch was thus finished last year." 
This, with the exception of the erection of the stone 
Organ Gallery, about twenty years since, and of the new 
West Door, in 1850, was the last alteration of any moment 
in our University church, and with this I may close this 
paper, with the expression of an earnest hope that such a 
well-considered and thorough work of repair, restoration, 
and re-arrangement may soon be set on foot as may bring- 
back the interior of St. Mary's Church to its original dignity 
and beauty, and render it worthy as well of the ancient 
University which meets within its Avails, as of the noble 
foundation who are its Patrons and Impropriators. 



Tin: upper part of the Avails of King's College Chapel may 
almost !"• Baid to be hung with a series of pictures like 
ancient tapestry ; so great is the preponderance of painted 
glass over Btone-work. 

This effect is most observable from the choir during 
twilight. As night comes on, certain groups become more 
prominent, the architectural parts fade, and at last none but 
the most important figures in each picture remain distin- 
guishable. This affords a happy proof of the breadth of 
composition, distribution of masses, and significant arrange- 
ment of colour in them. 

Even the horizontal bars, which exercise so injurious an 
effect "ii the compositions in full daylight, cease to offend. 
These bars, necessary as we understand them to be both for 
interna] and external security, when seen in addition to the 
lines of leading which unite the pieces of glass, produce a 
net-work, or rather tangle, so intricate as to bewilder the 
fresh observer, and require no small attention before the 
eve can readily and clearly discern the actual forms and 
colours as designed by the artist. It is a misfortune there- 
fore thai these beautiful works of art do not produce a mure 
striking effect a1 first Bight ; most persons leave the chapel 
without carrying away any distinct impression of them as 
pictures, except that of two or three individual heads, 
especially striking for expression, <»r placed, it may be, some- 
what nearer to the eye. When the attention is once roused, 
and .-i little perseverance brought to bear upon a particular 
part, the beauties and peculiarities come forth, and the Art 
student will find himself thoroughly rewarded for 1 a little 
pat ient applicat i< >n. 

Fortunately, the best paintings are .'ill arranged on the 
south ide, jo that a full Bunlighl Is almost constantly upon 
them. The worst erlas and Mr. Bolton has shown us that 


many hands were emplo} r ed in the manufacture, is placed in 
the north-east part of the chapel, where the sun rarely 
penetrates, except from within, across the choir through the 
other windows. 

Whether executed by English hands or not, the designs 
bear evidence of a singularly mixed influence of the various 
continental schools belonging to the first half of the XVIth 
century. Some are directly German, others Flemish com- 
bined with Italian composition ; whilst the remainder are in 
a coarse dark style, containing smaller figures, deficient both 
in breadth of form and colour, and rendered still worse by 
deep black shadows. 

We know that, during the best period of art in Italy, 
whilst Raphael was engaged upon his finest works, many 
Flemings proceeded to Rome and obtained employment in 
his service. By this means the Italian style was carried 
to Flanders. All these artists, on their return, adopted his 
breadth and dignity of composition, both in action and 
drapery, however deficient they may have still remained 
in the character and expression of heads and extremities. 
Mabuse, who w r as sixteen years younger than Raphael, is 
mentioned by Vasari as among the first who carried from 
Italy to Flanders poetical inventions and a correct mode of 
grouping naked figures. 1 His works are numerous, and 
many examples may be seen in England ; the finest of all, 
an Adoration of the Magi, at Castle Howard. 

Bernard van Orley, born at Brussels in 1490, went to 
Rome and became the pupil of Raphael, who was seven years 
his senior. Raphael appointed him to superintend the 
working of the tapestries at Arras, from his cartoons now at 
Hampton Court. 2 Bernard afterwards made many designs 
for tapestry in the style of his great master. A second 
series of tapestries from the life of Christ was designed by 
Raphael for the Vatican, but the cartoons were most probably 
executed by van Orley. These tapestries are still preserved 
in the Vatican under the name of the " Arazzi della scuola 
nuova," 3 and closely resemble, both in preservation, style and 
execution, the fine tapestries from the history of Abraham, 
in the Great Hall at Hampton Court. It is believed that 

1 Vasari, vol. iii. p. 1100 of Florentine - Passavant's Rafael von Urbino, vol. ii. 

edition, 1838 : vol. v. p. 460 of Bonn's p. 231. 

translation. 3 Kugler, p. 366. Passavant, vol. ii. 

p. 261. 

vol.. XII 3 A 


Francis I. commissioned Raphael to make designs for the 
second Vatican Beries, having promise. I a Bel to the Pope on 
the occasion of the canonization of S. Francesco di Paolo 
in l 5 1 !'. It is not probable however that they were executed 
before L523. The accessories ami landscapes introduced in 
them appear to be of an essentially Netherlandish character, 
a remark equally applicable to the tapestries in the Great 
Hall at Bampton Court. 

Piero Coek, or Pietro doeck d'Aelstds mentioned by Vasari 
in his remarks upon Flemish artists of this period, as 
especially celebrated for the richness of his invention and 
compositions. 1 He made excellent cartoons for tapestry and 
cloth of Arras ; lie had great skill and practice as an 
architect, and even translated Serlio's book on architecture 
into his native language. The British Museum poss 
Beveral original designs by Pietro Koeckj among them a 
curious drawing for a triptych relating to St. John the 
Baptist, and five drawings from the history of David, evi- 
dently intended for tapes! ry. The rich architectural features 
in these designs have a singular affinity to some examples 
in the Cambridge glass, afterwards to be specified, but the 
richest and fullest instances of the architectural peculiarities 
of the cinque-cento may be seen in the exquisite engravings 
of Dirk Van Staren, whose works aredatedfrom L 522 to 
1544.* A spirited engraving, inscribed L531, is from a 
design by Bernard van Orley, and represents Margaret 
of A.ustria, kneeling, attended by her patron St. Mar- 
garet. The architecture connected with it is especially rich." 

The engravings by the "Master of the Crab" contain also 
many peculiarities of costume and Irapery observable in the 
Bouth side of the choir of King's Chapel. He was .-in original 
designer, and engraved his own work-.' The above 
examples show transalpine artists under the influence of 
Italian principles, and but fev« opposite instances occur ol 
the < rerman 3l \ le acting upon the Italian. 8 

1 \ .i-:u i, vul. iv. p. 1100, col. 6. displays the same architectural maenifi- 

Barl eh, vol iii p oeoce. The windows nt Gouda, by Dirk 

' This verj n onK Crabeth and others,are very different, both 

\jy the impn saion in the British Museum, in style and srrangi menl They all belong 

bitfc ii etching', and, tr.nn ii i to the second half ol the XVIth century 

ing,attributed by Mr. Carpi ; I desire to expn sni) thanks to Mr. 

d The magniflcenl W, EL Carpenter, for the valuable aid 

in the choir ol St. Jacques, bo gave to mj research) in the Print 

nil 1 58 1 . Room of the Briti u M u i urn, 

with thai at Cambrid Such, howeverj wa th< case al 



Although we do not know anything with certainty of 
King's Chapel glass, beyond particular dates and the names 
of the contractors under the designation " glaziers," their 
connection with Flemish art will be recognised by all who 
have inquired into the subject. It may, therefore, be useful 
to subjoin a passage from Vasari containing the names of 
the most distinguished Flemish glass-painters of his period. 9 
" In glass and window painting have been many excellent 
masters in this same country : Art Van — Hort of Nyme- 
gen, Borghese of Antwerp, Jacobs Felart, Divick Stas of 
Campen (probably Dirk van Staren), John Ack of Antwerp, 
who wrought the windows of S. Gudule of Brussels, and here 
in Tuscany are two excellent Flemings, Walter and George, 
who made several most beautiful glass windows for the Duke 
of Florence from the designs of George Vasari." 1 

Lambert Lombard of Liege, 2 the master of Franz Floris 
who was called the Flemish Raphael, is particularised by 
Vasari as far surpassing the rest. 3 He was a pupil of Mabuse. 

The close relation that was maintained in this country 
with the continental artists is evident in the fact that 
Henry VIII. invited both Titian and Raphael to visit this 

time with Pontormo, who adopted the 
peculiarities of Albert Diirer and other 
German artists in succession. His 
changeable taste went through a great 
variety of styles, and some wood-engrav- 
ings exist of his style of design strongly 
imbued with the German influence." 

Sabbatini, Andrea da Salerno, was at 
one time subject to the German or Fle- 
mish taste, if we may trust his picture of 
the "Visitation" in the Louvre. b The 
architectural background is very similar 
to some parts of the Cambridge windows. 

9 Vasari, vol. iii. p. 1101. Di Diversi 
Artefici Fiamminghi, vol. iii. 270, of 
Bolognese edition, 1681. 

1 Those who have visited Arezzo will 
remember the beautiful painted glass 
windows in the Cathedral. Guglielmo da 
Marcilla, their author, was the first in- 
structor of Vasari in the principles of 
design. Vasari's life of his master con- 
tuins some valuable observations on the 
principles and practice of the art in his day. 

-' The beautiful painted glass in the 
choir of Lichfield Cathedral is attributed 
to him ; it was brought from a Cistercian 

nunnery near Liege, the abbey of Herek- 
enrode, ruined and desecrated in the 
French revolutionary wars. The date of 
these windows being from 1.530 to 1540, 
is immediately after that of Cambridge. 

The fine window of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster^ was intended for Henry 
VII. 's chapel, at Westminster, and manu- 
factured at Dort. It may therefore be 
regarded as a work contemporary with 
Bernard Flower. The window was in- 
complete at the death of Prince Arthur, 
in 1502, and the glass was given to 
Waltham Abbey, in Essex, by Henry VIII. 
who married his brother's widow, Cathe- 
rine of Aragon, in 1509. Its subsequent 
history has been often related. Mr. 
Winston attributes the date 1526 to it. 
The twenty-five glass windows of Fairford 
Church in Gloucestershire are known to 
be Flemish art, for they were captured in 
1 192 by John Tame, a merchant in a 
Spanish vessel on her way from a Flemish 
port to South America. 

:l Vasari. p. 1101, col. a, Bonn's edition, 
vol. v. p. 461. Compare Hints on Glass- 
painting, vol. i. p. 179. 

11 See Derschau's collection of wood- 

b Annates du M usee, vol. viii. pi. 31, p. 69. 

Mrs. Jameson's Legends Mon. Ord., 
p. 154. 

d Cunningham's London, p. 312 ; Dalla- 
way. p. 438 ; Hints on Glass-painting, 
vol. 1. p. 180, note ; Vetusta Monumenta, 


country for the decoration of his palaces. 4 He also emulated 
Francis I. in drawing Primaticcio from his native country. 
Gerard Eforebout of Ghent was painter to Henry VIII., and 
is mentioned as an excellent miniaturist by Vasari \ he died 
in London, 1 558. 

Johannes ( !or\ us, a Fleming, painted the portrait of Bishop 
Fox now at Oxford; 8 and a certain Girolamo da Trevigi 
was both painter and engineer to the king. 7 Toto del 
Nuntiato produced many works in England, for which re- 
cords of payment arc still preserved. 8 Luca IVnni, the 
brother of the friend and assistant of Raphael, was also 
much in this country ; and Simon Bcnieh of Bruges also 
resided in London. 

Vasari enumerates several female artists who enjoyed 
favour and patronage in England. 9 Among them, Susanna 
Horebout was invited to England by Henry VIII., and " lived 
there in great esteem to the end of her days.'' Clara 
Skeysers of Ghent also, who died at the age of eighty. 
Anna, daughter of the physician, Master Segher, and Levina, 
daughter of Master Simon Benich of Hinges, who was oobly 
married by the king, much patronised by Queen Alary, and 
continued in great I; vrour with Queen Elizabeth. 

It would exceed my province to discuss how far the term 
■ glasyer," as it stands in the indentures, may denote the 
practical artist ; whether the man of business who employs 
others in Ins factory, or the actual designer. 1 can only 
pronounce artistically that, for the greater part, the execu- 
tion of these paintings is far inferior to the designs, and, 
from some portions thai I have examined, would suppose 
the original cartoons, or v vidimuses," of the best windows 
to have emanated from some excellent Flemish artist like 
Pietro K"rrk. Divick Stas, or Bernard ran Orley. Looking 
round the chapel, these paintings arc so much made up from 
various sourcee recognisable abroad, that bul little remains 
to be claimed by native artists, at least as far as invention 
i concerned. 1 Some designs of Raphael were used, rather 
clumsily it is true, but undeniably, in the subject of Ananias; 

w alpoli ' Anecdote ol Paintin i ■ [bid. 

I bj Dallaway and Wornum, foL L M Ibid, p, 61, note, 

p 80; and Dallaway, Anedaotea of the ' Vaeari, roL iiL p. 1101 ; Bobn*a 

■ I . edition, \"i v p, 168, 

ile'i Anecdotal oi Painting, ' It is remarkable thai Vaeari, who 

b) Dallawaj and Wornum, p. 62, lived m thai period, state in b'n chapter 

on glai pai a, i Introduzione, cap. 32), 

' ll.pi | \..l i. p, 19, that iii< I" nch, Fli mish, 



indeed, it could hardly have been possible to overlook his 
compositions, for the works of this great artist were at that 
very period in the height of their popularity and widely 
disseminated throughout Europe. The cartoon of the 
Ananias was designed by Raphael in 1515-16, when the 
Cambridge windows were scarcely begun ; it was engraved 
by Marc Antonio and Hugo da Carpi, a woodcut by the 
latter being dated 1518. To render these subjects still 
more popular in England, a duplicate set of Tapestries from 
the cartoons, wrought in gold, silver, and silk, had just come 
over as a present from the Pope to Henry VIII. The con- 
nection, however, between the invention of Raphael and the 
design on the glass may be understood by a reference to the 
accompanying sketch of the Cambridge window. (Plate I.) 

Much of the value of these windows depends on their 
being regarded as a vast and unbroken series of pictorial 
illustrations, rendered doubly significant by their relative 
arrangement exhibiting in juxta-position parallel events from 
the Old and Xew Testament. 2 

Most monasteries in the middle ages seem to have pro- 

aud English, surpassed the Venetians in 
clearness and brilliancy of colour. 

An opinion has prevailed that Holbein 
was employed in the design of the win- 
dows of King's College cliapel. e He first 
came to England in 1526, entered the 
service of the King in 1528, left for 
Basle on the following year, and in 1.5130, 
upon the fall of Wolsey, returned to take 
up his residence in London.' His " Dance 
of Death " was first publi.-hed at Lyons in 
1538. The Bible illustrations also ap- 
peared at Lyons in the same year.s 
These excellent woodcuts, however, afford 
several parallels with groups and cos- 
tumes in the painted glass. 

'- Great ingenuity and variety were 
displayed in arrangements of this kind, 
especially in the picture-books of the 
fifteenth century ; but the system was not 
merely confined to books and glass win- 
dows, it was extended to wall and ceiling 
decorations on a vast si air. 

In early times, even among the Catacomb 

paintings, we find the New Testament 
delineated under the form of the Old ; 
but it was the art of the Middle Ages that 
set the two side by side. h The observer 
was left entirely to make the parallel. St. 
Bi nnet, Bishop of Wearmouth, adorned 
his church with paintings, that all people 
who entered, though ignorant of letters, 
might contemplate the amiable aspect of 
Christ and his Saints. In a.d. 6'!!5, he 
placed in his church of St. Paul at Yarrow, 
" pictures of the concord of the Old and 
New Testament, executed with wonderful 
art and wisdom ; ' for example, the picture 
of Isaac carrying the wood on which he 
was to be sacrificed, and Christ bearing 
the cross onVhich he was crucified, were 
placed next to each other ; and, in like 
manner, the serpent lifted up by Moses in 
the wilderness, k and the Son of Man 
lifted up on the cross." Such is the nar- 
rative of the Venerable Bede, who died 
735, and had himself been the pupil of 
St. Bennet Biscop. 1 

' Waagen, vol. iii. p. 445. 

1 Fortoul, La Danse des Morts, Paris, 
p. 142. 

Pickering's edition, p. 6. 

" Kugler, p. in, ed. 1851. 

1 Cockerell, Iconography of Wells 
Cathedral, p. xvii. 

k In <me window of S. Jacques, at 
Liege, the Brazen Serpent and the Sacri- 
fice of Isaac are represented in the same 

1 Bede, Hist. Abkit. Wen mouth, p. 


duccd picture Bibles for the benefit of illiterate persons; 
and Beveral manuscript copies of such works, containing 
scenes from the Old and New Testament, placed side by side, 
are presen ed in the British Museum. 9 The oldest manuscript 
BpecimeD 1 have seen in this collection of the series called the 
"Speculum Bumanae Salvationist dates about L 320, temp. 
Ed. II. ; It was often repeated, and forms the Bubject of one 
of the earliest printed block-books known to exist. 5 In 
the manuscripts of this series the subjects are always the 
same, but Btrikmgry different in design and execution. The 
order and arrangement, as well as the descriptive text, are 
never departed from. It is, however, cm-ions to see what a 
variety of pictorial inventions may be collected nnder the same 
title. In the " Speculum " each page contains two pictures 
only, placed Bide by side, with two columns of text below. 
(Plate 1\ T .) The pictures are sometimes enclosed within a 
square border, or slight architectural frame-work. But in 
another series, called the "Biblia Pauperum," three subjects 
arc arranged so as to fill the page, having busts or half 
figures of prophets connected with the frame-work round 
them. The text is fitted within the architecture and upon 
scrolls held by the figures. (Plate V.) 

The finest manuscript in the British Museum of the " Biblia 
Pauperum," belongs to the reign of Richard II.'"' It is of 
an oblong shape, and the illuminations arc richly gilded. 
The central Bubject on each page of this series is from the 
New Testament, and the two side ones from the Old. It 
forms, in fact, an elaborate commentary on the Life of Christ. 7 

■ \ \. n instructive work bj betweeE the temptation of Eve and Gideon 

Twining ha been published on thisBubject, with the Fleece. 

l pes and Figures of thi I The forty windows of the monastery of 

\m Pressures, vol. i. p. Horschau itained a series of subjects 

.••jo. 1 1, urlier exam- minutely corresponding to those "i ili«' 

plea : ,t Vienna and Pai Biblia Pauperum, and some also are to be 

• |),-. \\ ■,., , lit Blithe block- found in one of the windows of Munich 

Mi.- ■Speculum,' is "n<- thai Cathedral. 111 These book illustrations aw 

i i widelj circulated, although com- supposed by some t>> l"' transcripts "l" 

later work." Vol. i. p. 311. 'I' ijpib actually painted on glass. The 

• MS. 5. Si. accompanying block-book impressions are taken in a rery 

,,!,, 1 1. ii pale-coloured ink ; and Dr. rVaagen as- 

. ii r»ed in the church al sign the date 1440 at earlii it to the first 

I, a sculpture perfectly identical known editi I the Biblia Pauperum, ■ 

irtth the eommeneemenl "I the Biblia cop) ol which ia now in the Bibliotliique 

the Annunciation Impdi 11 i the only edition, 
containin ■ Hffcy i 

i | ,. Hinl ' W aagen, vol. L p. 302 

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A manuscript Office of the Virgin containing a series of 
pictures by Giulio Clovio, arranged as type and antitype, 
contributes materially to this branch of our subject. It 
was executed for Pope Paul III. 8 The book itself, has been 
transferred with other Farncse treasures to Naples. It was 
written by Monterchi. Fortunately Vasari, in his life of 
Don Giulio Clovio, gives a very minute account of the illumi- 
nations and their arrangement, so that, when requisite, we 
shall avail ourselves of his authority, and compare them with 
the parallels of the Cambridge windows, the " Biblia " and 
"Speculum." In the " Biblia Pauperum," the prophets and sibyls 
appear ornamentally ; but very subordinately. (Plate V.) 
Their introduction in a prominent position among the mural 
decorations by Perugino in the Sala del Cambio at Perugia, 9 
may be regarded as an innovation and directly preparing for 
the sublime creations of Michael Angelo in the Sistine chapel. 
They were painted in 1500, and Perugino is said to have been 
assisted in his work by the youthful Raphael, especially in 
the figures of the Libyan and Erythraean sibyls. 1 The com- 
partments on the ceiling contained the seven planets, each 
seated in a chariot according to the style then prevailing. 2 

The arrangement of the subjects on the ceiling of the 
Sistine Chapel, begun by Michael Angelo in 1509, affords 
the most extensive cycle of architectural decoration in 
existence. When viewed with the paintings of his pre- 
decessors on the side w T alls, and the subsequently added 
tapestries of Raphael, they afford a complete scope of the 
Redemption of Mankind. As the subject of t} r pe and anti- 
type has already engaged so much of our attention, it may 
here suffice to present a Synopsis of the entire decoration of 
the chapel, remarking only, that the flat ceiling is occupied ex- 
clusively with the Creation of the world, the Fall, the Deluge, 
and God's promise to Noah. 3 The prophets and sibyls are 
architecturally distributed along the curved surface of the 
ceiling, whereas Perugino had classed his together. Groups 
denoting the genealogy of the Virgin fill intermediate spaces. 
With the exception of the Last Judgment, no works of 
Michael Angelo descend lower than the heading of the 
windows. (Plate III.) 

8 Alessandro Farncse, who ascended ' Murray's Handbook, Central Italy, p. 

the papal throne in 1534, and died in 224. 
1550. - Vasari, Bohn's edition, vol. ii.p. 319. 

1 Rio, English Translation, pp 173,176. See accompanying Plate <>t Synopsis 

of Sistine Chapel Plate III. 


The Bquare compartments beneath the windows display 
scenes from the Old and New Testament by the masters of 
Raphael and Michael Angelo : and during the reign of 
Leo Xthj tin 1 Lowest wall-space was enriched with tapestries 
illustrating the Acts of the Apostles, woven from the 
cartoons prepared by Raphael, which are now at Hampton 
Court. 4 The most remarkable instances of correspondence in 
the Sistine Chapel, may be observed among the subjects on 
the east wall, where ■•The Finding of Moses" is connected 
with " The Birth of Christ," and the tapestries beneath 
of -The Calling of St. Peter," and "The Conversion of 
St. Paul : ' pi lurtra ying in each the commencement of a 
mission. "Christ's Sermon on the Momu " laces " Moses on 
the Mount ; " the tapestry of " St. Paul preaching on Mars' 
Hill" is also hung in close relation to them. "Christ over- 
coming Satan" is opposite to '"Moses overcoming the 
Egyptian;" and "The Adoration of Christ by Angels in 
the Temptation Scene." is connected with the tapestry of 
-Paul and Barnabas worshipped as Gods." "The punish- 
ment of Korah, Dathan and Abiram"is immediately under 
the ceiling picture of "The punishment of Mankind by the 
I teluge," and closely connected with it is the tapestry of " The 
Heath of Ananias." "The Passage of the Israelites" is 
placed Dearly under "The Gathering of the Waters." "The 
Resurrection " has for its corresponding subject "Michael 
victorious over Satan concerning the body of Moses." "The 

elevation of Hainan " corresponds with "The elevation of the 
Brazen Serpent." and in like manner " David killing Goliath " 

agrees with "Judith and Holofernes," both being acts of 

decapitation and deliverance. It may also be remarked, 

thai the subjects, relating to the "Creation" and "The 

expulsion from Paradise, extend no further alone the ceiling 
. ... . ® 

than the Length of the choir. A similar distinction of decora 

tion is also observable in most of our cathedrals. The three 

compartments of "Noah," in which the figures are on a 

smaller scale, cover the outer portion of the chapel, called 

the vestibule, or ante-chapel. < m the same principle also, 

ii may be observed thai the events of our Lord's active 

i desire minute information Handbook "i Italian Painting," which 

upon l L ni hi tin- painting* in have been reprinted in his " Literature ol 

ma the employment ol types, the Fin< Kri , pp 272 and 

■ Bui ■ >■ " I lei chr< ibung 'l' r Stadt 

learned dou to M Kugler' Rom," vol Ii. p 25] . 


life, from the Baptism to the Ascension, are confined to the 
choir windows at Cambridge, whilst those of the vestibule 

are devoted to His infancy, the acts of the Apostles and 
Blessed Virgin. 

When Raphael designed the Prophets and Sibyls at Rome, 
for S. Maria della Pace, he grouped them in two different 
compartments, 5 probably remembering the arrangement of 
his master at Perugia. At a later period he designed the 
entire decoration for the Chigi Chapel at Rome, and like 
Perugino, he introduced the planets on the domed ceiling. 
These he disposed in a most beautiful and novel manner. 
Each planet was represented as yielding to the influence 
of a Christian angel, and the centre of all was occupied 
with a majestic half figure, personifying the Almighty. 
Scenes from the Creation, Temptation, and Fall, were 
arranged in square compartments round the wall sup- 
porting the dome. Beneath these again, in spandrils of 
the great arches, were the four Evangelists, and statues of the 
Prophets were architecturally placed in niches between the 
pillars that supported them. These arrangements betray the 
influence of Michael Angelo, for although painted entirely in 
fresco, the Sistine figures are perfectly statuesque in treat- 
ment, and architectural in position. 6 

With this I must close the remarks upon foreign pictorial 
arrangements, and devote the remaining space to an artistic 
examination of the merits of our more immediate subject, 
the Cambridge windows. 

I have no practical acquaintance with the methods pecu- 
liar to working on glass, or the difficulties therewith con- 
nected ; my subsequent remarks are prompted solely by 
pictorial considerations ; and if I venture to speak of colour 
or manipulation, it is only in the same maimer that I would 
adopt in criticising a picture of the Venetian school, where 
glazing (transparent) colours are employed. 

The great mullion down the centre of each subject is 
very injurious to the composition, and contrasts disadvan- 
tageous!) 7 " with the effect of earlier glass, 7 where all such 

s The compartment con tuning the Siby la Jonah, remains, to show his power as a 

was painted by his own hand, and has been sculptor; the rest were completed by 

often engraved. The other containing the inferior hands, and tin- lower part of 

Prophets, executed from Raphael's de- the chapel Badly altered from the original 

signs by Timoteo della \ it<-, is less known. design, 

' Raphael <lnl not live to finish his : See Hints on Glass-painting, vol. i. p. 

grand undertaking: one statue only, the 1 16. 

vol. xir. 3 15 



breaks were avoided, and each main light contained a 
subject complete in itself. These paintings, therefore, have 
the effect of being hung behind the Btone-work of the 
window, and it does not appear as if great pains had always 
been bestowed in their arrangement, for in some instances 
important parts of the figures have been concealed. A 
disagreeable effect is also produced by the intersecting 
horizontal bars, called saddle bars, which divide the lights 
into regular squares, and these again contrast unfavour- 
ably with the older mode of conducting the leading round 
the most prominent lights, so as to bring its blackness to fall 
in the deepest shadows. The eye is frequently disturbed by 
a long black line running through the brightest and broadest 
light of a piece of drapery ; but for the most part these bars 
are so disposed as not to interfere with the heads or 
minute features. 8 

In the following notes, I shall generally adopt Mr. Bolton's 
opinions, and gladly avail myself of his practical knowledge 
as a glass-painter. Indeed, what I have to say, is only 
offered in the light of a supplementary chapter. 

The question of the relative dates of these paintings 
cannol with our present amount of information be satis- 
factorily determined. It will be evident for the most part 
that they were Dot executed in any regular order with 

s At th>- very outset I noticed these 
peculiarities, because they naturally Btrike 
the oba rver at the first glance, and often 
produce bo disagreeable an effect as to 
him from further examination. 
I, \,n after considerable Btudy, il is very 
difficult to forget the interfi rence of the 
great mullions, and t<j comprehend the 
breadth and nun j bi longs to 

The designs must 
have I to perfection in the 

In the style of architecture pr< 

rpendicular |" riod the upper pari 
<.! the windows was characterised by 
beautifully Howing divi ion "I tone-work 
<-:ill<-i| tract i • 'iii' intervenu 

• e ipriciously in • 
all) n quin 'I to !>■■ filled 

with paintings, mostly of figure subjects, 
1 1 1 . - artist had Berioua difficulties in con- 
tend with. Such difficulties may I 
in the upper lights yet remaining of 1 1 1 < - 
great east window of Carlisle Cathedral, 
anting the Last Judgment Every 
compartment contained :i figure or group 
requiring t < > be bo arranged in a "given 
space," as p< rfi otly to - uil ii w ithouf 
giving any appearance of constraint or 
ion. This « as oftentimes :i tough 
problem to the artiBl even of those days.* 
The designers of King's Chapel windows 
were freed from the above named diffl 
cultii ; the space - the) had to fill were 
n ctangular and uniform, and the entire 
shape ni the compo ittion was square, lil><- 
in tapestries, 

• 'l'li<- groups in the quatri foil com 
on the wi'-t-ii '.ni i,i \\ ells 
o triumphant examples 

n under lar diffi- 

tain ubjecti ft the 

i Life of i 

together with s series of angels in smaller 
compartments of the same form. Sevi ral 

ui the is exciti d I he admirati I Fla k 

ad li;i\ a bi en published in his 

i. .-I in i 


reference to their destined position ; for contiguous pictures 
in the same window occasionally afford the strongest con- 
trast in point of stylo, whilst other pictures, exhibiting 
a uniform treatment and execution, are very widely 

I perceive in the main three distinct classes : — 

I. Windows which display the Albert Diirer style, with 
full flat surfaces of architecture, predominance of horizontal 
ceilings and entablatures, large round arches viewed in full, 
with deep shadow under them, connected with columns or 
pilasters, used merely for purposes of support. The figures 
are large, with broadly disposed folds, and the draperies, 
which float in the air, are curled and ornamentally ar- 
ranged. 9 

II. A series of richer and darker subjects, altogether 
colder in tone, and more crowded with figures. In this may 
be recognised the influence of Holbein and of Bernard van 
Orley, after he had studied under Raphael. The landscapes 
have affinity in taste to that of the " Spasimo di Sicilia," and 
to some subjects in the cupole of the Loggie. The buildings 
have a palatial appearance, the columns are straight, with 
tall round shafts and classic capitals and bases. Towers are 
circular and perfectly upright ; the windows in them, and in 
the side-buildings, are round-headed, containing within the 
framework two round-headed lights, and a circular one over 
them. In some instances perfectly square and circular 
windows are introduced ; and a tall square campanile in one 
subject decidedly points to the classic buildings of the 
south. The floating draperies are rare, but when they 
occur are much more angular. 

III. Are still darker, and evince a direct German influence 

9 Finding Six windows so completely south entrance. They display great vi- 

together, and so distinct from the rest, gour of conception, propriety of action, 

I think they may reasonably be assigned and excellent arrangement of drapery, 

to the number specified in the fifth in- and are identical with the east window, 

denture, dated April 30th, 1526, for im- Many shadows of the flesh are as highly 

mediate completion within a year from finished as in most oil paintings by Giulio 

that time. Romano, whilst the colours of the dresses 

Whilst these six windows were being and background generally are pure, but so 

rapidly executed, the designs for the re- happily blended and proportioned as to 

maining twelve were no doubt advanced take off any appearance either of gaudi- 

with much care. The east window con- ness, to which the south-choir windows 

fii'ins this. On passing from that end of too much incline, or the dull cold tone of 

the chapel, in searcli of a continuation of those on the north, which are rendered 

the style, the eye rests upon three win- still sadder by the perpetual want of sun 

dows between the choir screen and the to enliven them. They form Class II. 


of the older school, combined with sonic affinity to the 
Milanese forms of Da Vinci and Luini. In these windows, 
green, purple, and blue, prevail. The floating draperies are 
elaborately gathered up and wry angular. 

From these classes 1 must except the curious paintings on 
the north Bide, the window over (lie door, and the subjects 
relating to the " Agony, Betrayal and Mocking of Christ/' 

It is most probable thai the windows of the south side, 
and especially the choir, would be the first glazed, not only 
for display, but from need of protection from the sun-light. 
And here, on the south, will be found a uniform unbroken 
scries of six complete windows, evidently by the same 
designer and workmen, and unlike any others around them. 
They form Class I., and contrast strikingly with the East 
window which belongs to Class II. 

A similar, but less extensive uniformity, may be observed 
in certain windows towards the west end. namely, — the two 
Lasl on the south side, the last on the north, and the next, 
window but one eastward, containing the " Annunciation." 1 

The window over the north porch, containing the 
• Marriage of the Virgin," is different in the proportion of 
its compartments from the rest, Two horizontal bands of 
half figures of angels are introduced, by which means the 
vertical spaces are much curtailed, and the figures rendered 
S sther smaller. The draperies are angular, but simple 
and well arranged, partaking more of the early Florentine 
character, with minute attention also to the costume of the 
painter's time, which seems to have been about the close of 
the XVth century. The simple disposition of the figures 
and their action closely resemble Vittore Carpaccio, the 
Venetian, who flourished at this period. In the bordering 
to the " Marriage of the Virgin," small angels appear with 
musical instruments, and the spaces formed by the inter- 
lacing framework are filled with angels supporting shields. 

The upper lefl hand subjeel is more intense in colour, and 
differs in tone from the one below it. It affords a singular 
instance of adaptation from well-known" publications of the 

I line 

The mbjeel is " The Offering of the Golden Table in the 

■ l to the executed al an early period. The style 

I mprobablo that tin o corde with thi mppoeitioii 

[ly (and The) beloi ■ I i I 1 1 III 


13 GO 

Temple of the Sun ; " and occurs invariably in all the versions 
of the " Speculum Humaiuo Salvationis." 2 (See Illustrations 
on next page.) 

2 The ol<l print in the Block-Book (fol. 9, 
c. v.) has been literally copied with regard 
to the general composition of the two men 
and the idol with its banner and sun- 
shield. The altar, however, is much 
richer, and a more imposing figure has 
been substituted for the high priest. In 
the distance also the two men are seen 
approaching with the table. The accom- 
panying sketches from the Block-Book, 
fol. 9, and the Cambridge Window, will 
enable the reader to judge for himself of 
the relation between them. A black 
crescent is on the blue flag held by the 
idol, and upon the front of the canopy 
over it the words, mahedemptoris'matk. 
The text of the Block-Book, fol. 9, col. b., 
says, — 

" Pulchre Maria est per mensa solis pre- 

Quia per earn celestis esca nobis est 

collata ; 
Nam ipsa filium Dei Ihesum Christum 

nobis generavit, 
Qui nos suo corpore et sanguine refocil- 

Benedicta sit ista beatissima mensa : 
Per quain collata est nobis esca tarn salu- 

bris et tam immensa ! 

In the illuminations of the MSS. this 

incident is variously represented. In 
Harl. 3240, fol. 8, b, (date about 1320), 
a man sits at a yellow table before the 
entrance to the temple, and a rouud face 
of the sun appears in an arch above. 
Inscribed in red, is " Mensa quaedam in 
mari inventaoffertur in templum solis," and 
in black, " Jeronimus in prologo super 
Genesim." In Harl. 4996, fol. 8, (date about 
1330), two youths stand holding a net con- 
taining the table ; two fish are in the water, 
inscribed, Pyscator and Piscator. The sun 
above has angular rays round the face like 
a star. The title is " Mensa Solis in 
Sabulo offertur in templo Solis."